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Climate Change 2021 Report: IPCC

Climate Change 2021 Report: IPCC

Why in news?

  • Recently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released the first part of its Sixth Assessment Report (AR6) titled Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis.
  • It is prepared by the scientists of Working Group-I. The two remaining parts would be released in 2022.
  • It noted that global net-zero by 2050 was the minimum required to keep the temperature rise to 1.5 degree Celsius.
  • It sets the stage for the Conference of Parties (CoP) 26 conference in November 2021.

Highlights of Sixth Assessment Report (AR6)

  • Weather and climate events – such as extreme heat, heavy rainfall, fire conditions, and droughts – are becoming more severe and frequent because of climate change.
  • The report finds we are already edging closer to a 1.5 degrees Celsius warmer world, and every day emissions rise the prospects for averting the worst impacts of climate change become dimmer.
  • Carbon dioxide has been and will continue to be the dominant cause of global warming under all greenhouse gas emissions scenarios.
  • It says, if greenhouse gas emissions are halved by 2030 and net zero by 2050, global warming can be stopped.
  • Also, IPCC report vindicates India’s position that historical cumulative emissions are the source of the climate crisis that the World faces today.

Findings for India 

  • As the IPCC report predicts that global warming will lead to a rise in temperature in every part of the world, the extent of temperature rise may vary across the world, causing heatwaves in many parts. These heatwaves are being called extreme heatwaves for India as they will be hotter as compared to the heatwaves in the past.
  • The report also highlights the monsoon patterns across the world. It predicts that pluvial floods are set to increase across South Asia and India. India will not only have to predict excessive rainfall due to erratic monsoons but will also have to outline areas experiencing extreme drought.
  • Furthermore, the report underlined that snowcaps in the Himalayas will show rapid thawing in the coming decades.
  • The Indian Ocean which includes the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal has warmed faster than the global average. The sea surface temperature over the Indian ocean is likely to increase by 1-2 degrees Celsius over the next 20 years.
  • The Government of India has welcomed the report. It stated that the developed nations have contributed the most to rising global temperatures and therefore institute faster and swifter curbs on their carbon emissions.
  • Assessment of Climate Change over the Indian Region: All you need to know about the report by MoES

Major Concerns

  • The report highlights that our climate is rapidly changing due to human influence and is already altering our planet in drastic ways –
  • Arctic Sea ice is at its lowest level in more than 150 years;
  • Sea levels are rising faster than at any time in at least the last 3,000 years; and
  • Glaciers are declining at a rate unprecedented in at least 2,000 years.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  • It is an international body set up in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to provide policymakers with
  • Regular assessments of the scientific basis of climate change
  • Impacts and future risks associated with Climate Change
  • Options for adaptation and mitigation for Climate Change
  • Membership of the IPCC is open to all members of the WMO and the UNEP.
  • IPCC assessments provide a scientific basis for governments at all levels to develop climate-related policies and also underlie climate negotiation at International level.
  • The main objective of UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

IPCC Assessment Reports

  • Every few years (about 7 years), the IPCC produces assessment reports that are the most comprehensive scientific evaluations of the state of earth’s climate.
  • So far, five assessment reports have been produced, the first one being released in 1990. The fifth assessment report had come out in 2014 in the run up to the climate change conference in Paris.
  • The Assessment Reports – by three working groups of scientists.
    • Working Group-I – Deals with the scientific basis for climate change.
    • Working Group-II – Looks at the likely impacts, vulnerabilities and adaptation issues.
    • Working Group-III – Deals with actions that can be taken to combat climate change.

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/global-energy-review-2021/

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