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Public Administration by G.Rajput

New Public Management (NPM)

December 3, 2019

The term New Public Management (NPM) emerged in the beginning of the 1990s in response to the challenges of   globalization, international competitiveness, and technological change.  It is argued that it represents a paradigm shift from a traditional model of public administration, dominant for most of the 20th century to managerial-ism or what is popularly known as the New Public Management.  NPM seeks […]

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Development Administration: Concept and Features

November 26, 2019

The essence of development administration is to bring about change through integrated, organised and properly directed governmental action. In the recent past the governments in most of the developing nations have shifted their focus on development by means of planned change and people’s participation. With this shift of administrative concern towards developmental objectives the researchers […]

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CHRIS ARGYRIS

November 19, 2019

Chris Argyris was basically a psychologist who studied organisation from the stand point of psychology. He has dwelt on length on the social and psychological needs of the organisation and the demands of an organisation.Chris Argyris has extensively applied the research findings of psychology, social psychology and human relations in the study of organisations. He studied […]

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William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations!

November 18, 2019

William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations! William Ouchi developed Theory Z after making a comparative study of Japanese and American management practices. Theory Z is an integrated model of motivation. Theory Z suggests that large complex organisations are human systems and their effectiveness depends on the quality of humanism used. A type […]

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Scientific Management Movement

November 5, 2019

Scientific Management Movement Management is the art of getting things done. There have been two important events in history which influenced the nature of the organizations and organizational management. Enlightenment (Renaissance- 16th Century)– This was the era where there was restlessness and rejection pertaining to control of church, irrationality, superstitions, unscientific approaches, feudalism, monarchies etc. This […]

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Contribution of Administration Thinkers.

November 5, 2019

Here we are giving the Significant Works and Ideas of Administrative Thinkers which will help the candidates. Public Administration Thinkers | Administrative Thinkers Name Who Important Concepts Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 American Psychologist and Motivation Theorist Hierarchy of needs Self-actualisation Peak experiences Chester, I. Barnard 1886-1961 American Executive and Management Thinker Acceptance theory of authority and […]

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Salient features of Indian Constitution

November 2, 2019

The Constitution of India is considered as a distinctive constitution around the globe. It is the largest written liberal democratic constitution of the world. It offers for a mixture of federalism and Unitarianism, and flexibility and with rigidity. The Constitution of India was outlined by a Constituent Assembly. This Assembly was an indirectly chosen body. […]

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Bureaucracy and development

November 2, 2019

Bureaucracy as an organization is expected to play a pivotal role, in process of development. The concept of Development Administration had originated in U.S.A. and as such bureaucratic systems are expected to be effective instruments to achieve objectives of development. With their emphasis on rules and regulations, division of labour, hierarchy, role specialists, rationality, impersonally […]

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Political culture

November 1, 2019

POLITICAL CULTURE: Political culture can be defined as “The orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, and their perceptions of political legitimacy and the tradition of political practice,” and the feelings expressed by individuals in the position of the elected offices that allow for the nurture of a political society. Political culture is […]

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Constitutionalism

November 1, 2019

In the present post, we will briefly understand the definitions relating to constitution, constitutional law, constitutionalism and metaconstitution.   Constitution means the codified bare text of the constitution and Constitutional law means the constitution as interpreted and construed by the courts.This interpretation or the construction which the courts do to the constitution is called constitutional […]

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Multiple Regulatory Bodies in India – Issues & Suggestions

October 4, 2019

Regulatory body is an organization set up by the Government to monitor, guide and control a particular sector such as banking, insurance, education or healthcare. The number of regulatory bodies in India has increased greatly after the economic liberalization of 1991 when the government gradually transformed itself from player to umpire. Today, we’ve independent regulators for most of […]

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Pert and CPM

September 27, 2019

Project management can be understood as a systematic way of planning, scheduling, executing, monitoring, controlling the different aspects of the project, so as to attain the goal made at the time of project formulation. PERT and CPM are the two network-based project management techniques, which exhibit the flow and sequence of the activities and events. Program […]

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O and M Working in India

September 25, 2019

Organisation and Methods (O & M) The Meaning of O and M-The O and M is an abbreviation for Organization and Methods’. O & M work means reviewing the internal organization and procedures of any administrative agency with a view to suggest improvements so as a ensure greater efficiency in its working Efficiency is of […]

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PPP model of Indian government-Examples

September 23, 2019

Some of the successful or failure examples of PPP models of Indian government are:- CASES OF SUCCESSFUL PPP MODELS: 1.) IN TRANSPORT SECTOR: A.) SECOND VIVEKANANDA BRIDGE (now Sister Nivedita Bridge) in Kolkata:- >>This bridge is one the first BOT projects, undertaken in 1995. BOT was one of the earliest model of PPP. Other than […]

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Riggs model of Comparative Public Administration

September 16, 2019

Fred Riggs Every culture offers support and obstacles to change and development. Fred Riggs wanted to demonstrate how external conditions influence administrative systems. Three Tools: Ecological approach Structural – Functional Ideal models.   Ecological Approach: Administration is one subsystem of a society and so is influenced by other subsystems viz. political, social, cultural and economic dimensions. […]

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HERBERT A. SIMON

August 18, 2019

DECISION-MAKING SCHOOL OF THOUGHT Herbert Simon was an American social scientist who began his career in local government. His early interest is evaluating the efficiency of different methods of local administration led him to the new field of `operations research’. He was Director of the Social Science Research Council and Nuclear Science and Engineering Corporation. […]

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Comparison of Human Relations School with the Classical School

August 18, 2019

Comparison of Human Relations School of Thought with the Classical School Human Relations Theory of George Elton Mayo is basically built upon the successes and not on the failures of classical theory i.e. it is not that the ideas of the structural school of thought were totally discarded by the scholars of the Human Relations […]

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Elton Mayo

August 18, 2019

Elton Mayo  The development of the human relations theory can be traced back to the contributions of the Hugo Munster Berg and Elton Mayo and his colleagues. Hugo Munster Berg– is widely recognised as the founder of the concept of Industrial Psychology and he published his book ‘Psychology and Industrial Efficiency’ in 1913. He developed […]

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Critical Appraisal of Theory of Principles (or Classical Theory)

August 8, 2019

Classical school Public Administration The thinking in the Classical School of thought which believes in organisational principles was influenced by the writings of Henry Fayol. Since he was the one who for the first time advocated the functional division of work, he is called the earliest “Functionalist”. Also for the attempt on his part to […]

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Can you explain ‘Civil Services Activism’ in India with examples?

March 19, 2019

Civil services’ activism includes all or any of those proactive steps which are taken by civil servants to make the system/administration more people centric, transparent, efficient and abiding by constitutional values. It may include gamut of activities like civil servants holding regular public meetings, asking for people’s feedback, making people aware of their rights, ensuring […]

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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

February 21, 2019

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory was proposed by Victor. H. Vroom, who believed that people are motivated to perform activities to achieve some goal to the extent they expect that certain actions on their part would help them to achieve the goal. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is based on the assumption that an individual’s behavior results from the choices […]

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Chester Barnard

January 31, 2019

Chester barnard Without discussing his background and life, I will directly come to Chester barnard’s theory.He has highlighted three elements in an organization Common Purpose– Objective Purpose– He refers to the organizational purpose or the common purpose. He calls this as individual’s purpose or individual’s goal. Unless the individuals come together, cooperate with each other, […]

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Difference Between Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy

January 31, 2019

The economic position of a country can be monitored, controlled and regulated by the sound economic policies. The fiscal and monetary policies of the nation are the two measures, which can help in bringing stability and developing smoothly.Fiscal policy is the policy relating to government revenues from taxes and expenditure on various projects. Monetary Policy, on the […]

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Monetary Policy Committee

January 29, 2019

The Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 (RBI Act) has been amended by the Finance Act, 2016,  to provide for a statutory and institutionalised framework for a Monetary Policy Committee, for maintaining price stability, while keeping in mind the objective of growth. The Monetary Policy Committee would be entrusted with the task of fixing the […]

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Mary Parker Follet (1866-1933).

January 28, 2019

 Ideas of Mary Parker Follet’s are a bridge between the classical school of thought and the Behavioural School of Thought. She gave a socio-psychological dimension to the study of organisational theory. Her ideas found expression in his book Creative Experience (1924). Some of her ideas are given in the following paragraphs in short: Mary Parker […]

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ELTOM MAYO- First enquiry

January 25, 2019

George Elton Mayo is considered as one of the pioneers of the human relations movement. Elton Mayo advocated a humanistic not mechanistic employer-employee relationship. The workers in an organization should be treated with self-esteem and dignity rather than mere factors in production or mere cogs in machine. Elton Mayo advocated the concept of looking at organizations as […]

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MCGREGOR’S THEORY X and theory Y

January 25, 2019

Introduction  Douglas Mcgregor is a behaviorist and social psychologist of repute. He is a strong believer in the potentialities of human beings in contributing to organizational performance. His work, “The Human Side of Enterprise” (1960) opened new vistas in organisation and management theory through providing answers to some of the intriguing questions. Later he published […]

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MASLOW’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION

January 25, 2019

MASLOW’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION Maslow ‘in his classic paper ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’ published in 1943 outlined an overall theory of motivation. He analyzed the relationship flanked by the human beings and organisations from the stand point of ‘human needs’. Human beings become members of organisations to fulfill their needs. These needs arise in […]

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NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

January 25, 2019

NEW PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION New Public Administration is an anti-positivist, anti-technical, and anti-hierarchical reaction against traditional public administration. HISTORY New Public Administration traces it origins to the first Minnowbrook Conference held in 1968 under the patronage of Dwight Waldo. The 1960s in the USA was a time of unusual social and political turbulence and upheaval. In […]

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APPROACHES OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

January 25, 2019

APPROACHES OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION APPROACHES OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION Ideal or Bureaucratic Approach Bureaucratic specifications are studied for reaching conclusions and developing understanding. Under this approach structures of organisations are analyzed in conditions of their horizontal differentiation, vertical differentiation, span of controlled. Procedures and rules are analyzed and the framework of functioning is determined. Job […]

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CURRENT STATUS OF COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

January 25, 2019

After the decline of the comparative administration group (CAG) in the early 1970’s,there was a lull in this field due to several factors like theoretical and fact based revise was only done and so there was problem in the applicability of those models and USA was going through a bad stage in the Vietnamese war […]

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Budgetary Process

February 13, 2018

The budget process in India, like in most other countries, comprises  four distinct phases. Budget formulation: the preparation of estimates of expenditure and receipts for the ensuing financial year; Budget enactment: approval of the proposed Budget by the Legislature through the enactment of Finance Bill and Appropriation Bill; Budget execution: enforcement of the provisions in […]

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FRBM Act

February 13, 2018

The FRBM Act is a fiscal sector legislation enacted by the government of India in 2003, aiming to ensure fiscal discipline for the centre by setting targets including reduction of fiscal deficits and elimination of revenue deficit.  It is a legal step to ensure fiscal discipline and fiscal consolidation in India.            The targets set […]

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Self Help Groups

February 11, 2018

Self Help Groups (SHG) are mentioned in the GS Paper 2 as per the latest UPSC Mains Syllabus. SHG related questions can also be expected in Prelims as well as in the Essay Paper of Mains. This article is based on July 2013 Kurukshetra magazine, and intends to give a gist about SHGs. UPSC syllabus […]

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Anti Development thesis.

February 11, 2018

After the WWII, European reconstruction was undertaken under ‘Marshall Plan’ to rebuild war-devastated economies of European countries. This became prevailing western model of development –   development through aid.   Keynesian philosophy of state led development and United Nations support further set context for development administration.   The western countries started the path of ‘Development’ […]

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Budgetary procedure in India

February 11, 2018

The budgetary procedure in India involves four different operations that are Preparation of the budget Enactment of the budget Execution of the budget Parliamentary control over finance Preparation of the budget The exercise of the preparation of the budget by the ministry of finance starts sometimes around in the month of September every year. There […]

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Controller General of Accounts

February 10, 2018

Duties and Functions of Controller General of Accounts (CGA) The information regarding accounts of the union government are released / disseminated by the Controller General of Accounts (CGA). These include data related to budget estimates, fiscal / revenue deficits etc. Kindly note the below facts for your examinations: CGA works under the Ministry of Finance, […]

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Accounts and Audit

February 10, 2018

Accounts Francis Oakey defines the term as “Accounting is the science of producing promptly and presetting clearly the facts relating to financial conditions and operations that are required as a basis of management.” In the words of L. D. White “The primary functions of a system of accounts are to make a financial record) to […]

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Monetary Policy of India 

February 10, 2018

Monetary Policy of India   You might have heard of the term Monetary Policy in Economy class. Recently there were many changes in the way Monetary Policy of India is formed – with the introduction of Monetary Policy Framework (MPF), Monetary Policy Committee (MPC), and Monetary Policy Process (MPP). Why should a country need a monetary policy? […]

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ADMINISTRATIVE LAW – Meaning,Nature and Scope

February 3, 2018

Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of the government which comprise of rule making or legislation(when delegated to them by the Legislature as and when the need be),adjudication(to pronounce decisions while giving judgements on certain matters),implementation/enforcement of public policy. SCOPE: Administrative law determines the organization, powers and duties of […]

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Dicey on Administrative Law

February 3, 2018

According to Dicey, Administrative Law is that portion of a nation’s legal system which determines the legal status and liabilities of all state officials and defines the rights and liabilities of private individuals in their dealing with public officials. It also specifies the procedures by which those rights and liabilities are enforced) The above definition […]

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Delegated Legislation

February 3, 2018

In order to reduce pressure on parliamentary time acts of parliament often give Government Ministers or opt per authorities the power to regulate administration details by means risk that delegating powers to executive might undermine the authority of parliament,” such powers are normally only gate —to authorities directing accountable to parliament. The relevant Acts sometimes […]

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ADMINISTRATIVE TRIBUNAL

February 3, 2018

With the acceptance of Welfare ideology, there was a mushroom growth of public services and public servants. The courts, particularly the High Courts were inundated with cases concerning service matters. The Swaran Singh Committee therefore, inter-alia recommended the establishment of Administrative Tribunals as a part of Constitutional adjudicative system. Resultantly the Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, […]

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Tribunals in India

February 3, 2018

Tribunals were added in the Constitution by Constitution (Forty-second Amendment) Act, 1976 as Part XIV-A, which has only two articles viz. 323-A and 323-B. While article 323-A deals with Administrative Tribunals; article 323-B deals with tribunals for other matters. In general sense, the ‘tribunals’ are not courts of normal jurisdiction, but they have very specific […]

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Growth of Administrative Law in India

February 3, 2018

The term Rule of Law of got from French phase ‘la principle de legalite’ which implies the principle of legality. It refers to an administration in view of standards of principles and not of man. Edward Coke is said to be the originator of this idea. MEANING of Administrative LAW : Administrative law is the body […]

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STRONG STATE VERSUS THE MARKET DEBATE:

January 13, 2018

STRONG STATE VERSUS THE MARKET DEBATE: There has been a constant debate as to what shall be the instrumental influencing factor for the economic arrangement and economic development of a organised state. This is very important because economic development has a very big impact on the development of a nation. There is a question as […]

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Concept of Development

January 13, 2018

Concept of Development Development is quite dynamic concept. It is ever changing. The concept of development is neither new nor old. It has been in existence since the human civilization began in different aspects. The nature of development has continuously evolved from what it was in 19th century to 1950s to 1990s. “The Commission on International […]

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Impact of Liberalization on Administration in Developing Countries

January 13, 2018

Impact of Liberalization on Administration in Developing Countries Liberalisation means relaxation of government controls in the spheres of economic and social policy. It has come to be equated with commitment to market orientation of the economy, deregulation, privatization, state withdrawal from many activities of the economy, integration with the global economy and reducing the public […]

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Self Help Groups(women)

January 12, 2018

What is a self-help group (SHG)? Self-Help Groups are informal associations of people who choose to come together to find ways to improve their living conditions. They help to build Social Capital among the poor, especially women. The most important functions of a Self-Help Groups are (a) to encourage and motivate its members to save, […]

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Critic of Anti-Development Thesis

January 12, 2018

There is a large body of works which are critical of post-development theory and its proponents. It has been noted that post-development theory sees all development as imposed upon the developing world by the West. This dualist perspective of development may be unrealistic, and Marc Edelman notes that a large proportion of development has risen […]

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Anti-Development Thesis

January 12, 2018

Anti-Development Thesis After the WWII, European reconstruction was undertaken under ‘Marshall Plan’ to rebuild war-devastated economies of European countries. This became prevailing western model of development –  development through aid.   Keynesian philosophy of state led development and United Nations support further set context for development administration.(Anti-Development Thesis)   The western countries started the path […]

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Dichotomy

January 12, 2018

Dichotomy The Politics-administration dichotomy is a theory that constructs the boundaries of public administration and asserts the normative relationship between elected officials and administrators in a democratic society. The phrase politics-administration dichotomy itself does not appear to have a known inventor, even after exhaustive research, the combination of words that make up the phrase was […]

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Current Status of Comparative Public Administration

January 11, 2018

Current Status of Comparative Public Administration The contemporary comparative public administration is concerned with the complexities of social change in the context of modernization and diversity. These complexities are:       What really is modernization?       What role does diversity play in modernization?       What are the context specific processes of modernization?       What is the […]

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Comparative Public Administration

January 9, 2018

COMPARATIVE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION DEFINITION Comparative public administration is defined as the revise of administrative systems in a comparative fashion or the revise of public administration in other countries. Another definition for “comparative public administration” is the “quest for patterns and regularities in administrative action and behavior”. It looks to test the effectiveness of the Classical […]

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Fredrick Taylor

December 31, 2017

Fredrick Taylor At the turn of the 20th century, the American engineer, Frederick Winslow Taylor, proposed scientific methodologies to improve the productivity of shop floors at large plants. He argued that labour problems such as low productivity, high turnover, soldiering, and a conflict-driven relationship between management and staff were caused by improper production and organisation […]

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Woodrow Wilson Politics-Administration Dichotomy

December 29, 2017

TheWoodrow Wilson Politics-administration dichotomy is a theory that constructs the boundaries of public administration and asserts the normative relationship between elected officials and administrators in a democratic society.  The phrase politics-administration dichotomy itself does not appear to have a known inventor, even after exhaustive research, the combination of words that make up the phrase was first […]

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Sociology lecture 2 by ILA TRIPATHI

August 1, 2017

Sociology lecture 2 by ILA TRIPATHI Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_ZGF8DdR_Ag”

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Minnowbrook Conference-III

December 8, 2015

Minnowbrook Conference-III The Academic-Practitioner RelationshipThis conference took place during September, 2008. It was chaired by Rosemary O’Leary. It was conducted in two phases. The first phase was a pre-conference phase. In this conference, the young and emerging scholars of public administration were asked to contribute a five page critique of public administration. Almost 56 proposals […]

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Procedure Established by Law vs Due Process of Law

April 24, 2015

In this post we shall see two important terms often cited in Supreme Court Judgments – Procedure Established by Law and Due Process of Law – their meanings and significance. The former is Indian constitutional doctrine and the latter is American, but now the boundaries are very narrow. Let’s start our discussion with Article 21 of […]

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MOTIVATION

May 25, 2014

What is Motivation? Motivation is the answer to the question “Why we do what we do?”. The motivation theories try to figure out what the “M” is in the equation: “M motivates P” (Motivator motivates the Person). It is one of most important duty of an entrepreneur to motivate people. (I strongly belive that motivating […]

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NEW PUBLIC-ADMINISTRATION

August 31, 2013

Introduction During 1960s the American society was in dismay and the citizens were full of grievances. In such a scenario the scholars got together to reduce the administrative deficit in theory and practice.NPA presents an alternative normative model for governance. It was an outcome of the critic of traditional administration. It was advocated by young […]

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Human relation theory/ELTON MAYO

August 22, 2013

Human relation theory/ELTON MAYO -This theory came as a reaction to the classical approach, which stressed on formal structure. -The classical school neglected the human side and under emphasized on the socio-psychological aspect of organisation. -George Elton Mayo was in charge of certain experiments on human behavior carried out at the Hawthorne Works of the […]

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SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT(FREDRICK TAYLOR)

August 20, 2013

SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT INTRODUCTION 19TH century was the period of industrial revolution and there was an expansion of business. This led to new problems and there was need for optimum utilization of resources .Many theories were proposed for national and integrated development of industry. One such theory was scientific management. The theory of scientific management developed […]

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PUBLIC CHOICE APPROACH

August 20, 2013

Public Choice Approach  Public choice approach is the application of economics in the study of public administration. This approach is advocated by Chicago school of economists such as Vincent ostram and niskanen during 1960s.It was suggested as a method to improve the performance of government in quality delivery of goods and services.

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MARRY PARKER FOLLET

August 20, 2013

Mary Parker Follet Introduction She is regarded as a bridge between classical approach and human relation – behavioral approach. She was the first one to highlight the sociological and psychological aspects of administration. She viewed organization as a social system and administration and a social process As a classical thinker she believed in universality of […]

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WOODROW WILSON

August 13, 2013

INTRODUCTION Woodrow Wilson was an American president and is considered to be the father of public administration due to his pioneering contribution in the form of essay i.e the study of administration in 1887.This is considered to be the origin of public administration as a discipline. He called for a detailed study of administration which […]

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