The cabinet committee on economic affairs (ccea), chaired by the prime minister has given approval for the umbrella scheme, “green revolution – krishonnati yojana” in agriculture sector beyond 12th five year plan for the period from 2017-18 to 2019-20.
About the scheme:
This umbrella scheme comprises of 11 schemes/missions.
These schemes look to develop the agriculture and allied sector in a holistic and scientific manner to increase the income of farmers by enhancing production, productivity and better returns on produce.
The schemes will be continued with an expenditure of rs.33,269.976 crore for three financial years, i.e., 2017-18, 2018-19 and 2019-20.
The schemes/missions focus on creating/strengthening of infrastructure of production, reducing production cost and marketing of agriculture and allied produce. These schemes / missions have been under implementation for varying duration during past few years.
All these schemes/missions were appraised and approved independently as separate scheme/mission. In 2017-18, it has been decided to club all these schemes / missions under one umbrella scheme ‘green revolution – krishonnati yojana’.
Parts of the scheme:
Mission for integrated development of horticulture (midh): it aims to promote holistic growth of horticulture sector; to enhance horticulture production, improve nutritional security and income support to farm households.
National food security mission (nfsm), including national mission on oil seeds and oil palm (nmoop): it aims to increase production of rice, wheat, pulses, coarse cereals and commercial crops, through area expansion and productivity enhancement in a suitable manner in the identified districts of the country, restoring soil fertility and productivity at the individual farm level and enhancing farm level economy. It further aims to augment the availability of vegetable oils and to reduce the import of edible oils.
National mission for sustainable agriculture (nmsa): nmsa aims at promoting sustainable agriculture practices best suitable to the specific agro-ecology focusing on integrated farming, appropriate soil health management and synergizing resource conservation technology.
Submission on agriculture extension (same): it aims to strengthen the ongoing extension mechanism of state governments, local bodies etc., achieving food and nutritional security and socio-economic empowerment of farmers, to institutionalize programme planning and implementation mechanism, to forge effective linkages and synergy amongst various stake-holders, to support hrd interventions, to promote pervasive and innovative use of electronic / print media, inter-personal communication and ict tools, etc.
Sub-mission on seeds and planting material (smsp): smsp aims to increase production of certified / quality seed, to increase srr, to upgrade the quality of farm saved seeds, to strengthen the seed multiplication chain, to promote new technologies and methodologies in seed production, processing, testing etc., to strengthen and modernizing infrastructure for seed production, storage, certification and quality etc.
Sub-mission on agricultural mechanisation (smam): smam aims to increase the reach of farm mechanization to small and marginal farmers and to the regions where availability of farm power is low, to promote ‘custom hiring centres’ to offset the adverse economies of scale arising due to small landholding and high cost of individual ownership, to create hubs for hi-tech and high value farm equipment, to create awareness among stakeholders through demonstration and capacity building activities, and to ensure performance testing and certification at designated testing centers located all over the country.
Sub mission on plant protection and plan quarantine (smppq): it aims to minimize loss to quality and yield of agricultural crops from the ravages of insect pests, diseases, weeds, nematodes, rodents, etc. And to shield our agricultural bio-security from the incursions and spread of alien species, to facilitate exports of indian agricultural commodities to global markets, and to promote good agricultural practices, particularly with respect to plant protection strategies and strategies.
Integrated scheme on agriculture census, economics and statistics (isaces): it aims to undertake the agriculture census, study of the cost of cultivation of principal crops, to undertake research studies on agro-economic problems of the country, to fund conferences/workshops and seminars involving eminent economists, agricultural scientists, experts and to bring out papers to conduct short term studies, to improve agricultural statistics methodology and to create a hierarchical information system on crop condition and crop production from sowing to harvest.
Integrated scheme on agricultural cooperation (isac): it aims to provide financial assistance for improving the economic conditions of cooperatives, remove regional imbalances and to speed up – cooperative development in agricultural marketing, processing, storage, computerization and weaker section programmes; to help cotton growers fetch remunerative price for their produce through value addition besides ensuring supply of quality yarn at reasonable rates to the decentralized weavers.
Integrated scheme on agricultural marketing (isam): it aims to develop agricultural marketing infrastructure; to promote innovative and latest technologies and competitive alternatives in agriculture marketing infrastructure; to provide infrastructure facilities for grading, standardization and quality certification of agricultural produce; to establish a nationwide marketing information network; to integrate markets through a common online market platform to facilitate pan-india trade in agricultural commodities, etc.
National e-governance plan (negp-a): it aims to bring farmer centricity & service orientation to the programmes; to enhance reach & impact of extension services; to improve access of farmers to information &services throughout crop-cycle; to build upon, enhance & integrate the existing ict initiatives of centre and states; and to enhance efficiency & effectiveness of programs through making available timely and relevant information to the farmers for increasing their agriculture productivity.
Hague Convention: Inter-Country Child Abduction
GS Prelims, GS Mains paper I, II and IV
Ethics, International conventions, the Hague convention on Civil aspects of International Child Abduction, NRI issues, failed NRI marriages, Child Rights
Why in news?
Justice Rajesh Bindal Committee has questioned the basic principles of the Hague Convention.
The Hague convention deals with the on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction
The Justice Rajesh Bindal Committee was set up in 2017 to suggest a model legislation to safeguard the interest of the child as well those of the parents when an NRI (Non Resident Indian) marriage goes sour and one of the parents flees from one country to another with the child.
This is the case of inter-country parental child abduction.
What are the recommendations of Justic Bindal Committee?
Justice Rajesh Bindal Committee has questioned one of the basic principles of the Hague Convention.
It has proposed that the return of the child to his or her habitual residence may not necessarily be in the best interest of the child.
It adds that returning a child to the place of habitual residence may result in sending the child to an inharmonious set-up as well as overlook the fact that a mother is the primary caregiver of the child.
There is immense pressure on India from the U.S. to accede to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is a multi-national treaty that seeks to protect children wrongfully removed by one of the parents from the custody of the other parent.
At the heart of this treaty is the criterion of “habitual residence” of the child, which is used to determine whether the child was wrongfully removed by a parent as well as to seek the return of the child.
The panel has also prepared a draft law to safeguard the interest of the children, as well as those of the parents, particularly mothers.
The proposed legislation lays down nine exceptions under which a child will not be returned to the country of habitual residence.
The report also requires the setting up of an Inter-Country Parental Child Removal Disputes Resolution Authority, which will be the nodal body to decide on the custody of the child, mediate between the warring parties, as well as order the return of the child to the country of habitual residence.
Indian family system: Indian Family system offers the best interest of the child: With the older generation of womenfolk being home-makers, the households have great caregivers in terms of grandparents, uncles, aunts, cousins, etc., on either side.
What are the conditions for refusal to return the child?
The important conditions under which a child’s return can be refused are:
Best interest of the child,
Domestic violence or mental or physical cruelty or harassment against the parent who fled with the child,
The parent claiming the return of the child was not exercising the custody rights at the time of removal, and
If there is a grave risk that the child would be exposed to physical or psychological harm.
Should India accede to the Hague convention?
In 2016, the government had decided not to be a signatory to the treaty on the ground that it can be detrimental to the interest of the women fleeing an abusive marriage.
In most of the NRI marriages, the husband is a green card holder and the wife is dependent on him.
Whenever such marriages turn sour or the husband becomes abusive to the wife, then latter tends to return back to India along with the child.
Indian law does not automatically recognise foreign judgments. Foreign courts may pass their judgments in the absence of the fleeing parent, which, in most of the cases is a woman.
Now by signing the Hague Convention, we will be compelled to recognise a foreign judgment regardless of the justness of the decision on custody under Indian law or whether was delivered ex-parte.
India should, first of all pass a law on this issue and set up an authority on Inter-Country Parental Child Removal Disputes Resolution. Then only it should sign the Hague convention.