Women Migration In India
Why in news?
- Recently a paper titled “Mobility in India, recent trends and issues concerning database” was released.
- The findings of the paper on women migration call for appropriate government response and policies.
What are the highlights shown in the paper?
- The paper takes into account the 64th round of the National Sample Survey (NSS).
- It also takes in figures from the 2011 Census and the National Health and Family Survey (NFHS) IV.
- As per NFHS IV, women aged 20-24 married before the age of 18 has gone down from 47% in 2005-06 to 27% in 2015-16.
- Also, women aged 15-19 already mothers or pregnant at the survey time has become half from the 16% in 2005-06.
- The paper highlights that the number of women migrating within India is increasing at a higher rate than men.
- Marriage continues to play an important role in women migration.
- But besides this, economic factors such as employment, business and education have gained in importance.
- It shows a reduced dependence on marriage as the single factor behind women migration.
What are the related concerns in India?
- Labour participation is the share of those employed or is seeking work relative to the working-age population.
- India’s female labour participation rate is around 33% at the national level.
- This is well below the global average of around 50% and East Asia average of around 63%.
- This is partly due to the missing gender perspective on internal migration policies.
- Migrants – Around 80% of migrated eligible female graduates choose not to participate in the organised workforce.
- They are forced to work in construction sites and as household help for low wages.
- Women migrants remain invisible and discriminated against in the workforce.
- This is especially more the case with those in lower-end informal sector occupations.
- Also they don’t have facilities like maternity leave and other such entitlements.
- Another concern is the lack of access to proper sanitation, with serious health consequences.
- Migrant women are also more vulnerable to sexual harassment, especially in the hands of agents and contractors.
- Another persistent issue is the gender pay gap, which is not restricted to lower-end jobs alone.
- India sees the highest drop in representation of women from junior to middle-level positions.
- This is unlike several other Asian countries where such a drop occurs from middle- to senior-level positions.
- This, in turn, impacts the supply line for higher levels.
- Almost one-third of women employees do not resume work, in the absence of a support system at home for child-caring.
What lies ahead?
- Government’s role in labour migration laws and policies is significant to sustain the momentum on migration.
- The government has to ensure a gender-sensitive and rights-based approach in this regard.
- Securing public spaces for women and creating an enabling infrastructure are essential.
- Governments have to ensure that they are safe from stranger violence and harassment from employers.
- Kerala model – Kerala has launched Aawaz, a free health care-cum-insurance scheme for migrant workers.
- It covers any migrant worker employed in the state, between the ages of 18 and 60.
- Workers are eligible for free medical treatment worth up to Rs 15,000.
- Also, an insurance coverage of Rs 200,000 for accidental death is provided.
- Medical treatment will be available from all government hospitals and also private hospitals empanelled with the scheme.
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Increasing emphasis on “data” with the human judgment
Why in News?
- There is an increasing emphasis on “data” with the human judgment.
- It is essential to complement data for better decision-making.
How data is becoming important?
- Most of the processes of day-to-day usage are also getting digitized.
- There is increasing emergence of different social network platforms, blogs, etc.
- Deployment of sensors and adoption of hand-held and wearable digital devices are also increasing.
- Meanwhile, there is explosion in the usage of internet.
- Anything and everything “smart” means greater data volumes at accelerating speeds.
- All these result in huge amount of data being generated on a continuous basis.
- It is estimated that world’s population collectively generates 2.5 quintillion bytes of data every day.
- The world is thus getting increasingly ‘datafied’ every single second.
What is the emerging view?
- Insights from vast arrays of data will be a key business differentiator in the near future.
- This is expected to promote popularity of business analytics, and demand for data scientists.
- Deriving insight from data to understand their origin and making sense of the numbers are emphasized.
- This understanding on data will then be used to make informed decisions.
- Increased availability of data, the “big data”, can work as raw material for business intelligence.
What are the challenges?
- It is important to understand that more data does not necessarily mean better performance.
- It is essential that the employees are able to incorporate the data into complex decision-making.
- Without ensuring this, investments in analytics can be useless and even harmful.
- A lot of data come from so many sources leading to ambiguity, inconsistency and contradictions.
- So the basic principles that make for good strategy or decision often get obscured.
- Mechanically developing strategies “free of human judgment” would thus be a mistake.
- As, decision making and strategy building involves a larger cognitive and sometimes social processes.
What is the way forward?
- Numbers cannot deal with every nuance of a decision.
- Generating insight is an inherently human trait and strategy is a way of thinking.
- However, it is not that data are not useful, as it all depends on how the data are used.
- So processes and human capabilities should keep pace with the computing fire-power and information they import.
- To overcome the insight deficit, Big Data needs to be complemented by big judgment.