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Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention)

Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention)

  • The Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) or the Bonn Convention aims to conserve migratory species.
  • It is an intergovernmental convention concluded under UNEP. The Convention came into force in 1983.
  • The CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals and their habitats.
  • The CMS brings together the states through which migratory animals pass (the range states) and it lays the legal foundation for internationally coordinated conservation measures throughout a migratory range.
  • As the only global convention specialising in the conservation of migratory species, their habitats and migration routes, CMS complements and cooperates with a number of other international organisations, NGOs and partners in the media as well as in the corporate sector.
  • Migratory species threatened with extinction are listed in Appendix I of the Convention. Migratory species that would significantly benefit from international cooperation are listed in Appendix II of the Convention.

Basel Convention    

  • It is for the control of transboundary movement of hazardous wastes and their disposal and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to Less Developed Countries (LDCs). It was adopted in the year 1989 in Basel, Switzerland.
  • The Convention is also intended to minimise the amount and toxicity of wastes generated, to ensure its sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation and to assist LDCs in sound management of the hazardous and other wastes.
  • The Convention does not, however, address the movement of radioactive waste.

Rotterdam Convention

  • It is an intergovernmental treaty. Signatory nations can decide whether to allow the import of chemicals listed under the treaty or not and exporting nations are required to make sure that the exporters within their country do not export the chemicals and comply with the other rules of the treaty.
  • Other rules require the exporters of hazardous chemicals to use proper labelling, mention instructions relating to use, etc.
  • Rotterdam Convention was adopted in 1988 in Rotterdam, Netherlands.                                Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention)
  • The Convention creates legally binding obligation on exporting nations for implementation of prior informed consent procedure.

Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems

  • Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) recognises the agricultural heritage regions of the world under a programme called, ‘Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems’ (GIAHS).
  • The purpose of GIAHS is to recognise remarkable land-use systems which are rich in biological diversity and have evolved from coadaptation of a community with its environment.
  • In India, the following sites have received recognition under this programme:
  • Traditional Agricultural System at Koraput, Odisha: In this system, women have played a great role in the conservation of biodiversity.
  • Below Sea-level Farming System at Kuttanad, Kerala: This system was developed by farmers over 150 years ago to ensure food security by learning to cultivate rice and other crops below the sea level.
  • The Kuttanad system is now attracting worldwide attention because, one of the consequences of global warming will be the rise in the sea level.
  • The Kerala government has established International Research and Training Centre for below sea-level farming at Kuttanad.
  • Saffron Heritage at Pampore, Kashmir: Saffron is a part of the cultural heritage of the region, associated with the famous Kashmiri cuisine, its medicinal values and the rich cultural heritage of Kashmir.                                                                          Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention)
  • Looking at the social organisation, Kashmiri women are behind the whole saffron story, which is the custodian of the knowledge.


Environment & Biodiversity