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CLIMATE OF INDIA

CLIMATE OF INDIA

  • Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years).
  • Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time.
  • The elements of weather and climate are the same, i.e. temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity and percipitation.
  • The weather conditions fluctuate very often even within a day.
  • But there is some common pattern over a few weeks or months, i.e. days are cool or hot, windy or calm, cloudy or bright, and wet or dry.
  • On the basis of the generalised monthly atmospheric conditions, the year is divided into seasons such as winter, summer or rainy seasons.              CLIMATE OF INDIA
  • The world is divided into a number of climatic region.
  • The climate of India is described as the ‘monsoon’  type.
  • In Asia, this type of climate is found mainly in the south and the southeast.
  • Despite an overall unity in the general pattern, there are perceptible regional variations in climatic conditions within the country.
  • In summer, the mercury occasionally touches 50°C in some parts of the Rajasthan desert, whereas it may be around 20°C in Pahalgam in Jammu and Kashmir. 
  • On a winter night, temperature at Drass in Jammu and Kashmir may be as low as minus 45°C.
  • Thiruvananthapuram, on the other hand, may have a temperature of 22°C.
  • There are variations not only in the form and types of precipitation but also in its amount and the seasonal distribution.              CLIMATE OF INDIA
  • While precipitation is mostly in the form of snowfall in the upper parts of Himalayas, it rains over the rest of the country
  • The annual precipitation varies from over 400 cm in Meghalaya to less than 10 cm in Ladakh and western Rajasthan.
  • Most parts of the country receive rainfall from June to September
  • But some parts like the Tamil Nadu coast gets a large portion of its rain during October and November.
  • In general, coastal areas experience less contrasts in temperature conditions.
  • Seasonal contrasts are more in the interior of the country
  • There is decrease in rainfall generally from east to west in the Northern plains.
  • These variations have given rise to variety in lives of people – in terms of the food they eat, the clothes they wear and also the kind of houses they live in.                CLIMATE OF INDIA

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