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Green Revolution – Krishonnati Yojana


  • G.S. Paper 1,3

Why in news?

  • The government has recently approved the continuation of the agriculture sector umbrella programme, ‘Green Revolution Krishonnati Yojana’.

Green Revolution Krishonnati Yojana’:

  • “Green Revolution – Krishonnati Yojana” is an Umbrella Scheme in agriculture sector that has been implemented since 2016-17 by clubbing several schemes / missions under one umbrella scheme.
  • The scheme has now been continued for the period from 2017-18 to 2019.
  • The Umbrella scheme comprises of 11 Schemes/Missions.
  • These schemes look to increase the income of farmers by enhancing production, productivity and better returns on produce.

Schemes/Missions covered are as follows:

o    Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH):

  • MIDH aims to:
    • promote holistic growth of horticulture sector
    • to enhance horticulture production
    • improve nutritional security
    • improve income support to farm households

o    National Food Security Mission (NFSM):

  • It aims to:
    • increase production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops, through area expansion and productivity enhancement
    • restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level
    • enhancing farm level economy
    • augment the availability of vegetable oils
    • to reduce the import of edible oils

o    National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA):

  • NMSA aims at:
    • promoting sustainable agriculture practices best suitable to the specific agro-ecology
    • integrated farming
    • appropriate soil health management
    • synergizing resource conservation technology

o    Sub-Mission on Agriculture Extension (SMAE):

  • SMAE aims to:
    • strengthen the ongoing extension mechanism of State Governments, local bodies etc.
    • achieving food and nutritional security and socio-economic empowerment of farmers
    • to institutionalize programme planning and implementation mechanism

o    Sub-Mission on Seeds and Planting Material (SMSP):

  • SMSP aims to:
    • increase production of certified / quality seed
    • to upgrade the quality of farm saved seeds
    • to strengthen the seed multiplication chain
    • to promote new technologies and methodologies in seed production, processing, testing etc.
    • to strengthen and modernizing infrastructure for seed production, storage, certification and quality etc.

o    Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanisation (SMAM)

  • SMAM aims to:
    • increase the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low
    • to promote ‘Custom Hiring Centres’ to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership
    • to create hubs for hi-tech and high value farm equipment
    • to create awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities
    • to ensure performance testing and certification at designated testing centers located all over the country

o    Sub Mission on Plant Protection and Plan Quarantine (SMPPQ)

  • SMPPQ aims to:
    • minimize loss to quality and yield of agricultural crops from the ravages of insect pests, diseases, weeds, nematodes, rodents, etc.
    • to shield our agricultural bio-security from the incursions and spread of alien species
    • to facilitate exports of Indian agricultural commodities to global markets
    • to promote good agricultural practices, particularly with respect to plant protection strategies and strategies

o    Integrated Scheme on Agriculture Census, Economics and Statistics (ISACES)

  • It aims to:
    • undertake the agriculture census
    • study of the cost of cultivation of principal crops, to undertake research studies on agro-economic problems of the country
    • to fund conferences/workshops and seminars involving eminent economists, agricultural scientists, experts and to bring out papers to conduct short term studies
    • to improve agricultural statistics methodology
    • to create a hierarchical information system on crop condition and crop production from sowing to harvest

o    Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Cooperation (ISAC)

  • It aims to:
    • provide financial assistance for improving the economic conditions of cooperatives
    • remove regional imbalances and to speed up – cooperative development in agricultural marketing, processing, storage, computerization and weaker section programmes
    • to help cotton growers fetch remunerative price for their produce through value addition besides ensuring supply of quality yarn at reasonable rates to the decentralized weavers

o    Integrated Scheme on Agricultural Marketing (ISAM)

  • ISAM aims to:
    • develop agricultural marketing infrastructure
    • to promote innovative and latest technologies and competitive alternatives in agriculture marketing infrastructure
    • to provide infrastructure facilities for grading, standardization and quality certification of agricultural produce
    • to establish a nation­wide marketing information network
    • to integrate markets through a common online market platform to facilitate pan-India trade in agricultural commodities, etc.

o    National e-Governance Plan (NeGP-A)

  • aims to:
    • bring farmer centricity & service orientation to the programmes
    • to build upon, enhance & integrate the existing ICT initiatives of Centre and States
    • to enhance efficiency & effectiveness of programs through making available timely and relevant information to the farmers for increasing their agriculture productivity


  • The Schemes/Missions focus on creating/strengthening of infrastructure of production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied produce.
  • These schemes/missions have been under implementation for varying duration during past few years.

Noctiluca Scintillans


  • G.S.Paper 3

Why in news?

  • A new joint Indo-US study has found that global warming is leading to large-scale fish kills in the Arabian Sea by fuelling the growth of harmful bioluminescent algae.

Noctiluca scintillans:

  • Noctiluca scintillans is commonly known as the sea sparkle.
  • It is a free-living, nonparasitic, marine-dwelling species of dinoflagellate that exhibits bioluminescence when disturbed (popularly known as mareel).
  • scintillanspopulations can exhibit high concentrations due to high concentrations of the plankton on which they feed.
  • And these planktons are likely due to environmental conditions such as well-mixed, nutrient-rich waters, seasonal circulation, and runoff from agricultural pollution.
  • The glow produced by N. scintillans organisms can be perceived by humans as ghostly colored glow or bloom in the water.
  • This bloom appears when the water is disturbed.
  • This gives N. scintillans the popular names “sea ghost” or “fire of sea”.

Findings of the study:

  • Study has found that global warming is leading to large-scale fish kills in the Arabian Sea by fuelling the growth of harmful bioluminescent algae.
  • Growing numbers of Noctiluca scintillans are indicators of fish mortality.
  • Scientists highlight that their growing abundance is a cause of concern, because they adversely affect fish, which do not thrive in such waters.
  • Less dense water comes to the surface because of the warming of oceans, encouraging these intense blooms, which has an adverse impact on fisheries.
  • Currently, the western coast, Persian Gulf, and Oman are largely affected, but if it keeps on increasing, it will have drastic effects on fisheries along the Indian coast.
  • The researchers said that warming causes sea-water layers to stratify more intensely and slows upward movement of nutrients like silicate from the ocean bottom.
  • This discourages growth of diatoms, which need silicate and sunlight.
  • It instead leads to flourishing of Noctiluca which preys on diatoms.
  • But, the present findings show no evidence that cultural eutrophication has contributed to the decadal scale shifts in plankton (algae) composition in the north- eastern Arabian Sea.
  • These findings may help to forecast the effects that climate change may have in other productive oceanic ecosystems.
  • Following the research, INCOIS has announced the setting up of a Marine Observation System along Indian Coast (MOSAIC) to monitor the water quality of the Indian coastal waters.


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