CONTACT US

084594-00000

About Us  :  Online Enquiry

Public Administration by G.Rajput


Download

CHRIS ARGYRIS

Chris Argyris was basically a psychologist who studied organisation from the stand point of psychology. He has dwelt on length on the social and psychological needs of the organisation and the demands of an organisation.Chris Argyris has extensively applied the research findings of psychology, social psychology and human relations in the study of organisations. He studied the organisations both in the field of business administration and public administration.Major works of Chris Argyris are Personality and Organisation (1957), Understanding Organisational Behaviour (1960), Interpersonal Competence and Organisational Effectiveness (1964), Organisation and Innovation (1965) and Overcoming Organisational Defence (1990).

Chris Argyris has viewed organisation as an open system and has analysed the interactions between the organisation & the individual and between the organisation & the external environment. According to him classically the techniques employed by management produce counter-productive consequences. These techniques are employed to enforce the norms of formal pyramidal organisation which lays stress on rigid rules of high productivity. Argyris proves that the personal development of members of the organisation is shaped by the culture existing in the organisation. Views of Chris Argyris are discussed under the following heads below:

Human Personality and the Organisation

  • According to Argyris, the human personality affects the organisation very much. Each member of the organisation has his own needs and these needs to be satisfied for keeping the individual happy. The satisfaction of these needs generates “psychological energy*. The more the psychological energy the more is the satisfaction of the individual. According to him, only through the release of psychological energy and better co- ordination of the employees does the organisation reach higher performance.

    Chris Argyris argues that the organisational management should provide a culture in which the members of the organisation may develop their personalities from a state of “infancy” to a state of “psychological maturity’’. This personality model of Argyris is a great contribution to the behavioural approach in the organisational theory. There are seven developments for this movement from infancy to maturity:
    From infant passivity towards adult activity

  • From dependence towards relative independence
  • From limited behaviours to many different behaviours
  • From erratic, shallow and brief interests to more stable and deeper interest
  • From short-time perspective to longer-time perspective
  •  From a subordinate social position to an equal or super-ordinate social position
  • From lack of self-awareness to self-awareness and self-control
    • He does not remain forward looking and innovative
    • He becomes resistant to new initiative
    • He becomes concerned about his own work difficulties only

When the individual behaves in the above manner, the management becomes still more directive which further alienates the individual from ‘participating’ in the decisions. These control systems of the organisation such as cost accounting and work study etc. are seen as punishment by the employees. This culture of the organisation creates lack of trust among the employees and between the employees and the management.

Hence the principles of formal organisation, management control system and lack of participation of employees in the decision making system of the organisation hamper the creativity and innovativeness of the employees and they are dissatisfied at the work place.

The impacts of the formal organisation practices on the personality of individual are summarized below:

    • The incongruency between the needs of the individual and demands of the organisation proves to the individual that he cannot pursue his personal interests with organisational objectives. The “self-actualization” need of the individual and the demand of psychological “infancy” from the organisation become at loggerheads.
    • The above situation compels the individual to think in terms of leaving the job, ignoring the organisational needs and taking leave without informing. This leads to conflicts and tensions which may lead to organisational problem
    • Employees become frustrated. They lose hope for a healthy existence in the organisation.
    • The management reaction to the behaviours of employees creates a feeling of “psychological failure” in the employees which results in loss of self confidence, interest in work, a tendency to blame others for their mistakes and so on.

To reduce the conflict between the management and the employees, informal organisations are born in the organisation. This reduces the frustration of the employees; provides a way of expressing their feelings against the management control programmes, demands of organisation & the ‘pseudo’ human relations programmes of the management; creates a ‘psychological shelter’ for the employees in the competitive environment of the organisation which is created in the very own culture of the employee and creates stability for the employee while he adjusts to the organisational reality. However Argyris is also aware of the problems which may stem from the existence of informal organisations and says that their creation may create problems also for the employees & could be a source of tension for them.

Solutions to Reduce Tensions between the Individual and Formal Organisation

Some of the remedies to reduce the conflicts between the individual and the formal organisation due to the reasons mentioned above are:

    • Management should concentrate on “job enrichment”. The diversity and content of the job should be increased. This will create an interest of the employees in the job, motivate them to take more responsibility and increase their level of satisfaction
    • A culture of participative management should be imbibed in the organisation. The management should identify the “mature” individuals to take on the leadership positions.
    • Management should develop “reality” leadership which is based on the honest & frank discussion among the employees & the management regarding their strengths and weaknesses.

Form of Future Organisations

Chris Argyris seeks to develop “flat organisations” abandoning the present “pyramidal organisations”. These new organisations will integrate the individual development with the organisational objectives. He suggests different organisations for different purposes. According to him, the future organisations would be a mix of traditional and modern forms. Different forms of organisations according to him are:

Pyramidal Structure

This type of structure is suited for the organisations which perform routine, non- innovative type of tasks requiring low commitment from the employees.

Adapted Formal Organisational Structure

This type of structure is similar to the Linking Pin structure proposed by Rensis Likert, It promotes participation of the employees.

Defined but Participative Structure

In this type of structure though there exist equal opportunities for the employees still they can be subjected for more control in their areas of operation. It may be use for inter­departmental operations and for new product development etc.

Matrix Organisation Structure

The basic feature of matrix organisations is that absence of superior-subordinate relationship and its replacement with the self-disciplined individuals. There is more participation in decision making for the employees. They have responsibility and power in their own areas of operation. “Project Teams” formed for carrying out specific activities perform the managerial functions and the members of the team are in charge of their respective areas.

The future organisation according to Argyris will be like the classical organisation but its leadership will be matrix based more on the power of ideas, competence, information, skill and expertise and less on the formal power.

T Group or Sensitivity Training

The aim of the management, according to Argyris, should be on the full development of the potentialities of its employees. For this he emphasises relevant training for the employees which may sensitise them towards their work situation and their personality. He gave the concept of T group method or sensitivity training for this.

T group method is designed to prepare employees for effective group functioning. It increases the inter-personal competence, psychological energy and the self esteem of the employees. It is a sort of laboratory training designed to create “reality” leaders. This programme enables the employees to see their style of leadership & its consequences and to get feedback for improvement or change. This type of training is not conducted in the classical hierarchial fashion but more distributive style.

Critical Evaluation of Argyris

Argyris’ ideas have been criticised on the following grounds:

    1. The concept of self-actualization according to Argyris is regarded as just a utopia according to many thinkers such as Herbert Simon who calls it anarchy.
    • Argyris’ assumption that people am basically opposed to authonty is disputed by many. Many employees may not like to be interested self-actualization and may prefer to be under directive leadership only.
    • If the basic differences exist between the management and the employees then techniques such as T-group methods cannot help. They only maintain status-quo.

Notwithstanding these criticisms, Argyris has made a great contribution towards understanding human behaviour and changing the leadership style in consonance with the needs of the individuals. He emphasised that management should evolve a strategy so that the employees as well as the organisation may lead a healthy life. Argyris believed that the management finally it will be realized that management cannot develop the interpersonal competence of the individuals, they can develop only on their own Management can develop only the climate and opportunities for the employees and the people. It was the uniqueness of his thoughts that he considered individuals and the organisation as inter-penetrating and not inter-related to each other.

According to Argyris, individual behaviour, small group behaviour and the inter-group behaviour formed the organisational whole He made an important point by emphasising hat the behaviouralists such as Simon had made a mistake by leaving the important dimensions such human personality, inter-personal competence and need for self- actualisation etc. For preventing the authoritarianism and de-humanistic approach of the organisations, Argyris has concentrated on the following four core areas:

    • Organisational climate should be such as to develop the personality and psychological maturity of the individual.
    • The inter-personal competence of the employees should be improved
    • The traditional pyramidal form of organisation should be changed into flat organisation
    • Programmed learning aimed at the individual change should be started

The biggest success of Argyris has been to point out that the management strategies Pursued by organisations are basically at odds with the psychological “maturing” of the employees which is the root cause of so many problems




300 Key sentences for Pub Ad

Use this sentence or idea while writing answer on woodrow wilson.You can also make a diagram on the same  The politics/administration distinction its

Blaksburg Manifesto

Refounding Public Administration (Wamsley et al., 1990) was a pioneering publication in the field of U.S. public administration. It was one of the ea

MIS

What is MIS? MIS is the use of information technology, people, and business processes to record, store and process data to produce information that de

Organisation and Methods (O & M)

Organisation and Methods (O & M) The Meaning of O and M-The O and M is an abbreviation for Organization and Methods’. O & M work means revie

Delegated Legislation

In order to reduce pressure on parliamentary time acts of parliament often give Government Ministers or opt per authorities the power to regulate admi

Administrative Tribunals

Administrative tribunals differ from the ordinary courts in two things, their constitution and procedure. As regards their composition they consist of

Dicey on Administrative Law

According to Dicey, Administrative Law is that portion of a nation’s legal system which determines the legal status and liabilities of all state off

Content and process theories of Motivation

Motivation theories We can distinguish between contentand processmotivation theories. Content theories focus on WHAT, while process theories focus o

Contingency Approach to Management

The ‘Contingency Approach to Management’ is relatively a new approach to manage­ment. It is an extension of the system approach. The basic idea o

New Public Management (NPM)

The term New Public Management (NPM) emerged in the beginning of the 1990s in response to the challenges of   globalization, international compe

Development Administration: Concept and Features

The essence of development administration is to bring about change through integrated, organised and properly directed governmental action. In the rec

CHRIS ARGYRIS

Chris Argyris was basically a psychologist who studied organisation from the stand point of psychology. He has dwelt on length on the social and psyc

William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations!

William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations! William Ouchi developed Theory Z after making a comparative study of Japanese and

Scientific Management Movement

Scientific Management Movement Management is the art of getting things done. There have been two important events in history which influenced the natu

Contribution of Administration Thinkers.

Here we are giving the Significant Works and Ideas of Administrative Thinkers which will help the candidates. Public Administration Thinkers | Adminis

Salient features of Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India is considered as a distinctive constitution around the globe. It is the largest written liberal democratic constitution of t

Bureaucracy and development

Bureaucracy as an organization is expected to play a pivotal role, in process of development. The concept of Development Administration had originated

Political culture

POLITICAL CULTURE: Political culture can be defined as “The orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, and their perceptions of politi

Constitutionalism

In the present post, we will briefly understand the definitions relating to constitution, constitutional law, constitutionalism and metaconstitution.

Multiple Regulatory Bodies in India – Issues & Suggestions

Regulatory body is an organization set up by the Government to monitor, guide and control a particular sector such as banking, insurance, education

Pert and CPM

Project management can be understood as a systematic way of planning, scheduling, executing, monitoring, controlling the different aspects of the proj

O and M Working in India

Organisation and Methods (O & M) The Meaning of O and M-The O and M is an abbreviation for Organization and Methods’. O & M work means revie

PPP model of Indian government-Examples

Some of the successful or failure examples of PPP models of Indian government are:- CASES OF SUCCESSFUL PPP MODELS: 1.) IN TRANSPORT SECTOR: A.) SECON

Riggs model of Comparative Public Administration

Topics Covered Fred Riggs Tools Agraria – Industria Model :Fred Riggs Fused Prismatic Diffracted Model ( Fred Riggs) Prismatic Sala Model( Fred Rigg

HERBERT A. SIMON

Topics covered Decision-Making School Of Thought Attack On ‘Proverbs’ Of Administration Specialization, Unity Of Command And Span Of Contr

Comparison of Human Relations School with the Classical School

Comparison of Human Relations School of Thought with the Classical School Human Relations Theory of George Elton Mayo is basically built upon the succ

Elton Mayo

Elton Mayo  The development of the human relations theory can be traced back to the contributions of the Hugo Munster Berg and Elton Mayo and his col

Critical Appraisal of Theory of Principles (or Classical Theory)

Classical school Public Administration The thinking in the Classical School of thought which believes in organisational principles was influenced by t

Can you explain ‘Civil Services Activism’ in India with examples?

Civil services’ activism includes all or any of those proactive steps which are taken by civil servants to make the system/administration more peopl

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory was proposed by Victor. H. Vroom, who believed that people are motivated to perform activities to achieve some goal to th

Chester Barnard

Topics covered About Chester Barnard Three elements in an organization Contribution- Satisfaction Equilibrium General and Specific Inducements Positio

Difference Between Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy

The economic position of a country can be monitored, controlled and regulated by the sound economic policies. The fiscal and monetary policies of the

Monetary Policy Committee

The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (RBI Act) has been amended by the Finance Act, 2016,  to provide for a statutory and institutionalised framework

Mary Parker Follet (1866-1933).

 Ideas of Mary Parker Follet’s are a bridge between the classical school of thought and the Behavioural School of Thought. She gave a socio-psy

ELTOM MAYO- First enquiry

George Elton Mayo is considered as one of the pioneers of the human relations movement. Elton Mayo advocated a humanistic not mechanistic employer-e

MCGREGOR’S THEORY X and theory Y

Introduction  Douglas Mcgregor is a behaviorist and social psychologist of repute. He is a strong believer in the potentialities of human beings in c

MASLOW’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION

MASLOW’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION Maslow ‘in his classic paper ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’ published in 1943 outlined an overall th

NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION New Public Administration is an anti-positivist, anti-technical, and anti-hierarchical reaction against traditional public a

APPROACHES OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

APPROACHES OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION APPROACHES OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Ideal or Bureaucratic Approach Bureaucratic specifica

CURRENT STATUS OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

After the decline of the comparative administration group (CAG) in the early 1970’s,there was a lull in this field due to several factors like t

Budgetary Process

The budget process in India, like in most other countries, comprises  four distinct phases. Budget formulation: the preparation of estimates of expen

FRBM Act

The FRBM Act is a fiscal sector legislation enacted by the government of India in 2003, aiming to ensure fiscal discipline for the centre by setting t

Self Help Groups

Self Help Groups (SHG) are mentioned in the GS Paper 2 as per the latest UPSC Mains Syllabus. SHG related questions can also be expected in Prelims as

Anti Development thesis.

After the WWII, European reconstruction was undertaken under ‘Marshall Plan’ to rebuild war-devastated economies of European countries. This becam

Budgetary procedure in India

The budgetary procedure in India involves four different operations that are Preparation of the budget Enactment of the budget Execution of the budget

Controller General of Accounts

Duties and Functions of Controller General of Accounts (CGA) The information regarding accounts of the union government are released / disseminated by

Accounts and Audit

Accounts Francis Oakey defines the term as “Accounting is the science of producing promptly and presetting clearly the facts relating to financial c

Monetary Policy of India 

Monetary Policy of India   You might have heard of the term Monetary Policy in Economy class. Recently there were many changes in the way Monetar

ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – Meaning,Nature and Scope

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of the government which comprise of rule making or legi

Dicey on Administrative Law

According to Dicey, Administrative Law is that portion of a nation’s legal system which determines the legal status and liabilities of all state off

Delegated Legislation

In order to reduce pressure on parliamentary time acts of parliament often give Government Ministers or opt per authorities the power to regulate admi

ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNAL

With the acceptance of Welfare ideology, there was a mushroom growth of public services and public servants. The courts, particularly the High Courts

Tribunals in India

Tribunals were added in the Constitution by Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 as Part XIV-A, which has only two articles viz. 323-A and

Growth of Administrative Law in India

The term Rule of Law of got from French phase ‘la principle de legalite’ which implies the principle of legality. It refers to an administration i

STRONG STATE VERSUS THE MARKET DEBATE:

STRONG STATE VERSUS THE MARKET DEBATE: There has been a constant debate as to what shall be the instrumental influencing factor for the economic arran

Concept of Development

Concept of Development Development is quite dynamic concept. It is ever changing. The concept of development is neither new nor old. It has been in ex

Impact of Liberalization on Administration in Developing Countries

Impact of Liberalization on Administration in Developing Countries Liberalisation means relaxation of government controls in the spheres of economic a

Self Help Groups(women)

What is a self-help group (SHG)? Self-Help Groups are informal associations of people who choose to come together to find ways to improve their living

Critic of Anti-Development Thesis

There is a large body of works which are critical of post-development theory and its proponents. It has been noted that post-development theory sees a

Anti-Development Thesis

Anti-Development Thesis After the WWII, European reconstruction was undertaken under ‘Marshall Plan’ to rebuild war-devastated economies of Europe

Dichotomy

Dichotomy The Politics-administration dichotomy is a theory that constructs the boundaries of public administration and asserts the normative relation

Current Status of Comparative Public Administration

Current Status of Comparative Public Administration The contemporary comparative public administration is concerned with the complexities of social ch

Comparative Public Administration

COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEFINITION Comparative public administration is defined as the revise of administrative systems in a comparative fas

Fredrick Taylor

Fredrick Taylor At the turn of the 20th century, the American engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor, proposed scientific methodologies to improve the pro

Woodrow Wilson Politics-Administration Dichotomy

TheWoodrow Wilson Politics-administration dichotomy is a theory that constructs the boundaries of public administration and asserts the normative rel

Sociology lecture 2 by ILA TRIPATHI

Sociology lecture 2 by ILA TRIPATHI Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ZGF8DdR_Ag” Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Li

Minnowbrook Conference-III

Minnowbrook Conference-III The Academic-Practitioner RelationshipThis conference took place during September, 2008. It was chaired by Rosemary O’Lea

Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law

In this post we shall see two important terms often cited in Supreme Court Judgments – Procedure Established by Law and Due Process of Law – thei

MOTIVATION

What is Motivation? Motivation is the answer to the question “Why we do what we do?”. The motivation theories try to figure out what the “M” i

NEW PUBLIC-ADMINISTRATION

Introduction During 1960s the American society was in dismay and the citizens were full of grievances. In such a scenario the scholars got together to

Human relation theory/ELTON MAYO

Human relation theory/ELTON MAYO -This theory came as a reaction to the classical approach, which stressed on formal structure. -The classical school

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT(FREDRICK TAYLOR)

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION 19TH century was the period of industrial revolution and there was an expansion of business. This led to new proble

PUBLIC CHOICE APPROACH

Public Choice Approach  Public choice approach is the application of economics in the study of public administration. This approach is advocated by C

MARRY PARKER FOLLET

Mary Parker Follet Introduction She is regarded as a bridge between classical approach and human relation – behavioral approach. She was the first o

WOODROW WILSON

INTRODUCTION Woodrow Wilson was an American president and is considered to be the father of public administration due to his pioneering contribution i

Send this to a friend