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Differences between National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary

Differences between National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary


  • Both wildlife sanctuaries and national parks can be constituted by state governments and by the union government.
  • Under Wildlife Protection Act, the areas considered for declaration are those which have ecological, natural and geomorphological (related to the form or surface features of the earth) significance.
  • National and state boards for wildlife make recommendations to the union government and state government, respectively, for establishment, management, prohibited activities, etc., in national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.

Differences between National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary

  1. National parks enjoy greater protection than that enjoyed by wildlife sanctuaries. Certain activities as mentioned below are prohibited in national parks. These activities are not completely prohibited, but are regulated in wildlife sanctuaries:
  • Grazing of livestock.
  • Collection of food and fodder.
  • Private ownership rights.
  • Collection of timber.
  1. Wildlife sanctuary can be created for the conservation of particular species, whereas national park is focused on the conservation of whole ecosystem and not just a few species.

Procedure for  Declaration of Protected Areas

  1. On recommendation of national or state boards for wildlife, the union government or the state government makes initial notification to reflect the intention of declaring an area as a protected area.
  2. Claims made by affected persons are taken into consideration. During this stage, the state government appoints officers to consider the claims of people on land, food, fodder, etc.
  3. In case, if the rights of the persons are involved, then the state government makes alternate arrangements for the affected persons.
  4. Thereafter, a final notification is issued to declare an area as a protected area. No alteration in the protected area can be made except on recommendation of National Board of Wildlife. At present, there are more than 100 national parks and 500 wildlife sanctuaries.


Environment & Biodiversity

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