DIFFERENT GOVERNMENT SCHEMES IN INDIA
The government introduces various different schemes in India to undertake the welfare of people. Some of these different government schemes in India were introduced by previous governments and some by the recent Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government after coming to power in 2014.
Bharat Nirman is a time-bound plan for rural infrastructure by the Government of India in partnership with state governments and panchayati raj institutions. It was launched in 2005. The Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal ministry for the implementation of this programme. It has six components:
- Roads (Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana)
- Housing (Indira Awaas Yojana)
- Water supply (National Rural Drinking Water Programme)
- Electrification (Rajiv Gandhi Grameen Vidyutikaran Yojana)
- Telecommunication connectivity
Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation
The Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) was launched in June 2015 for urban transformation. The focus of the urban renewal is to establish infrastructure that could ensure adequate robust sewerage networks and water supply. The Ministry of Urban Development is the nodal ministry for implementation of AMRUT.
- Some of the broad targets of the AMRUT scheme are as follows: ascertaining that everyone has access to tap water and sewerage facilities; greenery such as parks and open spaces are well maintained; digital and smart facilities such as weather prediction, Internet, and Wi-Fi facilities; pollution reduction by encouraging the public for using cheaper but secure public transport.
- The union government provides an assistance of 50% of project cost for cities with a population of up to 10 lakh each. It provides one-third of the project cost for cities with a population of above 10 Iakh each. Rest of the project cost has to be borne by the states and urban local bodies.
- In its first phase, 89 cities in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, and Rajasthan have been allocated funds for the period of 2015-16. At each city level, a City Mission Management Unit (CMMU) is set up, which will assist the urban local body in terms of staff and technology.
- AMRUT has replaced JNURM. Named after Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of India, it was launched in 2005 for a seven-year period (up to March 2012) to encourage cities to initiate the steps for bringing phased improvements in their civic service levels. The different government schemes in India had extended the tenure of the mission for two years, i.e., up to 31 March 2014.
Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) provides a minimum 100 days of guaranteed employment to every household in the rural areas. An adult member of rural households who is ready to perform unskilled manual work at the prevailing wage rate is covered under the scheme.
Other features of the scheme are as follows:
- The right to employment under MGNREGS is a legal right guaranteed under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Thus, this different government scheme in India is different from other schemes in the sense that it is based on the legal right approach and not just based on welfare based approach.
- Every eligible individual who registers for the work is to be provided employment within 15 days. Otherwise, the different government scheme in India is required to pay unemployment allowance. The expenses of the scheme are divided between the centre and states in the ratio of 50:50, except in the case of Jammu and Kashmir and North Eastern States where the ratio is 90:10. In the case of unemployment allowance, the ratio of sharing expenses between the centre and the respective state is 10:90.
- Moreover, wages are to be paid mandatorily within 15 days of work. The payment is to be made directly into the bank account or post office savings account and not in the form of cash. This provision has been incorporated to plug loopholes into payment mechanism.
- The act prohibits employment through contractors and requires minimum use of machinery.
- The nature of work to be provided under the different government scheme in India includes water conservation projects, flood control projects, land development, rural roads, etc.
- The act prescribes the maximum ratio of the material to labour as 40:60, thus limits the use of materials for various projects and gives priority to labour work.
- The Ministry of Rural Development is the nodal ministry for implementation of the scheme.
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan Scheme
Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan is an Indian government scheme aimed at the universalization of elementary education “in a time-bound manner”, as mandated by the 86th Amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to children between the ages of 6 to 14 a fundamental right. The Right to Education Act, 2009, was introduced to implement the programme. The Ministry of Human Resource Development is the nodal ministry to implement the programme. Salient features of the Right to Education Act, 2009, are as follows:
- Every child in the age group of 6-14 has the right to free and compulsory education in the neighbourhood school till the completion of elementary education.
- Private schools will have to take 25% of their class strength from the weaker sections and disadvantaged groups of the society through a random selection process. The different government scheme in India will fund the education of these children. No seats in this quota can be left vacant. These children will be treated at par with all the other children in the school. The state will compensate the school at the rate of average per learner costs in the government schools (unless the per learner costs in the private school are lower).
- All schools will have to prescribe the norms and standards laid out in the act, and any school that does not fulfil these standards will not be allowed to function. All private schools will have to apply for recognition, failing which they will be penalized to the tune of ₹1 lakh, and if they still continue to function, they will be liable to pay Z10,000 per day as fine. Norms and standards of teacher’s qualification and training are also being laid down by the Academic Authority.
- No child can be held back or expelled till the completion of elementary education.
- The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has been mandated to monitor the implementation of this historic right.
Integrated Child Development Scheme
The Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS) aims at providing services to pre-school children in an integrated manner so as to ensure proper growth and development of children. ICDS is a centrally sponsored different government scheme in India. It was launched in 1975. ICDS today represents one of the world’s largest programmes for early childhood development. ICDS is implemented in both urban and rural areas.
ICDS is implemented through anganwadi workers. An anganwadi worker is a local community woman who is trained to provide services under ICDS. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare is the nodal ministry to implement the programme.
Six services are provided to children in the age group of 0-6 years under ICDS:
- Supplementary nutrition
- Health check-up
- Reference services
- Nutrition education to mother (Nutrition education is provided to mother so that she could appropriately feed children.)
- Pre-primary education for 3-6 years of children.
National Health Mission Scheme
The National Rural Health Mission (NRHM), now under the National Health Mission, was launched in 2005 to address the health needs of under-served rural areas. In 2013, the National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) was launched as a sub-mission of an overarching National Health Mission (NHM).
The thrust of the mission is on establishing a fully functional, community-owned, decentralized health-delivery system with inter-sectoral convergence at all levels, to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health such as water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social, and gender equality.
Some of the major initiatives under the NHM are as follows:
Accredited Social Health Activists
An accredited social health activist (ASHA) is a local woman trained to deliver the following health services:
- Delivery of basic drugs such as Oral Rehydrate Solution
- Health check-up
- Reference services
ASHA is not expected to undertake delivery of children, which is promoted by the different government scheme in India in an institutionalized set-up.
Janani Suraksha Yojana Scheme
The Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY) aims to reduce maternal mortality among pregnant women and infant mortality by encouraging women to deliver in an institutionalized set-up such as hospitals. Under the different government scheme in India, cash assistance is provided to eligible pregnant women for giving birth in a different government scheme in India health facility.
JSY is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme, and it integrates cash assistance with delivery and post-delivery care. The success of the different government schemes in India is determined by the increase in institutional delivery among the poor families. ASHA as well as anganwadi activists become the effective link between the different government schemes in India and poor women in this programme.
The duties of ASHA or other health worker associated with JSY are as follows:
- Identify pregnant women as a beneficiary of the different government scheme in India and report or facilitate registration for ante-natal checkup.
- Provide and/or help the women in receiving at least three ante-natal checkups, including Tetanus injections .
- Counsel for institutional delivery.
- Escort the beneficiary women to the pre-determined health centre and stay with them till they are discharged.
- Arrange immunization of the new-born till the age of 14 weeks.
Cash assistance in LPS and HPS states
The different government schemes in India focuses on poor pregnant women with special dispensation for states having low institutional delivery rates. While these states have been named low-performing states (LPS), the remaining states have been named high-performing states (HPS). The women who deliver in government hospitals, health centres, or even in accredited private hospitals are eligible for cash assistance, if they are above 19 years.
In LPS states, cash assistance is provided for all women, whereas in HPS states, cash assistance is provided only for BPL women. Cash incentive is also given to ASHA/other health activists per delivery case facilitated by her.