Irregularities in connection with organ transplantations have been found in the state of Tamil Nadu.
Organ transplantation in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is a pioneer in orderly and transparent allocation of deceased-donor organs.
It has worked consistently to eliminate commerce in kidneys procured from poor living donors.
The Transplant Authority of Tamil Nadu has served as a model for other States.
The state also offers a subsidy for poor patients for a liver transplant.
Every effort must be made to ensure that it retains this high reputation.
What is the recent finding?
The Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare has found some irregularities in organ transplantation in TN.
Preferential allotment of hearts and lungs has been made to foreign patients.
Hearts harvested from brain-dead patients were given to foreign nationals admitted to corporate hospitals.
International patients get priority in cadaver transplants, bypassing long list of Indians.
The Directorate General of Health Services convened a meeting and framed strict guidelines for allocation of organs to foreigners.
What is the provision?
The provisions are laid out in the Transplantation of Human Organs and Tissues Rules.
State governments are expected to ensure that transplantations are done legally and ethically.
Citizens enrolled in the State and national waiting lists are prioritised over foreign nationals.
Organs go to the most suitable recipients on the rule-based parameters.
It is offered to domicile, citizenship, Indian origin and foreign nationality, in that order.
What is the way ahead?
There must be an inquiry into how allocations for organ transplants are made in Tamil Nadu.
Any inquiry should shed light on the factors that led to the decisions.
It should importantly include whether registered citizens were overlooked.
Hospitals and professionals engaging in commerce or unethical behaviour should be addressed.
It has to cover such issues as the capacity of district-level hospitals to perform transplants.
Arrangements to air-lift organs should also be addressed, since domestic patients are unable to afford flight facilities.
Enrolling all domestic patients through State registries should be the priority for the NOTTO.
What is NOTTO?
The National Organ and Tissue Transplant Organisation (NOTTO) functions under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
It is an all-India apex body for coordination and networking for procurement and distribution of organs/tissues and transplantation.
Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant AllocationTamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant AllocationTamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation Tamil Nadu Organ Transplant Allocation
The Historic Summit Between US & North Korea: Asserting The Power Of Diplomacy
GS Mains Paper- 2
Why in news?
Recently U.S. president Donald Trump and North Korean leader Kim stunned the world by pulling off a summit at Singapore despite intense tensions a while ago.
Presently, there are clear indications that the looming detente might seal a permanent peace in the Korean peninsula.
What were the recent outbursts?
Till recently, North Korea kept stepping up its weapons program through nuclear tests and also enhanced its missile capacity.
Notably, with Hwasong 14 missile (10,000 km range) in North Korea’s arsenal, Kim was said to have the capability to strike even mainland U.S.A.
In this backdrop, a missile attack by North Korea on Guam island of U.S.A in the Pacific Ocean was also rumoured.
In 2017, the heightened rhetoric on both sides had led to growing concerns about the possibility of a nuclear war between North Korea and U.S.
While the UN Security Council met repeatedly, and tightening economic sanctions on North Korea, Trump was also vociferous in his threats.
How the outburst did begin to melt?
Kim in his New Year’s address appealed reconciling with South Korea, while also stating that North Korea had sufficient nuclear deterrence capacity.
South Korea also hosted the Winter Olympics, which provided ample opportunities for building bonhomie between the two Koreas.
Things moved smoothly thereafter and officials of the two Koreas crossed borders for high-profile meetings, which proved fruitful.
Kim also indicated continued restraint on testing and willingness to discuss denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula if regime safety was guaranteed.
While the U.S. was kept in the loop throughout, there seemed to be considerable resistance from the Trump administration for any conciliation.
A summit was planned but it was then called off unilaterally by the U.S., but persistent efforts from North Korea finally led to restarting of the summit.
Notably, previous attempts by the U.S. to negotiate North Korea to give up its nuclear program and arms failed despite consistent negotiations.
How is the ongoing peace effort unique?
Since the previous negotiations, the capabilities of North Korea has grown multiple times, while has lead to increased anxieties in its neighbourhood.
While Kim’s administration seeks regime legitimacy and security, the other stakeholders seek safety and peace.
In this context, it is in everybody’s interest to help in the success of the proposed deal, thereby making things clear.
While the joint statement after Singapore summit was shy on detail, it carries immense potential for the future of the Korean Peninsula.
Notably, North Korea has announced stoppage of any kind of testing and has even promised a complete elimination of its nuclear arsenal permanently.
There is hence real promise of ending the Korean conflict between the North and South Korea – which is currently still held by the 1953 truce.
S. has also called off any joint military exercise in the Korean region and lifting of economic sanctions on North Korea is also under consideration.
India’s concern with RCEP
GS Mains Paper- 3, 4
International Relations, Economy, Effects of Globalisation
Why in News?
The U.S. President Trump recently caused the G-7 meet in Quebec to end with deep fissures within the Western alliance.
India, in this context must re-examine its position on global and regional trade architecture swiftly to leverage its growth potential.
Why RCEP is important?
In the evolving world trade dynamics, simply depending on WTO or on existing trade connections is clearly an ineffective approach.
Thus, deals like “Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership” (RCEP), could prove critical for countries.
Notably, RCEP is considered a major economic integration plan involving “ASEAN-10, China, South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and India”.
Significantly, well trafficked trade routes pass through Southeast Asia, and the region’s economies are growing and vibrant.
The RCEP grouping is also diverse as it includes both commodity exporters such as Australia and Indonesia and services hubs such as Singapore.
Yet, despite these obvious advantages, Indian officials have expressed doubts on whether the RCEP will actually be in India’s interest.
But, India needs to recognize that, if the RCEP deal proceeds without India, then, being left out would hit India’s trade competitiveness in the region.
What are India’s concerns with RCEP?
The main concern for India about RCEP is the involvement of China, which already accounts for 60% of India’s burgeoning trade deficit.
While the fear of cheap Chinese imports is real, it shouldn’t be allowed to cripple the entire trade negotiations.
Rather, India must reserve its right to place emergency anti-dumping measures if excess influx tends to occur.
Additionally, studies show that Indian exporters aren’t taking full advantage of even the currently existing FTAs, which is a concern.
Hence, better educating exporters and aiding them to access new markets that open up to them would be a better alternative than chucking trade deals.
The rise of protectionism in U.S. (one of the few countries with which India has a trade surplus), implies that India needs to diversify its export markets.
As other markets must be found, RCEP is no longer an optional for India, and hence shouldn’t be overlooked.
What could be done?
India needs to recalibrate from its current short-sighted approach, if it has to reap the potential of further integrating into the global system.
India’s exports as a proportion of its GDP have stagnated, and for India to revive its exports and create jobs at home, it must reform structurally.
Transformation of the domestic productive base and rendering it more competitive and export-oriented is the only rational option.