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Chapter # 20. Swash Bharat Mission


The key objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission include:

1. Making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by October 2, 2019.

2. Carrying out extensive information, education and communication (IEC) and behaviour change campaigns to change the attitude of people regarding healthy sanitation practices.

3. Ensuring scientific solid and liquid waste management.

4. Augmenting the capacity of local bodies.

5. Creating an enabling environment for private sector participation.

6. Eradicating manual scavenging.

Current Situation

The Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) was launched on October 2, 2014, to make India open defecation free by 2019. It has two sub missions –1) Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) for rural areas under the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS) and 2) Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) for urban areas under the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs.

Given the cross cutting impact of SBM, the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation is the nodal ministry for SBM with several other ministries being actively involved in achieving its goals. SBM has the potential to address wide-ranging issues.

For instance, water and sanitation related diseases continue to remain among the major causes of death among children under five years of age. In India, the under-five mortality rate is 50 per thousand live births as compared to the global average of 41. The lack of sanitation facilities leads to groundwater contamination and pathogen contamination leads to diarrhoeal diseases, resulting in malnutrition, stunting and death.

Women, who do not have access to toilets, mostly relieve themselves under the cover of darkness, i.e., before dawn or after sunset. Such practices are not only a threat to their physical security but are also a cause of various diseases.

Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)

According to Census 2011, only 32.7 per cent of rural households had access to toilet facilities. Only 39 per cent of households had access to toilets before the launch of the Mission. Under the Mission, from October 2, 2014 to March 2018, about 6.95 crore individual household toilets have been constructed. The rapid pace of construction of toilets is due to mass mobilization of resources and extensive behaviour change campaigns under the mission. It has helped the country achieve sanitation coverage of 81 per cent in rural India by March 2018. About 3.50 lakh villages, 371 districts and 13 states and 3 union territories have declared themselves ODF.

Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban)

As of March 2018, 47.04 lakh household toilets and 3.18 lakh seats of community/public toilets have been constructed against the mission targets of 66.42 lakh and 5.08 lakh respectively. Hundred per cent door-to-door collection of solid waste has been achieved in 62,436 out of 84,049 wards and 2,648 cities have declared themselves ODF. Waste-to-energy production has reached 88.4 megawatts and new plants that can produce 415 megawatts are under construction.


The constraints faced by the mission are largely related to implementation challenges in meeting the 2019 targets. Some of these are as follows:

1. Lack of availability of space for construction of household toilets in slum areas.

2. Issues regarding the operation and maintenance of community toilets.

3. Non-availability of water.

4. Non-segregation of waste.

5. Sustaining the change in behaviour patterns among people.

6. Continued unwillingness of urban local bodies (ULBs) to levy user charges.

7. Inadequate infrastructure for collection, transportation and processing of segregated waste.

8. The continuing practice of decentralized treatment of waste.

9. Lack of on-site treatment of waste by bulk generators.

10. Insufficient number of dustbins, particularly in urban and peri-urban areas.

11. Lack of credit from financial institutions for solid and liquid waste management projects.

12. Discharge of untreated effluent into rivers.

13. Tackling the problem of lagging states – of the 1.56 crore household toilets yet to be constructed in rural areas, 0.90 crore are to be constructed in two states, namely Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Way Forward

The strategies to tackle the challenges faced by SBM have been categorized under four broad heads – expanding the scope of SBM, inducing behavioural change, expediting construction and leveraging technology, and changing governance and practices. These are detailed below.

Expanding the scope of Sbm

1. The concept of Swachhata needs to be integrated into hospitals, government offices and other public establishments.

2. Where space is a constraint, construct community toilets with participation and ownership of stakeholders. The responsibility for operation and maintenance of community toilets should vest with the community.

3. To ensure continued usage of toilets and limit water used for flushing, rural toilets with steep slope should be widely promoted in rural areas.

4. Bulk generators of waste should ensure on-site treatment of waste.

5. All drains/tributaries flowing to rivers should be covered with sewage treatment plants by 2022-23.

6. Give higher monetary compensation and social security to rag pickers and small sanitation workers for segregating waste. This will help waste-to-energy plants as well as projects related to dry waste management and help reduce the burden on landfills.

7. The scope of SBM may be expanded to cover initiatives for landfills and plastic waste.

8. Increase the number of community toilets along the highways.

Inducing behavioural change

1. Plan intensive behaviour change communication (BCC) and inter-personal communication (IPC) campaigns beyond the SBM target year of 2019.

2. Draw up a clear and concerted behaviour change communication campaign specifically aimed at panchayats and cities that have shown slow progress towards ODF status.

3. Teach them young – Children should be made aware of sustainable waste management practices through suitable changes in the school syllabus; engage college campuses and teachers to spread awareness of these practices.

4. BCC should lay greater emphasis on encouraging people to segregate waste into wet, dry and hazardous waste right at the point of waste generation.

5. Promote disposal of kitchen and home waste at the local level through resident welfare associations. A decentralized system of disposal of waste needs to be in place, especially in urban areas.

Expediting construction and leveraging technology

1. To reduce the cost and time incurred on laying sewage pipelines and constructing sewage treatment plants, SBM should encourage the use of bio-digester technology.

2. A special strategy should be adopted to expedite the construction of household toilets in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

3. Adopt the wider use of twin-pit toilets. It is a low-cost technology that decomposes waste into bio-fertilizer.

4. Promote the use of modular wet waste disposal machines or other such devices for the disposal of bio-waste at the household level itself.

5. The cement and construction sectors should be encouraged to consume material made of recycled construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Similarly, the fertilizer sector should procure compost produced out of organic waste.

6. Ensure the availability of adequate numbers of dustbins in public spaces in urban and peri-urban areas.

Changing governance and practices

1. Expenditure on bio-toilets/bio-digesters may be considered for concession from the goods and services tax (GST) to encourage large-scale adoption.

2. Draft and implement a 5-year action plan to integrate SBM and faecal sludge management (FSM) at the ward level in cities.

3. Waste-to-energy projects are not bankable in the absence of tariff orders by the appropriate authority. Companies that want to establish waste-to-energy plants should have tripartite agreements in which one party is the producer of energy from waste; the other two should be the concerned municipal body and electricity distributing company.

4. ULBs should be nudged to charge adequate user charges for collection and disposal of waste and maintenance of toilets. The user charges for these activities are as important as user charges for electricity and water.

5. Solid and liquid waste management projects should be covered under priority sector lending.

6. To maintain the ODF status of villages and cities, the government should continue to monitor and undertake corrective measures for areas that might be slipping back from ODF status.

Chapter # 41. Data Led Governance and Policy Making

Objectives Evidence based policy making should be made integral to the overall governance structure in New India, 2022-23. To achieve this, timely gen

Chapter # 40. Optimizing the Use of Land Resources

Optimizing the Use of Land Resources-Ensuring that land markets function smoothly, through efficient allocation of land across uses, provision of secu

Chapter # 39. Modernizing City Governance For Urban Transformation

Objective  City Governance For Urban Transformation To transform our cities into economically vibrant and environmentally sustainable habitats that p

Chapter # 38. Civil Services Reforms

Objective  civil-services-reforms To put in place a reformed system of recruitment, training and performance evaluation of the civil service to ensur

Chapter # 37. Legal, Judicial and Police Reforms

Objective To ensure the safety and security of citizens and ensure access to effective legal systems and speedy delivery of justice. Current Situation

Chapter # 36. The North-East Region

Objectives The North-East Region (NER) should: Have adequate road, rail and air connectivity, waterways, internet connectivity and financial inclusion

Chapter # 35. Balanced Regional Development: Transforming Aspirational Districts

Objective  Balanced Regional Development: Transforming Aspirational Districts Achieve balanced development in India by uplifting 115 districts, curre

Chapter # 34. Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Classes (OBCs), Other Tribal Groups and Minorities

SCs, STs, OBCs, De-Notified Tribes (DNTs), Nomadic Tribes (NTs) and Semi-Nomadic Tribes (SNTs) Objective  To accelerate the socio-economic developm

Chapter # 33. Senior Citizens, Persons with Disability and Transgender Persons

SENIOR CITIZENS  Objective To ensure a life of dignity, social security and safety for senior citizens, enabling them to actively participate in econ

Chapter # 32. Gender

Objective  To create an enabling environment, sans institutional and structural barriers. To enhance the female labour force participation rate to at

Chapter # 31. Nutrition

Objectives  Under POSHAN Abhiyaan, achieve the following outcomes by 2022-23, compared to the baseline of 2015-16 (National Family Health Survey-4):

Chapter # 30. Universal Health Coverage

Objectives  On the strong platform of Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY): Attain a coverage of at least 75 per cent of the population

Chapter # 29. Human Resources for Health

Objectives  Achieve a doctor-population ratio of at least 1:1400 (WHO norm 1:1000) and nurse-population ratio of at least 1:500 (WHO norm 1:400) by 2

Chapter # 28. Comprehensive Primary Health Care

Objectives  Under Ayushman Bharat, scale-up a new vision for comprehensive primary health care across the country, built on the platform of health an

Chapter # 27. Public Health Management and Action

Objectives  To revamp radically the public and preventive health system in the nation through the following strategic interventions: Mobilize public

Chapter # 26. Skill Development

Obejctives  For harnessing the demographic advantage that it enjoys, India needs to build the capacity and infrastructure for skilling/reskilling/up-

Chapter # 25. Teacher Education and Training

Objectives There cannot be a quality education system without quality teachers. Therefore, a thorough revamp of the entire ecosystem of teacher educat

Chapter # 24. Higher Education

Objectives  Increase the gross enrolment ratio (GER) in higher education from 25 per cent in 2016-17 to 35 per cent by 2022-23. Make higher education

23. School Education

Objectives Universal access and retention: o Hundred per cent enrolment and retention at elementary education and secondary education levels; achieve

Chapter # 22. Sustainable Environment

Objective  The objective is to maintain a clean, green and healthy environment with peoples’ participation to support higher and inclusive economic

Chapter # 21. Water Resources

Objectives By 2022-23, India’s water resources management strategy should facilitate water security to ensure adequate availability of water for l

Chapter # 20. Swash Bharat Mission

Objectives The key objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission include: 1. Making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by October 2, 2019. 2. Carrying out ext

Chapter # 19.Smart Cities for Urban Transformation

Objectives  Leverage the ‘Smart Cities’ concept in select urban clusters to: Drive job creation and economic growth. Significantly improve effici

Chapter # 18. Digital Connectivity

Objectives Given the relevance of digital connectivity to economic growth and the need to eliminate the digital divide by 2022-23, India should aim to

Chapter # 17. Logistics

Objectives Achieve multi-modal movement of cargo on par with global logistics standards. Reduce the logistics cost to less than 10 per cent of GDP fro

Chapter # 16.Ports, Shipping and Inland Waterways

Objectives  Double the share of freight transported by coastal shipping and inland waterways from 6 per cent in 2016-171 to 12 per cent by 2025. Incr

Chapter # 15. Civil Aviation

Objectives Enhance the affordability of flying to enable an increase in domestic ticket sales from 103.75 million in 2016-171 to 300 million by 2022.2

Chapter # 14. Railways

Objectives By 2022-23, India should have a rail network that is not only efficient, reliable and safe, but is also cost-effective and accessible, both

Chapter # 13. Surface Transport

Objectives Increasing the coverage and quality of roads and highways is critical to enhancing connectivity and internal and external trade. By 2022-23

Chapter # 12. Energy

Objectives The government’s on-going energy sector policies aim “to provide access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy”. At t

Chapter # 11. Minerals

Objectives Double the area explored from 10 per cent of obvious geological potential (OGP) area to 20 per cent.1 Accelerate the growth of the mining s

Chapter # 10. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality

Objectives  Increase India’s share in global international tourist arrivals from 1.18 per cent to 3 per cent. Increase the number of foreign touris

Chapter # 9. Housing For All

Objectives Provide every family with a pucca house, with a water connection, toilet facilities, and 24×7 electricity supply and access. Build 2.9

Chapter # 8. Financial Inclusion

Objectives Banking for the unbanked  o Bank accounts: Ensuring universal access to bank accounts, which are a gateway to all financial services.  o

Chapter # 7.Doubling Farmers’ Income (III): Value Chain & Rural Infrastructure

Objectives • Transform the rural economy through the creation of modern rural infrastructure and an integrated value chain system. • Leverage the

Chapter # 6.Doubling Farmers’ Income (II): Policy & Governance

Objectives Create a policy environment that enables income security for farmers, whilst maintaining India’s food security. Encourage the participati

Chapter # 5.Doubling Farmers’ Income (I): Modernizing Agriculture

Objectives • Modernize agricultural technology, increase productivity, efficiency and crop diversification. • Generate income and employment throu

Chapter # 4.Industry

Objectives Double the current growth rate of the manufac-turing sector by 2022. Promote in a planned manner the adoption of the latest technology adva

Chapter # 3. Technology and Innovation

Objectives India should be among the top 50 countries in the Global Innovation Index by 2022-23.1 Five of our scientific research institutions should

Chapter # 2.Employment and Labour Reforms

Objectives Complete codification of central labour laws into four codes by 2019. Increase female labour force participation to at least 30 per cent by

Chapter # 1 Growth (India @ 75)

Objectives Steadily accelerate the gross domestic product(GDP) growth rate to achieve a target of about 8 per cent during 2018-23 This will raise the


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