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CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (CDM)

CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (CDM)

GANDHI’S ELEVEN DEMANDS

To take forward the Lahore sessions’ priorities, Gandhi presented 11 demands to congress and gave an ultimatum till Jan 31, 1930 to accept or reject the demands. The demands were as follows:

  1. Reduce expenditure of Army and Civil services by 50%
  2. Introduce total prohibition
  3. Carry out reforms in Criminal Investigation Department
  4. Change arms act allowing popular control of issue of firearms licenses
  5. Release political prisoners
  6. Accept postal reservation Bill

Specific Bourgeois demands:

  1. Reduce rupee-sterling exchange ratio to 1s 4 d
  2. Introduce textile protection
  3. Reserve coastal shipping to Indians

Specific Peasant Demands:

  1. Reduce land revenue by 50%
  2. Abolish Salt tax and government’s .s ly

Feb 1930

  • With no positive response from the Government CWC entrusted Gandhi to launch the CDM at a time and place of his own choice.
  • By Feb end, Gandhi decided to make the Salt the central formula to CDM.                                CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (CDM)

The reasons for choosing the salt were as following: 

  • There is no other article like salt, outside water, by taxing which the Government can reach the starving millions, the sick, the maimed and the utterly helpless. It is most inhuman poll tax
  • Salt in a flash linked the ideal of Swaraj with the most concrete and universal grievance of the rural poor
  • Salt afforded a paltry but psychologically important income, like Khadi, for the poor through self-help

Like Khadi, again, it offered to urban adherents the opportunity of a symbolic identification with mass suffering

DANDI MARCH (MARCH 12- APRIL 6, 1930)

  • On March 2, 1930, Gandhi informed Viceroy about his plan of action. Gandhi, along with 70-80 members of Sabarmati Ashram was to march from his Ashram in Ahmedabad to the coast of Dandi through the villages of Gujarat.
  • The distance was approx 240 miles. On reaching the coast, the salt law was to be abolished by collecting salt from the ocean.
  • Even before he was to start, thousands gathered at his ashram to join him for the march.                                  CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (CDM)

GANDHI GAVE FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS FOR FUTURE ACTION:

  1. Wherever possible civil disobedience of salt law should be started
  2. Foreign liquor and cloth shops can be picketed
  3. We can refuse to pay taxes if we have requisite strength
  4. Lawyers can give up practice
  5. Public can boycott law courts by refraining from litigation
  6. Government servants can resign from their posts
  7. All these should be subject to one condition: Truth and non-violence as means to attain swaraj should be the faith, fully adhered to.

Historic march completed on April 6 when Gandhi broke the salt law at Dandi coast by picking salt from the ocean. This violation was seen as the resolve of Indians to not live by the British made laws and thus not under the British rule.                                        CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (CDM)

The march was fully covered by newspapers. 300 government officials resigned in Gujarat following Gandhi’s appeal. Congress workers engaged in grass-root mobilization.

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Modern History

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