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CHANDRAYAAN-2

CHANDRAYAAN-2

  • Chandrayaan-2, is India’s second lunar exploration mission. Developed by the ISRO, the mission is planned to be launched to the Moon by a Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV), includes a lunar orbiter, a lender and a lunar rover, all developed by India.
  • India is gearing up to launch Chandrayaan-2 by end of 2016 or beginning of 2017. In January 2013, India has decided to go all alone in its second lunar mission, Chandrayaan-2, which was originally proposed as an lndo-Russia venture, as Russia pulled out after one of its mission failed.
  • According to ISRO, this mission will use and test various new technologies and conduct ‘new’ experiments. The wheeled rover will move on the lunar surface and will pick up soil or rock samples for on-site chemical analysis.
  • The data will be sent to Earth through the Chandrayaan-2 orbiter. The team headed by Mylswamy Annadurai that was behind the success of the Chandrayaan-1 mission, is working on Chandrayaan-2.
  • ISRO will have the prime responsibility for the orbiter and rover, while Roscosmos will be responsible for the lander.
  • The design of the space craft was completed in August 2009, with scientists of both countries conducting a joint review.

DESIGN

SPACE CRAFT | CHANDRAYAAN-2

The mission is planned to fly on a GSLV Mk II with an approximate lift-off weight of 2,650 kg from Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island.

ORBITER

The orbiter will orbit the Moon at an altitude of 200km. The mission would carry five payloads on the orbiter. The approximate launch mass will be 1,400 kg. CHANDRAYAAN-2

LANDER

Unlike Chandrayaan-1’s lunar probe, which impacted the Moon’s surface, the lender will make a soft landing. The approximate weight of the lander and rover is 1,250 kg.

ROVER

The rover will weigh 30-100 kg and will operate on solar power. The rover will move on wheels on the lunar surface, pick up samples of soil or rocks, perform chemical analysis and send the data to the orbiter above, which will relay it to the Earth station. lIT Kanpur is developing three subsystems to provide mobility:

  1. Stereoscopic camera based 3D vision – will provide the ground team controlling the rovers a 3D view of the surrounding terrain.
  2. Kinematic traction control – will enable the rover to negotiate the rough lunar terrain using independent steering provided on four of its wheels.
  3. Control and motor dynamics – The rover will have six wheels, each driven by an independent electric motor. Four of the wheels will also be capable of independent steering. A total of 10 electric motors will be used for traction and steering.

PAYLOADS | CHANDRAYAAN-2

  • ISRO has announced that an expert committee has decided on five payloads for the orbiter, and two for the rover.
  • While it was initially reported that NASA and ESA would participate in the mission by providing some scientific instruments for the orbiter, ISRO has later clarified that due to weight restrictions it will not be carrying foreign payloads on this mission.

ORBITER PAYLOAD

  • Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer (CLASS) and Solar X-ray monitor (XSM) for mapping major elements present on the lunar surface.
  • L and S band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) for probing the first few tens of metres of the lunar surface for the presence of different constituents, including water ice. SAR is expected to provide further evidence confirming the presence of water ice below the shadowed regions of the Moon.
  • Imaging IR Spectrometer (IIRS) for mapping of lunar surface over a wide wavelength range for the study of minerals, water molecules and hydroxyl present.
  • Neutral Mass Spectrometer (ChACE-2) to carry out a detailed study of the lunar exosphere.
  • Terrain Mapping Camera-2 (TMC-2) for preparing a three-dimensional map essential for studying the lunar mineralogy and geology. CHANDRAYAAN-2

ROVER PAYLOAD

  • Laser induced Breakdown Spectroscope (LIBS)
  • Alpha Particle Induced X-ray Spectroscope (APIXS)
    There are plans to include a seismometer to study Moon-quakes. CHANDRAYAAN-2

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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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