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  • A small sleepy village named Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur district, UP) has found a place in history books due to an incident of violence on February 5, 1922 which was to prompt Gandhi to withdraw the movement.
  • The police here had beaten up the leader of a group of volunteers campaigning against liquor sales and high food prices, and then opened fire on the crowd which had come to protest before the police station.
  • The agitated crowd torched the police station with policemen inside who had taken shelter there; those who tried to flee were hacked to death and thrown back into the fire. Twenty-two policemen were killed in the violence.
  • Gandhi, not happy with the increasingly violent trend of the movement, immediately announced the withdrawal of the movement. The CWC met at Bardoli in February 1922 and resolved to stop all activity that led to breaking of law and to get down to constructive work, instead, which was to include popularisation of Khadi, national schools, and campaigning for temperance, for Hindu-Muslim unity and against untouchability.                    CHAURI CHAURA INCIDENT
  • Most of the nationalist leaders including C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru, Subhash Bose, Jawaharlal Nehru, however, expressed their bewilderment at Gandhi’s decision to withdraw the movement.
  • In March 1922 Gandhi was arrested and sentenced to six years in jail. He made the occasion memorable by a magnificent court speech — “I am here, therefore, to invite and submit cheerfully to the highest penalty that can be inflicted upon me for what in law is deliberate crime, and what appears to me to be the highest duty of a citizen.”


  • Gandhi felt that people had not learnt or fully understood the method of nonÂ-violence. Incidents like Chauri-Chaura could lead to excitement and fervour turning the movement generally violent.
  • A violent movement could be easily suppressed by the colonial regime that could use the |incidents of violence as an excuse to use the armed might of the state against the protestors. The movement was also showing signs of fatigue.                      CHAURI CHAURA INCIDENT
  • This was natural as it is not possible to sustain any movement at a high pitch for very long. The Government seemed to be in no mood for negotiations. The central theme of the agitation the Khilafat question also dissipated soon.
  • In November 1922, the people of Turkey rose under Mustafa Kamal Pasha and deprived the Sultan of political power. Turkey was made a secular state. Thus, the Khilafat question lost its relevance.
  • A European style of legal system was established in Turkey and extensive rights granted to women. Education was nationalised and modern agriculture and industries developed. In 1924, the caliphate was abolished.                                CHAURI CHAURA INCIDENT


Modern History