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  • According to this, the pleasure of the individual is the moral standard.
  • It may be of two types- gross and refined.

Criticism of Egoistic Hedonism:

  1. Egoistic hedonism is based on psychological hedonism, and, thus, vitiated by its defects.
  2. Hobbes holds that man is naturally egoistic, and that all the higher emotions and springs of actions are modes of self-love. But, critics point out that it is also a fact that people live for the sake of others than for their own sake. Self-sacrifice is no less primordial than self-preservation. Egoism and altruism both are rooted in human nature.
  3. Moreover, egoistic hedonism can never supply us with a uniform standard of morality. What is pleasurable to one may be painful to another. Thus, morality which is regarded as uniform would be abolished.                                                    CRITICISM OF EGOISTIC HEDONISM
  4. Egoistic hedonism requires us to calculate the comparative values of pleasures. But this is extremely difficult. Subjective feelings cannot be qualitatively measured.
  5. Further, critics argue that gross or sensualistic egoism is, strictly speaking, not a moral theory at all. The gratification of hunger, thirst and other bodily appetites cannot constitute the highest good. Human being is a rational being and so happiness must depend upon rational self-restraint than on gratification of appetites. Even Aristippus advocated moderation in indulgence and intelligent control of vulgar instincts.                                              CRITICISM OF EGOISTIC HEDONISM
  6. The refined egoism of Epicurus is more reflective than the sensualistic egoism of Aristippus, since it recognizes the function of reason in moral life and it does not regard momentary pleasure but happy life as the highest good. However, it regards pleasure as negative feeling or absence of pain. It does not seem to encourage active life but rather an inactive life, free from pain.
  7. Morality consists in activity rather than in painless inactive life. It lays more stress on the calmness of mind due to the reduction of desires and indifference to pleasures and pains, than on the active pursuit of the good. Moreover, egoistic happiness cannot be the highest good, it cannot satisfy the altruistic instinct.



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