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 ‘Replace’ Campaign By WHO



  • G.S. Paper 2

Why in news?

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has launched ‘REPLACE’ campaign to eliminate industrially-produced artificial Trans-fats from the global food supply by 2023.

‘REPLACE’ campaign by WHO:

  • WHO estimates that every year, trans fat intake leads to over 5,00,000 deaths worldwide from cardiovascular diseases.
  • Industrially-produced Trans-fats are contained in hardened vegetable fats such as margarine and and ghee, and are often present in snack, baked, and fried foods.
  • Manufacturers often use them as they have a longer shelf life than other fats.
  • But, healthier alternatives can be used, which would not affect taste or cost of food.
  • WHO has told governments to use ‘REPLACE’ action package to eliminate industrially-produced trans-fatty acids from the food supply by 2023.
    • REPLACE is abbreviated in six strategic actions as Review, Promote, Legislate, Assess, Create awareness and Enforce….
    • Six areas of action include:
    • Review: dietary sources of industrially produced transfats and landscape for required policy change.
    • Promote replacement of industrially produced transfats with healtier fats and oils.
    • Legislate or enact regulatory actions to eliminate industrially produced transfat.
    • Assess and monitor trans-fat content in the food supply and changes in transfat consumption in the population.
    • Create awareness of the negative health impact of trans-fat among policy makers, producers, suppliers and the public.
    • Enforce compliance with policies and regulations.


  • The initiative provides six strategic actions to ensure the prompt, complete, and sustained elimination of industrially-produced Trans-fats from food supply.
  • Action is needed in low and middle-income countries, where controls of use of industrially-produced Trans-fats are often weaker, to ensure that the benefits are felt equally around the world.

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The National Biogas and Organic Manure Management programme



  • GS Prelims, GS Mains paper III
  • Agriculture, Environment, The National Biogas, and Organic Manure Management  programme

Why in News?

  • The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy released the guidelines for the New National Biogas and Organic Manure Programme.
  • The target for 2017-18 was to set up 65,180 biogas plants. For 2018-19, this target has been increased to one lakh plants

About the scheme:

  • The National Biogas and Organic Manure Management  programme is a Central Sector Scheme primarily set up for rural and semi-urban households.
  • It provides for setting up of family type biogas plants mainly for rural and semi-urban households.
  • A family type biogas plant generates biogas from organic substances such as cattle-dung, and other bio-degradable materials such as biomass from farms, gardens, and kitchens.
  • Categories are designated accordingly: cattle-dung and other bio-degradeable materials such biomass from farms, gardens, kitchens, and night soil.

Key guidelines include:  

  • providing clean cooking fuel and meeting other small power needs of farmers, and individual households,
  • reducing drudgery of women and help them save time for other livelihood activities,
  • improving sanitation in rural and semi-urban areas by linking sanitary toilets with cattle dung biogas plants, and
  • helping reduction in causes of climate change by preventing emission of green-house gases.

The benefits of biogas are as follows:

  • It provides clean gaseous fuel for cooking and lighting.
  • Digested slurry from biogas plants is used as enriched bio-manure to supplement the use of     chemical fertilizers.
  • It improves sanitation in villages and semi-urban areas by linking sanitary toilets with biogas plants.
  • Biogas Plants help in reducing the causes of climate change.

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