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Different types of Plants and their Classification

Different types of Plants and their Classification

Algae

  • These are green, non-differentiated plants (i.e. cells are not organised into different parts like root, stem, etc.,) possessing chlorophyll.
  • These plants grow in the moist environment. Freshwater algae are usually green or blue-green in colour, whereas marine algae are red or brown in colour.
  • Algae are autotrophic plants, because they can manufacture their own food.

Fungi

  • These are non-green (absence of chlorophyll) and non-differentiated plants. Fungi are composed of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cell refers to an evolved cell (nucleus has a membrane).
  • The defining feature that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells (such as bacteria) is that they have membrane-bound organelles, especially the nucleus, which contains the genetic material and is enclosed by the nuclear envelope.
  • Fungi grow either on dead, rotten organic matter as saprophytes (those which decompose dead organic matter) or live as parasites on other living bodies.

Bacteria

  • They are non-green, single-celled microorganisms. Bacteria are prokaryotic in nature, and so, they cannot perform all the functions to survive independently.
  • Thus, they have saprophytic or parasitic existence. Most bacteria with parasitic existence are usually harmful.
  • Some bacteria with saprophytic existence perform useful functions such as decomposition of organic matter.

Viruses

  • There are non-living pathogens (neither plants nor animals).
  • They are single-celled and they need host cells to survive. Most of the viruses do not perform any useful function.

Lichens

  • Lichens are composite organisms of algae and fungi, both deriving mutual benefit from each other.
  • The algae manufacture carbohydrates which are consumed by fungi and the fungi absorb and retain water which keep the cells of the algae moist.
  • Thus, the two live in a symbiotic or a mutually beneficial relationship. Lichens are greyish green in colour and grow on rocks, dead wood, etc.                    Different types of Plants and their Classification

Bryophytes

  • These plants do not possess vascular tissues. As a result, the transportation system in these plants is not well developed.
  • Consequently, these plants are short in length (up to 10 cm tall).
  • However, the plant body is differentiated into a small stem and simple leaves, but true roots are absent.
  • These plants also grow in moist environments. E.g., mosses.

Pteridophytes

  • These plants possess vascular tissues. Thus, efficient transportation system exists for the transfer of water and nutrients. Consequently, these plants are taller.
  • These plants also have well-differentiated plant bodies consisting of roots, stems, etc.
  • However, these plants are considered lower plants because they possess spores. E.g., ferns.

Spores

  • Spores are the reproductive structure of the ‘lower plants: the plants that do not flower.
  • Fungi, algae and even some bacteria have spores to pass their genes.
  • Spores adopt asexual form of reproduction; the plant or fungus does not need to mate with another plant or fungus to form the spores.
  • A spore is typically a single cell surrounded by a thick cell wall for protection. Once the spores are formed, the organism releases them into the environment to grow and thrive.
  • Spores are often formed through a process called sporogenesis, which is accomplished through mitosis or cellular reproduction.

Gymnosperms

  • ‘Gymno’ means naked and ‘sperm’ means seed. Thus, gymnosperms are naked seed plants.
  • In these plants, stamens (the male reproductive part of plant) and carpels (the female reproductive part of plant) remain aggregated in cones.                Different types of Plants and their Classification
  • Ovules are present on the surface of plant carpels and are directly pollinated. E.g., conifers.

Angiosperms

  • ‘Angio’ means closed. These plants are closed-seeded plants. These plants are the most evolved plants.
  • Their female reproductive part (carpel) has ovary, style and stigma. In these plants, due to fertilisation, the ovary usually develops into fruit and ovules into seeds.

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