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National Policy On Biofuels – 2018

Relevancy

  • G.S. Paper 3

 

Why in news?

  • The government has approved National Policy on Biofuels – 2018.

 

National Policy on Biofuels – 2018:

  • The Policy categorises biofuels as:
    • “Basic Biofuels” viz. First Generation (1G) bioethanol & biodiesel
    • “Advanced Biofuels” – Second Generation (2G) ethanol, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to drop-in fuels
    • Third Generation (3G) biofuels, bio-CNG etc.
  • It does so to enable extension of appropriate financial and fiscal incentives under each category.
  • The Policy expands the scope of raw material for ethanol production by allowing use of Sugarcane Juice, Sugar containing materials like Sugar Beet, Sweet Sorghum, Starch containing materials like Corn, Cassava, Damaged food grains like wheat, broken rice, Rotten Potatoes, unfit for human consumption for ethanol production.
  • Earlier farmers were at a risk of not getting appropriate price for their produce during the surplus production phase.
  • But the Policy now allows use of surplus food grains for production of ethanol for blending with petrol with the approval of National Biofuel Coordination Committee.
  • With a thrust on Advanced Biofuels, the Policy indicates a viability gap funding scheme for 2G ethanol Bio refineries of Rs.5000 crore in 6 years in addition to additional tax incentives, higher purchase price as compared to 1G
  • The Policy encourages setting up of supply chain mechanisms for biodiesel production from non-edible oilseeds, Used Cooking Oil, short gestation crops.

International Bio-Diversity Day

 

Relevancy

  • G.S. Paper 3

 

Why in news?

  • The Convention on Biological Diversity is celebrating the International Day for Biological Diversity on May 22, 2018.

 

International Day for Biological Diversity:

  • The United Nations proclaimed May 22 ‘The International Day for Biological Diversity (IDB)’ to increase understanding and awareness of biodiversity issues.
  • The Convention on Biological Diversity is celebrating the International Day for Biological Diversity on May 22, 2018, with the theme “Celebrating 25 Years of Action for Biodiversity”.
  • The celebration comes with an aim to highlight the progress made in the achievement of its objectives at the national and global levels on biodiversity.
  • The aim to celebrate the International Day for Biological Diversity is to make people aware of the importance of biodiversity issues.
  • There have been different themes of celebrations every year.
  • The Convention has three goals:
    • the global conservation of biodiversity
    • its sustainable use
    • the equitable sharing of its benefits
  • Achieving these objectives is integral to meet goals for sustainable development.
  • Protecting and restoring ecosystems and ensuring access to ecosystem services are necessary for the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger.
  • Reducing deforestation and land degradation and enhancing carbon stocks in forests, drylands, rangelands and croplands are needed for mitigating climate change.
  • Protecting the biodiversity of forests and watersheds supports clean and plentiful water supplies.
  • From 2018 onwards, Parties to the Convention will begin work on a new action plan to ensure that, by 2050, biodiversity is valued, conserved, restored and wisely used for the benefit of all people.

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