The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched ‘REPLACE’ campaign to eliminate industrially-produced artificial Trans-fats from the global food supply by 2023.
‘REPLACE’ campaign by WHO:
WHO estimates that every year, trans fat intake leads to over 5,00,000 deaths worldwide from cardiovascular diseases.
Industrially-produced Trans-fats are contained in hardened vegetable fats such as margarine and and ghee, and are often present in snack, baked, and fried foods.
Manufacturers often use them as they have a longer shelf life than other fats.
But, healthier alternatives can be used, which would not affect taste or cost of food.
WHO has told governments to use ‘REPLACE’ action package to eliminate industrially-produced trans-fatty acids from the food supply by 2023.
REPLACE is abbreviated in six strategic actions as Review, Promote, Legislate, Assess, Create awareness and Enforce….
Six areas of action include:
Review: dietary sources of industrially produced transfats and landscape for required policy change.
Promote replacement of industrially produced transfats with healtier fats and oils.
Legislate or enact regulatory actions to eliminate industrially produced transfat.
Assess and monitor trans-fat content in the food supply and changes in transfat consumption in the population.
Create awareness of the negative health impact of trans-fat among policy makers, producers, suppliers and the public.
Enforce compliance with policies and regulations.
The initiative provides six strategic actions to ensure the prompt, complete, and sustained elimination of industrially-produced Trans-fats from food supply.
Action is needed in low and middle-income countries, where controls of use of industrially-produced Trans-fats are often weaker, to ensure that the benefits are felt equally around the world.
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The National Biogas and Organic Manure Management programme
GS Prelims, GS Mains paper III
Agriculture, Environment, The National Biogas, and Organic Manure Management programme
Why in News?
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy released the guidelines for the New National Biogas and Organic Manure Programme.
The target for 2017-18 was to set up 65,180 biogas plants. For 2018-19, this target has been increased to one lakh plants
About the scheme:
The National Biogas and Organic Manure Management programme is a Central Sector Scheme primarily set up for rural and semi-urban households.
It provides for setting up of family type biogas plants mainly for rural and semi-urban households.
A family type biogas plant generates biogas from organic substances such as cattle-dung, and other bio-degradable materials such as biomass from farms, gardens, and kitchens.
Categories are designated accordingly: cattle-dung and other bio-degradeable materials such biomass from farms, gardens, kitchens, and night soil.
Key guidelines include:
providing clean cooking fuel and meeting other small power needs of farmers, and individual households,
reducing drudgery of women and help them save time for other livelihood activities,
improving sanitation in rural and semi-urban areas by linking sanitary toilets with cattle dung biogas plants, and
helping reduction in causes of climate change by preventing emission of green-house gases.
The benefits of biogas are as follows:
It provides clean gaseous fuel for cooking and lighting.
Digested slurry from biogas plants is used as enriched bio-manure to supplement the use of chemical fertilizers.
It improves sanitation in villages and semi-urban areas by linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants.
Biogas Plants help in reducing the causes of climate change.