About Us  :  Online Enquiry


Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN)



  • G.S. Paper 3


Why in news?

  • ISRO making green propellant to power satellites and spacecraft.


Hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN):

  • Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has developed an environment-friendly propellant to power satellites and spacecraft.
  • This new fuel has shown promising results in the formulation and associated tests of a propellant blend based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN).
  • This is done to replace the conventional hydrazine rocket fuel.
  • Hydrazine is a highly toxic and carcinogenic chemical.
  • Due to its high performance characteristics, hydrazine has dominated the space industry as the choice of propellant for over six decades.
  • Hydrazine poses many environment and health hazards and problems in its manufacturing, storage, ground handling and transportation.
  • New HAN based monopropellant is a chemical propulsion fuel which does not require a separate oxidizer.
  • It is used extensively in satellite thrusters for orbital correction and orientation control.
  • The in-house formulation consists of HAN, ammonium nitrate, methanol and water.
  • While methanol was added to reduce combustion instability, the choice of HAN was dictated by its capacity to control the burn rate and lower the freezing point of the propellant.



  • G.S. Paper 3


Why in news?  

  • May 11 is celebrated as National Technology Day in India.


National technology day:

  • National Technology Day is observed every year on 11th of May in India acting as a reminder of the anniversary of Shakti, Hansa-3 and Trishul.
  • The day highlights the important role of Science in our daily lives and encourages students to embrace Science as a career option.
  • Various events are organized in different technical institutes and engineering colleges to mark the day.
  • Competitions, quizzes, lectures, interactive sessions and presentations of various aspects of Science are managed globally.
  • The day is crucial for engineers, planners, scientists and others who are engaged in nation building and governance.
  • Based on following three immense breakthrough accomplishments by the engineers, scientists and technicians of the country, Atal Bihari Vajpayee announced 11th May as the National Technology Day.


“Shakti, the Pokhran Nuclear Test”:

  • The first nuclear test Pokhran with a code named as ‘Smiling Buddha’ was carried out in May, 1974.
  • The second test conducted was Pokhran II which was a series of five tests of nuclear bomb explosions, administered by India at the Pokhran Test Range of Indian Army in May, 1998.
  • Pokhran II comprised of five detonations out of which the first one was a fusion bomb while the other four were fission bombs.
  • These nuclear tests evolved various sanctions against India by many major states, including United States and Japan.
  • The then Prime Minister shortly convened a press conference for the declaration of India as a full-fledged nuclear state.
  • Various names were attributed for these tests with the original name kept as ‘’Operation Shakti-98”, while the five nuclear devices were classified Shakti I through Shakti V.
  • Recently, the whole operation is called Pokhran II and the explosion of 1974 is called Pokhran I.



  • Becoming the sixth nuclear state of the world was not the sole thing India attained on that day.
  • Hansa-3, India’s foremost indigenous aircraft was flown in Bengaluru when the nuclear tests were being organized in Rajasthan.
  • Hansa-3 was developed by the National Aerospace Laboratories.
  • It was a two-seater, light general aviation plane which is utilized in the flying institutes for sports, pilot training, aerial photography, surveillance and projects related to the environment.


Trishul missile:

  • On 11th May, 1998, the Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) also accomplished the last test-fire of the Trishul missile.
  • Trishul was then introduced into service by the Indian Air Force and Indian Army.
  • A surface-to-air, quick-reaction, short-range missile, Trishul was a unit of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme of India which has resulted in the formation of Prithvi, Akash and Agni missile systems.

Send this to a friend