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BUDGET

January 21, 2020

BUDGET Budget refers to the ‘annual financial statement’ for the coming year. The word ‘Budget’ is not specifically mentioned under any Provision of the constitution. Under Article 112, President shall cause annual financial statement of Government of India to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament. Budget consists of two parts: Revenue part Expenditure […]

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Conventions and Ordinance

January 21, 2020

Conventions and Ordinance CONVENTIONS | Conventions and Ordinance Conventions refer to practices which are followed from an earlier time period. Conventions are not mentioned in law, but they are also legally binding. Certain examples of conventions followed in our country are President’s assent to a money bill Caretaker Government is expected to restrict itself to […]

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Immunities and Parliamentary Privileges

January 21, 2020

Immunities and Parliamentary Privileges Immunity refers to protection, and Parliamentary privileges refer to special rights enjoyed by the Parliament, its committees, and its members. Immunities and privileges are necessary in order to secure the independence, effective, and non-interrupted functioning of Parliament. The Constitution has also extended the Parliamentary privileges to those persons who are entitled […]

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 BILLS

January 21, 2020

BILLS A bill is a legislative draft. A bill when passed by both the houses of Parliament and given Presidential assent becomes a law. Types of Bills: Public Bill and Private Bill |  BILLS Public Bill                                             Private Bill It is introduced in the Parliament by a minister. It is introduced in the Parliament by […]

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PARLIAMENTARY PROCEEDINGS

January 13, 2020

Parliamentary Proceedings Question Hour Generally, the first hour of a sitting in Lok Sabha is devoted to Questions and that hour is called the Question Hour. Asking of questions is an inherent and unfettered parliamentary right of members. It has a special significance in the proceedings of Parliament. It is during the Question Hour that […]

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Sessions of Parliament

January 13, 2020

Sessions of Parliament Under Article 85, the Houses of Parliament shall be summoned in such a manner that six months shall not lapse between two sessions of Parliament. By convention, the Parliament meets in three regular sessions in a calendar year apart from the special sessions. The regular and special sessions of Parliament are convened […]

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Delimitation of Constituencies 

January 13, 2020

Delimitation of Constituencies  Delimitation of constituencies refers to redrawal of constituencies based on latest census figures. Under Article 81, every Lok Sabha constituency shall be rearranged on the basis of latest census figures in such a manner that the ratio between population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to the constituency shall […]

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Speaker of Lok Sabha 

January 13, 2020

Speaker of Lok Sabha Speaker performs two roles: Presiding officer: Speaker is a Presiding officer of Lok Sabha. He is responsible for maintaining order and decorum in the house. In his capacity as a presiding officer of house, he is not answerable to court of law. Administrative head of Lok Sabha: As an administrative head […]

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LOK SABHA

January 13, 2020

LOK SABHA Lok Sabha is also called the popular house because the members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the people. Strength and Composition of Lok Sabha The strength of Lok Sabha is 545 members. Of these, 543 members are directly elected by the people from their respective territorial constituencies. President may also nominate […]

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RAJYA SABHA

January 13, 2020

RAJYA SABHA Rajya Sabha is the representative body of states (rajya) at the level of union legislature. Rajya Sabha is expected to represent interest of various states. Therefore, it is also called Council of States. Strength and Composition The total strength of Rajya Sabha is 245 members. Constitution prescribes the strength of Rajya Sabha to […]

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UNION LEGISLATURE

January 13, 2020

UNION LEGISLATURE In India, the union legislature is called Parliament. Parliament includes Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, and the President. President is not a Member of Parliament but an integral part of the Parliament because of the legislative powers assigned to him. A bill becomes law only after assent by the President. Union Legislature in other […]

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ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIA

January 13, 2020

ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIA The Constitution under Article 76 has provided for the office of the Attorney General of India. He is the highest law officer in the country. Appointment Attorney General of India is appointed by the President. President appoints a person as Attorney General if he or she is qualified to be appointed […]

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 LIST OF MINISTRIES AND THEIR DEPARTMENTS (AS ON 31ST MARCH, 2017)

January 13, 2020

LIST OF MINISTRIES AND THEIR DEPARTMENTS (AS ON 31ST MARCH, 2017) Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare Department of Agricultural Research and Education (DARE) Department of Agriculture, Cooperation, and Farmers Welfare Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Fisheries Ministry of AYUSH Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers Department of Chemicals and Petrochemicals Department of Fertilizers Department […]

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COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

January 13, 2020

COUNCIL OF MINISTERS The Council of Ministers (COMs) is headed by the Prime Minister. Council of Ministers is the real executive as powers of the Union are exercised by Council of Ministers. Ministers are appointed by President on the advice of Prime Minister. Resignation by Ministers Central Ministers submit written resignations to Prime Minister of […]

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PRIME MINISTER

January 13, 2020

PRIME MINISTER Prime Minister (PM) is the head of Council of Ministers. While other ministers are at par with each other, Prime Minister is considered to be the ‘First among equals’. The position of Prime Minister among Union Ministers is also described as that of ‘Moon among Stars’. Prime Minister is the leader of the […]

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VICE-PRESIDENT

January 13, 2020

VICE-PRESIDENT Vice-President of India is also the ex-officio Chairperson of Rajya Sabha. ‘Ex-officio’ refers that by virtue of holding one office person is given another office. Vice-President can act as President in case of sudden death, resignation, illness, absence, or impeachment of President. Election of Vice-President The Vice-President is elected by members of an electoral […]

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FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

January 13, 2020

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES   WHAT ARE FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES? Constitution does not define fundamental duties (FDs). For our understanding, we can define them as expectations of State from its citizens. They can also be defined as guidelines for a responsible citizen. On the recommendation of Swaran Singh Committee, fundamental duties were incorporated under Art. 51A by 42nd […]

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DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY

January 13, 2020

DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY   Directive Principles are the directions to be followed by state while formulation and implementation of a policy. Article 36 Definition of state as mentioned under fundamental rights is also applicable to directive principles of state policy (DPSP). Thus, the definition of State is same for both Part III and […]

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SUSPENSION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

January 13, 2020

SUSPENSION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS During the period of emergency, the State is empowered to suspend the fundamental rights. The term ‘State’ is used here in the same sense in which it has been used in the chapter on fundamental rights. It means that the power to suspend the operation of these fundamental rights is vested […]

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EMERGENCE OF DOCTRINE OF BASIC STRUCTURE OF CONSTITUTION

January 13, 2020

EMERGENCE OF DOCTRINE OF BASIC STRUCTURE OF CONSTITUTION Among other provisions, 1st Amendment Act, 1951, introduced restrictions in Article 19(1)(g) (State can acquire any business partially or completely in the interest of general public) and introduced Art. 31A and 31B. These articles reduced the scope of fundamental rights and thus were challenged in Shankari Prasad […]

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 AMENDABILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

January 13, 2020

AMENDABILITY OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS Supreme Court held in Kesavananda Bharati case (1974) that Parliament can amend any part of the constitution including fundamental rights subject to ‘Doctrine of Basic Structure’ of the Constitution. Supreme Court has neither defined basic structure nor given any exhaustive list as to what comprises the basic structure of constitution. However, […]

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   FEATURES OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS             

January 13, 2020

FEATURES OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS Fundamental rights are individual rights. They are enforced against the state. However, some of these rights are enforced both against the state as well as the individuals such as entry to public places [Art. 15(2)], untouchability (Art. 17), right against exploitation (Art. 23 and Art. 24). Fundamental rights are guaranteed by […]

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     EXCEPTIONS TO FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

January 13, 2020

EXCEPTIONS TO FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS There are two kinds of exceptions to fundamental rights: Specific exceptions: These exceptions are given within the fundamental right itself. For instance, there are various exceptions to Freedom of Speech and Expression such as Sovereignty of India, Security of India, and Friendly Relations with Foreign States. General exceptions: These exceptions are […]

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FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS (ART. 12-35)

January 13, 2020

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS (ART. 12-35) Fundamental rights have not been defined in the constitution. We can understand fundamental rights as those rights which are ‘essential to lead a bare minimum quality of life. Fundamental rights restrain the power of State and in some cases even the discretion of private individuals. Thus, it is important to define […]

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NATIONAL POLITICAL PARTY AND STATE POLITICAL PARTY

January 13, 2020

NATIONAL POLITICAL PARTY AND STATE POLITICAL PARTY Political parties that wish to contest local, state, or national elections are required to be registered with the Election Commission of India (ECI). A registered party enjoys privileges like reserved party symbol, free broadcast time on state run television and radio, consultation in setting of election dates and […]

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DISPUTES REGARDING ELECTIONS

January 13, 2020

DISPUTES REGARDING ELECTIONS All election disputes are to be tried by the respective High Courts. Election petition is the only way to challenge any election. Election can be challenged by a candidate or any voter listed in the electoral roll of that constituency within 45 days of declaration of the result. Trial of the Petition […]

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  ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY FOR THE CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS

January 13, 2020

ADMINISTRATIVE MACHINERY FOR THE CONDUCT OF ELECTIONS   Chief Electoral Officer He/she has the responsibility to supervise the conduct of all the elections in the State. Chief Electoral Officers work under direct supervision and control of the Election Commission. District Election Officer District Election Officer has the responsibility to coordinate and supervise election work relating […]

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  LIMIT ON POLL EXPENSES

January 13, 2020

LIMIT ON POLL EXPENSES There are tight legal limits on the amount of money a candidate can spend during the election campaign. The people who contest the elections to the House of the People and to the Legislative Assembly of a State are required to maintain such accounts. Every candidate at an election shall, either […]

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DECLARATION OF ASSETS

January 13, 2020

DECLARATION OF ASSETS Every elected candidate for a House of Parliament shall, within 90 days from the date on which he makes and subscribes an oath or affirmation, furnish the information to the Chairman of the Council of States or the Speaker of the House of the People, as the case may be, relating to […]

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REPRESENTATION OF PEOPLE’S ACT, 1951 

January 13, 2020

REPRESENTATION OF PEOPLE’S ACT, 1951 The 1951 Law makes provisions for Conduct of elections to Parliament and state legislatures Qualifications and disqualifications Various offences in relation to elections, etc. Important Provisions of Representation of People’s Act, 1951  Qualification for membership of Council of States: A person is required to be a registered voter in any […]

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REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1950

January 13, 2020

REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE ACT, 1950 The 1950 law makes provisions for Allocation of seats in Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies Delimitation of constituencies Qualifications of voters Manner of filling the seats of Rajya Sabha, etc. Important Provisions of Representation of the People Act, 1950 All seats in Lok Sabha are to be filled by […]

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   LOKPAL AND LOKAYUKTA

January 13, 2020

LOKPAL AND LOKAYUKTA It is an anti-corruption authority or ombudsman who represents the public interest. The concept of an ombudsman is borrowed from Sweden. The Lokpal is responsible for enquiring into and prosecuting for corruption charges against union officials. Lokayukta is a state-level anti-corruption ombudsman organization similar to lokpal at national level. Maharashtra was the […]

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CENTRAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION

January 13, 2020

CENTRAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the foremost investigative agency in India. It is under the jurisdiction of the Government of India. The CBI is involved in major criminal probes and is the Interpol agency in India. The CBI was established in 1941 as the Special Police Establishment; later on in […]

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CENTRAL VIGILANCE COMMISSION

January 13, 2020

CENTRAL VIGILANCE COMMISSION Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) is an apex government body created in 1964 on the recommendation of Santhanam committee to address the issue of corruption. It has the status of an autonomous body, free of control from any executive authority, charged with vigilance activity, and advising various authorities in central government organizations in […]

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BLEND OF AMERICAN AND BRITISH MODEL

January 13, 2020

BLEND OF AMERICAN AND BRITISH MODEL Indian constitution is considered a mix of British and American model. Let us understand the similarities and dissimilarities with both of these models. Comparison Between Indian Model and British Model Even though Indian constitutional scheme is in line with British parliamentary system, there are some major differences between the […]

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  FEATURES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION

January 13, 2020

     FEATURES OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION The Indian constitution closely follows the British parliamentary model but differs from it in one important respect, that is the Constitution is supreme not the Parliament. So the Indian courts are vested with the authority to adjudicate on the constitutionality of any law passed by the Parliament. The present […]

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THEORY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS

January 13, 2020

THEORY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS The three organs of the government—Legislature, Executive, and Judiciary—perform the three essential functions of law-making, law-application, and law-adjudication. These three functions are inter-related and inter-dependent. Central Idea of the Theory of Separation  of Powers The theory of separation of powers holds that the three organs of government must be separate […]

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 NATURE OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION: UNITARY OR FEDERAL 

January 13, 2020

NATURE OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION: UNITARY OR FEDERAL The Indian Constitution is neither purely federal nor purely unitary but is a combination of both. Federal Nature of Indian Constitution The word ‘federation’ is no where used in the Indian constitution. However, all the structural features of a federal government are incorporated in the Indian constitution. Dual […]

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TYPES OF MAJORITY

January 13, 2020

TYPES OF MAJORITY 1.Simple majority: It refers to majority among members present and voting. Simple majority is required in the following cases: Ordinary bill Money bill Finance bill No-confidence motion Election of Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha and Legislative Assembly Election of Chairperson and Deputy Chairperson of Rajya Sabha and Legislative Council Approval […]

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TABLE OF PRECEDENCE

January 13, 2020

TABLE OF PRECEDENCE The position of important dignitaries as per the table of precedence is as follows: President Vice-President Prime Minister Governors of states within their respective states Former Presidents 5a. Deputy Prime Minister Chief Justice of India Speaker of Lok Sabha Cabinet ministers of the Union Chief Ministers of states within their respective states […]

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CITIZEN CHARTER

January 11, 2020

CITIZEN CHARTER Citizen charter refers to the document published by a government organization or department which specifies standards of services, reasonable time limit for delivery of services, avenue of grievance redressal on account of non-delivery of services, and mechanism for independent scrutiny of government organisation with public involvement. Its initiative was first implemented in the […]

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CABINET SECRETARIAT

January 11, 2020

CABINET SECRETARIAT The Cabinet Secretariat is responsible for the administration of the Government of India. It functions from the Secretariat Building, New Delhi, where most of the Cabinet of India sits. It comprises a set of two buildings: the North Block and the South Block on opposite sides of Rajpath which are home to some […]

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CENTRAL SECRETARIAT

January 11, 2020

CENTRAL SECRETARIAT The Central Secretariat comprises all the ministers and departments of the Central Government. In other words, Central Government, for the purpose of administration, is divided into various ministries and departments. The Central Secretariat is a totality of such ministries and departments. A ministry generally consists of two to four departments. However, there can […]

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RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT, 2005

January 11, 2020

RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT, 2005   Right to Information Act has been passed with the objective to promote transparency and accountability of any public authority. According to RTI Act, public authority refers to government institutions as well as other institutions substantially funded by the government. PROVISIONS OF RTI ACT The Act recognizes the right of […]

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STATUTORY, REGULATORY AND QUASI-JUDICIAL BODIES

January 11, 2020

STATUTORY, REGULATORY AND QUASI-JUDICIAL BODIES CLASSIFICATION OF STATUTORY, REGULATORY AND QUASI-JUDICIAL BODIES Statutory bodies are those bodies which are created under law. Regulatory bodies are public authorities or government agencies responsible for exercising autonomous authority over some area of economic or government activity in a supervisory capacity. Quasi-judicial bodies are those bodies which are given […]

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SCHEDULES

January 11, 2020

SCHEDULES The original constitution consisted of eight schedules. Four schedules (schedules 9-12) were incorporated into Constitution through amendments. Schedules contain explanations or details of provisions covered under various parts of the Constitution. 1. FIRST SCHEDULE 1. Names of the States and their territorial extent. 2. Names of the Union Territories and their territorial extent. 2. […]

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SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AND AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND ENGLISH PART XXII

January 11, 2020

PART XXII  SHORT TITLE, COMMENCEMENT, AND AUTHORITATIVE TEXT IN HINDI AND ENGLISH   SHORT TITLE (ART. 393) The Constitution may be called the Constitution of India. Commencement (Art. 394): The provisions relating to Citizenship, Election Commission, Definitions shall come into force on 26th November, 1949. Remaining provisions of this constitution shall come into force on […]

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EMPRORARY, TRANSITIONAL AND SPECIAL PROVISIONS PART XXI

January 11, 2020

  Part XXI was introduced in the Constitution to take care of peculiar situation of various states. This part was added to the Constitution with the belief that once the peculiar situation of these states is addressed, this part will be struck off from the Constitution. Thus, this part was given name of temporary, transitional, […]

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AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION (ARTICLE 368)

January 11, 2020

AMENDMENT OF THE CONSTITUTION (ARTICLE 368)   Part XX of the Constitution consists of Article 368 that deals with the powers of Parliament to amend the Constitution and the procedure to carry out constitutional amendment. The amendment procedure is discussed in detail under the topics: Type of Bills. By adopting this procedure, so far 100 […]

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MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS Part XIX

January 11, 2020

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS ARTICLE 361: PROTECTION OF PRESIDENT AND GOVERNORS President or Governor is not answerable to Court of Law in exercise of his or her executive powers. This exception is given because the President or Governor acts on advice of respective Council of Ministers. Therefore, they cannot be held accountable for a wrong act. No […]

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EMERGENCY PROVISIONS Part XVIII

January 11, 2020

Emergency Provisions  Part XVIII of the Constitution comprises the emergency provisions. These provisions enable the Central Government to meet any abnormal situation effectively. The Constitution recognizes three types of emergencies: National Emergency: Article 352 State Emergency (President’s Rule): Article 356 Financial Emergency: Article 360 NATIONAL EMERGENCY Under Article 352, President can declare a national emergency […]

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Social Contract Theories

January 5, 2020

Social contract, in political philosophy, an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each. In primeval times, according to the theory, individuals were born into an anarchic state of nature, which was happy or unhappy according to the particular version. They then, by exercising natural reason, formed a society […]

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Why are there only 545 seats in the Lok Sabha filled when the maximum strength is 552?

January 3, 2020

The article 81 of the constitution of India provide directions for the composition of the House of the People. It says: (1) Subject to the provisions of Article 331 the House of the People shall consist of (a) not more than five hundred and thirty (530) members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States, and (b) not more than twenty […]

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Code of Conduct

January 1, 2020

Codes of Conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules that outline the social standards and rules and responsibilities of, or proper practices for, an individual, party or organization. It is defined that “Code of Conduct” is “principles, values, standards, or rules of behaviour that guide the decisions, procedures and systems of an […]

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Code of Ethics

January 1, 2020

Code of Ethics refers to a set of guidelines to bring about acceptable behaviours in members of a particular group, association or profession. Basically, it is guidelines of principles for experts to conduct business honestly. It defines the minimum requirements for conduct, and behavioural expectations instead of specific activities. Thus, the Code is built on […]

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Foundational values of the civil services

January 1, 2020

 As per the Second Administrative Reforms Commission, the foundational values of the service are Integrity Objectivity Impartiality Dedication to public service Compassion towards weaker sections. Also Read : Value conflict They are Foundational because:  Impartiality and non-partisanship: It decides on merit and is free from any partisan consideration. Further, a non-partisan civil service is also responsible […]

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What is Corporate Governance?

January 1, 2020

Context In light of Tata, Infosys, ICICI & PNB bank corporate governance episodes lately, the debate around transparency, role of Independent Directors, promoters etc among others got wide attention to further enhance corporate governance in India. What is Corporate Governance? Corporate Governance deals with how a corporate is governed.Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices and processes […]

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Value conflict

January 1, 2020

Value Conflicts A value conflict occurs when individuals or groups of people hold strong personal beliefs that are in disagreement within themselves or in disagreement with the institution’s/ organization’s values. These may include religious differences, cultural differences or differences in upbringing. Values-based conflicts are particularly pervasive in public policy. Indeed, nearly all public (policy) controversies […]

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Emotional Intelligence

January 1, 2020

Intelligence Intelligence is a set of cognitive abilities which allow us to acquire knowledge, to learn and to solve problems. Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to assess and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote […]

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Attitude

January 1, 2020

Attitude: Definition and Elaboration Psychologists define attitude as a learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluations of people, issues, objects or events. Such evaluations are often favourable or unfavourable but they can also be uncertain at times. Thus we often speak of “mixed feelings” about an individual or an […]

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John Rawls Theory of Justice

January 1, 2020

John Rawls Contemporary thinkers generally try to understand the institution of morality. Unlike analytical philosophers, they avoid hair-splitting and logic-chopping discussions of moral terms or concepts. This recent approach explains the contemporary interest in John Rawls, whose treatise A Theory of Justice has strongly influenced recent moral philosophy. We will have occasion to mention John […]

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Action Part of theory | Normative ethics theories

January 1, 2020

Normative Ethics Theories There are three important normative ethics theories- Virtue Ethics Consequentialism (prominently utilitarianism) Deontological Ethics (prominently Kantianism) Virtue Ethics Virtue ethics focuses on the ‘character’ of the agent rather than on the formal rules for or the consequences of actions. Virtue ethics includes an account of the purpose of human life, or the […]

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PERSUASION

January 1, 2020

Defining Persuasion: Process aimed at changing a person’s or a group’s attitude or behavior toward some idea, object, event or other person(s), by using written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination of them. Persuasion is a form of influence. It is the way to get people to agree with […]

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Right to Information RTI

January 1, 2020

RTI- Right to Information Right to Information RTI is another empowering Act for the citizens. It gives access to the information about public offices to the common man and hence can make every citizen, a potential whistle-blower. This landmark legislation attempts to bring the following changes in the government-citizen relationship: From a culture of secrecy […]

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WHISTLE BLOWING

January 1, 2020

Whistle Blowing Who is a whistle blower? | whistle blowing A whistleblower is a person who comes forward and shares his/her knowledge on any wrongdoing which he/she thinks is happening in the whole organisation or in a specific department. A whistleblower could be an employee, contractor, or a supplier who becomes aware of any illegal […]

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Sexual Harassment at Work Place

January 1, 2020

Sexual Harassment at Work Place Sexual Harassment is said to take place When one person subjects another person to an unwelcome act of physical intimacy; Contact such as grabbing, brushing, touching, pinching, eve teasing, etc. Makes an unwelcome demand or request directly or by implication for sexual favors from another person. Shows a person any […]

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WORK CULTURE

January 1, 2020

What is work culture? Work culture is a concept which deals in the study of: Beliefs, thought processes, attitudes of the employees. Ideologies and principles of the organization. It is the work culture which decides the way employees interact with each other and how an organization functions. An organization is formed to achieve certain goals […]

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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

January 1, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby  companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business  operations and interactions with their stakeholders. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is generally  understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance  of economic, environmental and social imperatives (“Triple-Bottom-Line-  Approach” as recommended by […]

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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

Corporate Governance Corporate governance refers to the set of systems, principles and processes by which a company is governed. Corporate governance provide the guidelines as to how the company can be directed or controlled such that it can fulfil its goals and objectives in a manner that adds to the value of the company and […]

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Ethical Dilemma

January 1, 2020

Ethical Dilemma What is an Ethical Dilemma? An Ethical Dilemma is a situation in which a person has to make a difficult choice from amongst two courses of action, each of which means compromising a moral principle. Eg. a soldier confronted by an unarmed enemy is being ordered by his senior to shoot and kill. […]

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E-GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

Defining e-Governance: According to international organization, UNESCO, “Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs, including citizens’ articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations.” “E-Governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via the electronic medium in order […]

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Grievance Redressal

January 1, 2020

Explain the Concept of Grievance Redressal and Grievance Redressal Mechanism. Grievances are expressions of resentment against specific acts of omission or commission that are wrong or perceived as wrong, and requiring corrective action to be taken. In other words, if a grievance Redressal is received, it needs to be redressed. For the present purpose, grievances […]

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CITIZEN’S CHARTER

January 1, 2020

A short note on Concept and Origin of Citizen’s Charter: It has been recognised world over that good governance is essential for sustainable development, both economic and social. The three essential aspects emphasised in good governance are transparency, accountability and responsiveness of the administration. Citizens’ Charters initiative is a response to the quest for solving […]

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CORRUPTION IN INDIA

January 1, 2020

India more corrupt than China, better than Pak: Transparency International In the Corruption Perception Index for 2017, India was ranked at the 81st place with a score of 40. India has been ranked worse than China and Bhutan in terms of ‘corruption perception’, but fares better than its other neighbours including Pakistan and Bangladesh, as […]

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GOOD GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

What is Governance? In order to understand the concept of Good Governance, let’s first understand the concept of Governance: The concept of “governance” is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be […]

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BUREAUCRACY

January 1, 2020

What is Bureaucracy? What are its origins? The term or word bureaucracy has two parts-one is bureau which means an office transacting particular business or a government department. Crazy denotes a particular form of government. Hence bureaucracy implies a system of gov­ernment in which most of the decisions are taken by state officials rather than […]

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Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

January 1, 2020

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Maulana Abul Kalam Azad occupies a position of prominence in the galaxy of our patriots and heroes of our freedom struggle, who relentlessly fought to achieve freedom for our motherland and forced the British to leave India. He was a sagacious statesman and the tallest among nationalist Muslims, who disagreed and […]

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Aurobindo Ghosh

January 1, 2020

Aurobindo Ghosh Sri Aurobindo was renowned and important personality in the history of the Indian resurgence and Indian nationalism. Aurobindo had a versatile brilliance. Aurobindo Ghosh was a great poet, a thoughtful thinker, a distinguished metaphysician, a great prophet and a passionate patriot. Aurobindo Ghosh wrote effective texts that represented the crystallization of the new […]

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Dr APJ Abdul Kalam

January 1, 2020

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was a prominent Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. Renowned for his pivotal role in the nation’s civilian space programme and military missile development, he was known as the Missile Man of India. Dr APJ Abdul Kalam made significant contributions […]

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SWAMI VIVEKANANDA

January 1, 2020

Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda was born in 1863 in Calcutta in an affluent family. While studying in Calcutta University, he acquired deep interest and mastery in Western Philosophy and History. For some time, Swami Vivekananda was associated with Brahmo Movement. Since early years, he suffered spiritual crisis and had doubts about existence of God. Swami […]

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Mahatma Gandhi

January 1, 2020

MAHATMA GANDHI Thoughts of Gandhiji “Ahinsa is the highest duty. Even if we cannot practice it in full, we must try to understand its spirit and refrain as far as is humanly possible from violence.” “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” “Freedom is not worth […]

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Moral Thinkers

December 31, 2019

Buddha | Ethics moral thinkers Ethics moral thinkers :Buddhism is a set of moral guidelines and practices which, if followed, can bring people to the ultimate state of reality and peace. The Buddha described these morals after he reached enlightenment, or nirvana: the true understanding of the universe. Basic Buddhist principles of moral thought and […]

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Blaksburg Manifesto

December 30, 2019

Refounding Public Administration (Wamsley et al., 1990) was a pioneering publication in the field of U.S. public administration. It was one of the early efforts that challenged Herbert Simon’s theory of bounded rationality and the implications of underscoring the study and practice of public administration based largely from the application of New Public Management theories, […]

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MIS

December 28, 2019

What is MIS? MIS is the use of information technology, people, and business processes to record, store and process data to produce information that decision makers can use to make day to day decisions. MIS is the acronym for Management Information Systems. In a nutshell, MIS is a collection of systems, hardware, procedures and people that all […]

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Organisation and Methods (O & M)

December 28, 2019

Organisation and Methods (O & M) The Meaning of O and M-The O and M is an abbreviation for Organization and Methods’. O & M work means reviewing the internal organization and procedures of any administrative agency with a view to suggest improvements so as a ensure greater efficiency in its working Efficiency is of […]

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Which exam has same syllabus as UPSC exam?

December 27, 2019

Which exam has same syllabus as UPSC exam? While preparing for UPSC CSE, it is definitely a good idea to appear for those government exams that have the same or almost same syllabus. The other exams that you can appear with UPSC Preparation are as follows: State Service Examination: Any state service exam can be […]

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What is the syllabus for IAS?

December 27, 2019

What is the syllabus for IAS (Civil Services) exam ? The UPSC divides the Civil Services Exam into three successive stages: 1: Preliminary Examination (Objective) 2: Mains Examination (Subjective) 3: Personality Test (Verbal) UPSC Prelims Syllabus Syllabus for GS Paper (Prelims Paper I)Current events of national and international importance.History of India and Indian National Movement.Indian and World Geography-Physical, […]

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What are the qualities required to become an IAS?

December 26, 2019

What are the qualities required to become an IAS? At first, you must have a passion for being a civil servant.(your passion or your interest is the father of your determination). Try to love what you are working for. Self motivation is very important rather than being motivated by following someone or toppers. Your passion, […]

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Is math required for UPSC?

December 26, 2019

Is math required for UPSC? The most frequent word one hears today in all education and business circles is STEM. We need to educate all students in the fields of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in order to be competitive in the 21st century global economy. This issue has gained significant momentum over the last […]

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What powers does an IAS officer gets?

December 25, 2019

What powers does an IAS officer gets? IAS official hold crucial and key positions in the Union Government, States, and open division endeavors. IAS as a suffering organization in India frames an indistinguishable piece of the regulatory part of the Government of India in this manner to give consistent quality and fairness to the organization. […]

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Is IAS really very tough to crack?

December 25, 2019

Is IAS really very tough to crack? There is nothing like tough in this globe. All you need is to have a dream, passion, courage and determination. If you think any exam to be tough, then from the day one of your preparation, it will seem to be more tough than it actually is. It […]

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NPR and NCR

December 25, 2019

Recently :National Population register | NPR Union Cabinet has announced that it has allocated around Rs 3,500 crores for updating National Population Register (NPR). The process shall commence from April next year and will be completed by September. NPR was first done in 2010 and was later updated in 2015 when it was linked with […]

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What are the best tips for UPSC beginners?

December 24, 2019

What are the best tips for UPSC beginners? As we all know that Civil Services is one of the most toughest exam to clear in India. Proper dedication and proper guidance is very important for all the aspirants to crack the exam for better marks. The syllabus prescribed by UPSC for General studies is vast […]

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What is the best way for IAS exam preparation?

December 24, 2019

What is the best way for IAS exam preparation? A lot of young people have heard of the IAS exam and express a desire to give this prestigious exam. IAS is known to be one of the toughest examinations in the world since almost a million aspirants take part every year to achieve their dream […]

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Origin of Ethics -Divine command theory and Natural Law theory N1

December 23, 2019

Ethics lectures for UPSC | Ethics lecture series  Origin of Ethics -Divine command theory and Natural Law theory N1 Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action’s status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God. The theory asserts that what is moral is determined by what God commands, and that […]

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Overcoming the thoughts of ‘I can’t’ while preparing for the UPSC

December 23, 2019

How can one overcome the thoughts of ‘I can’t’ while preparing for the UPSC? Thoughts of “I can’t” and fear of failure are very natural thoughts that invade the human mind, particularly in times of stress and it is not unnatural to have such thoughts. It is quite natural that one feels demotivated to continue […]

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What did UPSC preparation teach you about life?

December 23, 2019

  Preparing for any other exam will not transform anyone to the extent that UPSC does. Just everything changes drastically in a very positive manner. Your mindset , outlook , vision , knowledge level , communication , vocabulary , reading speed, reading habit , writing skills , balanced and rational thinking , personality , daily routine […]

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Developing answer writing practise for UPSC Mains

December 23, 2019

Developing answer writing practise for UPSC Mains Answer writing practice is the most important part of preparations for the UPSC Mains. It is very less concerned with your command over the language. Instead, it is more about how much you present, within how much time and in what manner i, e representation of answer is the […]

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Delegated Legislation

December 22, 2019

In order to reduce pressure on parliamentary time acts of parliament often give Government Ministers or opt per authorities the power to regulate administration details by means risk that delegating powers to executive might undermine the authority of parliament,” such powers are normally only gate —to authorities directing accountable to parliament. The relevant Acts sometimes […]

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Administrative Tribunals

December 22, 2019

Administrative tribunals differ from the ordinary courts in two things, their constitution and procedure. As regards their composition they consist of administrative officials and experts and not judges, for their procedure, it is simpler and much more informal than that the courts. Thus the usual rules of evidence are not observed, lawyers are often not […]

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Dicey on Administrative Law

December 22, 2019

According to Dicey, Administrative Law is that portion of a nation’s legal system which determines the legal status and liabilities of all state officials and defines the rights and liabilities of private individuals in their dealing with public officials. It also specifies the procedures by which those rights and liabilities are enforced) The above definition […]

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How to choose optional subject for the UPSC Mains?

December 21, 2019

How to choose optional subject for the UPSC Mains? Selecting Optional subject is perhaps the most important decision of CSE journey. A score of 300+ in Optional can get you in top 10. At the same time, poor Optional score means you are out of list (if GS score is poor as well). Choosing optional for UPSC […]

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What is the examiner looking for while checking the UPSC Mains answer sheets?

December 21, 2019

What is the examiner looking for while checking the UPSC Mains answer sheets? While checking any answer the examiner is looking for some mainly the following things: 1st Lesson: Examiner is looking for just your answer!! He is not interested in anything else. Next, put yourself in the shoes of the examiner. You have to finish checking about 100 answer […]

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100 days strategy to crack UPSC Mains

December 21, 2019

What should be the 100 days strategy to crack UPSC Mains? What NOT to do in the 100 days – Don’t get stuck with GS Paper 1. If you try to complete subjects such as World History, Sociology and Art & Culture in detail, you are likely to suffer in the long run. There would not be questions […]

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How much time is needed to prepare for UPSC?

December 21, 2019

How much time is needed to prepare for UPSC? This type of question has no clear-cut answer. It’s like how much time it takes to be a good cook or to be a good writer! But in every profession, every examination, there is a specific pattern. . Its totally depend on your catching power. if […]

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What must be the real motivation to crack the UPSC civil services exam?

December 20, 2019

The real motivation to crack the UPSC civil services exam? Cracking CSE requires one to have a matured outlook on major issues of national and international importance. Also a reasonable amount of discipline and a fair degree of intelligence. However, everyone has their own strategy to clear the exam depending on their strengths and weaknesses. Hence, […]

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Is 1 year sufficient for IAS preparation without coaching?

December 20, 2019

Is 1 year sufficient for IAS preparation without coaching? Yes, 1 year is sufficient for IAS preparation without coaching. If you do focus study then you can clear this exam in your first attempt. Preparing for UPSC itself is a full time job ,during preparation you need to work hard daily at least 6-8 hours. First […]

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How can I prepare Indian polity to secure maximum marks in UPSC Mains?

December 20, 2019

If you want to prepare your polity well then there are certain things you can see. Read NCERT books from 9th to 12th thoroughly. When completed read M. Laxmikant. And then you can go for D.D. Basu or more. Current affairs. This is the key. Regular policy article, NOT political. It will rich you content. Answer writing practice is the key. That’s why […]

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How many maximum marks one can get in UPSC Mains?

December 20, 2019

How many maximum marks one can get in UPSC Mains? There is no maximum minimum in upsc .The marks would be given if you solve the question in a appropriate manner and you may get very high marks in maths if you are really good in the subject. On the other hand you may get […]

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Which is the best newspaper to read for an IAS aspirant?

December 20, 2019

Newspaper reading is very important practice for upsc preparation. Preferably one should finish the newspaper in 2 hours including making notes and current affairs. The most recommended newspaper are: The Hindu Indian express The Hindu : This is mostly preferred by aspirants. It is somewhat unbalanced ( read left leaning ) and critical of government. […]

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Is it really difficult to crack the UPSC Civil Services exam?

December 20, 2019

Is it really difficult to crack the UPSC Civil Services exam?  One of the most widely spread notion is about the toughness of civil services exam & “Mother of all competitions”.  The process of preparation does require time, patience, perseverance and belief in oneself. In fact 50% of the exam preparation is psychological. Some basic […]

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Is it possible to prepare for UPSC exams while I am working full-time? If yes, then how can I prepare?

December 20, 2019

Preparing for UPSC while working  Yes, you can definitely prepare for the exams if you want to. Here are some tips which you should follow while thinking of preparing UPSC! The first thing that everyone  need to understand is that with Civil services, each person’s starting point, motivation and journey is different. Please don’t compare […]

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“Act East Policy” of India: Meaning and Objectives

December 14, 2019

Look East Policy of India was launched by the former Prime Minister  P.V. Narasimha Rao in 1991.The main focus of this policy was to shift the country’s trading focus from the west and neighbours to the booming S.E. Asian countries. The new NDA government in the centre upgraded this policy as the “Act East Policy” […]

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How does a UPSC aspirant start practicing answer writing for the Mains?

December 14, 2019

Writing is the key to clearing Mains with a significant margin. An ideal answer must cover five main points Introduction- can be from current events/recent policy change Idea/crux /main answer to the question Analysis from a plural perspective Analysis in form of Advantages / Disadvantages or critiques Conclusion – forward looking, positive, proposing an alternative. […]

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Citizenship Amendment Bill

December 13, 2019

The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill, 2019 (CAB) is a bill amending the Citizenship Act of 1955 to give a path to Indian citizenship to illegal migrants who are Hindus, Sikhs, Buddhists, Jains, Parsis and Christians from Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan, who entered India on or before 31 December 2014. WHO GETS THE INDIAN CITIZENSHIP? The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill proposes to grant citizenship to the non-Muslims […]

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Content and process theories of Motivation

December 12, 2019

Motivation theories We can distinguish between contentand processmotivation theories. Content theories focus on WHAT, while process theories focus on HOW human behaviour is motivated. Content theories are the earliest theories of motivation. Within the work environment they have had the greatest impact on management practice and policy, whilst within academic circles they are the least accepted. Content […]

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Contingency Approach to Management

December 11, 2019

The ‘Contingency Approach to Management’ is relatively a new approach to manage­ment. It is an extension of the system approach. The basic idea of the contingency approach is that the organisation has to come up with different situations in different ways. There is no single best way of managing applicable to all situations. In order […]

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New Public Management (NPM)

December 3, 2019

The term New Public Management (NPM) emerged in the beginning of the 1990s in response to the challenges of   globalization, international competitiveness, and technological change.  It is argued that it represents a paradigm shift from a traditional model of public administration, dominant for most of the 20th century to managerial-ism or what is popularly known as the New Public Management.  NPM seeks […]

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Emissions Gap Report

December 3, 2019

Why in news? The 2019 UN Environment Programme (UNEP) Emissions Gap Report paints a “bleak” picture of accelerated global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a growing gap between “what we need to do and what we are actually doing to tackle climate change.” Providing the first-ever estimate of annual cuts needed to achieve the Paris […]

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Inner line permit

December 3, 2019

Why in news? In the run-up to the likely introduction of the Citizenship Amendment Bill during the current session of Parliament, the concept of Inner Line Permit has been part of the conversation. When political and civil society representatives from the Northeastern states met him to express their concerns about the Bill, Union Home Minister Amit Shah […]

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What is the Chagos Islands dispute about?

December 2, 2019

Why in news? The UN had given the UK six months to return the Chagos Islands to Mauritius. After the UK missed the deadline to do so, Mauritius called the UK an “illegal colonial occupier”. Mauritius called the UK an “illegal colonial occupier” on Friday, after it ignored a UN mandated deadline to return the […]

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Indian Ocean Rim Association (IORA)

November 29, 2019

Context: The 19th IORA Council of Ministers meeting will be held on November 7 in Abu Dhabi with the theme of “Promoting a Shared Destiny and Path to Prosperity in the Indian Ocean”. The meeting is important as two of India’s important partners, the United Arab Emirates and Bangladesh, will take charge as the new chair and vice-chair of one […]

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Eligibility Criteria for Grant of Maharatna, Navratna and Miniratna Status

November 29, 2019

Context: Government of India has accorded ‘Maharatna’ status to public sector undertaking’s (PSU’s) Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) and Power Grid Corporation. Impact: This will impart greater operational and financial autonomy thus enhancing powers to their Boards to take financial decisions. Boards of these PSUs can make equity investments to undertake financial joint ventures (JV) and wholly owned […]

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BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change 

November 29, 2019

Context: The 29th BASIC Ministerial Meeting on Climate Change was held recently in Beijing, China. Outcomes of the recent meet- demands by BASIC: The developed countries to take urgent action to close gaps and provide support to developing nations as a part of the commitment under the Paris agreement on climate change. Global climate action should promote climate […]

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Global Mobility Report

November 29, 2019

Context: Global Mobility Report has been released by Sustainable Mobility for All (SuM4All) initiative. What is SuM4All? The SuM4All initiative, launched in 2017, is an umbrella platform that brings together 55 public and private organisations and companies to act collectively to implement the SDGs and transform the transport sector. Key findings: Not a single country — developed or developing — […]

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The Citizenship Amendment Bill:

November 29, 2019

Context: With political positions on the Citizenship Amendment Bill (CAB) largely unchanged, the government, which is hoping to move a new version of it during the winter session of Parliament, faces tough negotiations. The Citizenship Amendment Bill: It seeks to allow illegal migrants from certain minority communities in Afghanistan, Bangladesh and Pakistan eligible for Indian citizenshipby amending the Citizenship Act […]

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BHIM 2.0 

November 29, 2019

Context: Govt launches BHIM 2.0 with new functionalities, additional language support. What is BHIM? Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) is a UPI based payment interface. Developed by National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI). Allows real time fund transfer. Launched in December, 2016. What’s new in BHIM 2.0? Donation’ gateway, increased transaction limits for high value transactions, linking multiple bank accounts, offers […]

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linking of Aadhaar with social media

November 29, 2019

Context: From January, the Supreme Court will hear cases seeking the linking of Aadhaar with social media profiles of individuals. It will be the first big legal battle on the right to privacy after the Supreme Court held in a landmark verdict in 2017 that privacy is a fundamental right. Need for linking of Aadhar? To keep a check on […]

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Adjusted Gross revenue

November 29, 2019

Context: The Supreme Court has upheld the definition of Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) calculation as stipulated by the Department of Telecommunications. This means that telecom companies will have to pay up as much as Rs 92,642 crore to the government. What is AGR? Adjusted Gross Revenue (AGR) is the usage and licensing fee that telecom operators are charged by the […]

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BSNL and MTNL Revival plan

November 29, 2019

  Context: Union Cabinet approves revival plan of BSNL and MTNL. The revival plan includes: Allotment of spectrum for 4G services. Debt restructuring by raising of bonds with sovereign guarantee. Reducing employee costs. Monetisation of assets. In-principle approval of merger of BSNL & MTNL. What’s the crisis all about? For some time now, BSNL is […]

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18th Non-Aligned Movement summit.

November 29, 2019

Context: Vice-President Venkaiah Naidu will represent India at the 18th Non-Aligned Movement summit. Theme: ‘Upholding the Bandung Principles to ensure concerted and adequate response to the challenges of contemporary world’. Some interesting facts about the latest NAM summit: Prime Minister Modi will skip the meet. This is the second time in a row that PM Narendra Modi will skip the summit, marking India’s transformation […]

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 Government e-Marketplace (GeM)

November 29, 2019

Context: The Government e-Marketplace (GeM) has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Federal Bank to offer various services. Significance: The MoU will facilitate a cashless, paperless and transparent payment system on the portal and would create an efficient procurement system for government entities. About GeM: What is it? GeM is a state-of-the-art national public procurement platform of Ministry […]

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Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT)

November 29, 2019

Context: About 70% of Indian contribution to the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be in the form of both hardware and software for the telescope. Indian entities are engaged in developing observatory software as well as telescope control system. About TMT: The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is an astronomical observatory with an extremely large telescope (ELT). It is an international project being funded by scientific organisations of […]

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Global Wealth Report.

November 29, 2019

Context: The Credit Suisse Group, a Switzerland-based multinational investment bank, has released the 10th edition of its annual Global Wealth Report. How is wealth defined and calculated? Wealth is defined in terms of “net worth” of an individual. This, in turn, is calculated by adding up the value of financial assets (such as money) and real assets (such […]

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Intensified mission indradhanush

November 29, 2019

Context: To ensure that not a single child in the country misses out on vaccination, the government will launch the ‘Intensified Mission Indradhanush 2.0‘ on October 31 with a special focus on improving coverage in areas with “low” immunisation. Key facts: Through ‘IMI 2.0’, the health ministry aims to reach each and every child below the age […]

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Section 11 of Representation of the People Act.

November 29, 2019

Context: Delhi High Court has sought a response from the Centre and the Election Commission (EC) on a petition challenging the EC’s decision to reduce the disqualification period of Sikkim Chief Minister Prem Singh Tamang from six years to 13 months. This was done in accordance with the Section 11 of Representation of the People Act. Background: Mr. Tamang was […]

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EL Nino Effect

November 29, 2019

Context: In a new study, researchers have found that because of climate change, extreme El Niño events are likely to become more frequent. Key findings: There is a shift in El Niño behaviour since the late 1970s. All events beginning in the eastern Pacific occurred prior to that time, while all events originating in the western-central […]

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Food Safety Mitra (FSM) scheme

November 29, 2019

Context: Food Safety Mitra (FSM) scheme for strengthening and scaling up ‘Eat Right India’ movement launched. What is FSM scheme? A scheme to support small and medium scale food businesses to comply with the food safety laws and facilitate licensing and registration, hygiene ratings and training. Significance of the scheme: Apart from strengthening food safety, this scheme would also […]

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World’s Children report for 2019. 

November 29, 2019

Context: UNICEF released its State of the World’s Children report for 2019.  Ranking of countries: The report has ranked countries in the order of ‘highest burden of death among children of under-5’ to the ‘lowest burden of death among children of under-5’. The report analyses the global state of children’s health vis-a-vis malnutrition, obesity, anaemia and other health issues. Key […]

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20th Livestock Census.

November 29, 2019

Context: Department of Animal Husbandry & Dairying releases 20th Livestock Census. Significance: The Census will prove beneficial not just for policy makers but also for agriculturists, traders, entrepreneurs, dairying industry and masses in general. key results of the Census: Total Livestock population is 535.78 million- an increase of 4.6% over Livestock Census-2012. Total Bovine population (Cattle, Buffalo, Mithun and Yak)-79 Million in 2019- an increase […]

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IPC to be reworked

November 29, 2019

Context: The Home Ministry is all set to overhaul the Indian Penal Code designed by the British. Rebooting the code introduced by the British in 1860 was necessary as it is primarily based on the spirit of “master and servant”. Efforts to overhaul: Recently the Ministry wrote to all States and Union Territories seeking suggestions to amend various sections of […]

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One Nation One FASTag scheme

November 29, 2019

Context: One Nation One FASTag scheme inaugurated recently. The government has already announced that FASTags will be mandatory for all vehicles at all National Highways from December 1. Features of the scheme- One Nation One FASTag: The scheme will be implemented from December 1, 2019, and can be availed upon activation by new cars having Radio Frequency Identification […]

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World Economic Outlook (WEO)

November 29, 2019

Context: IMF’s 2019 World Economic Outlook (WEO) has been released. India- specific observations: India retains its rank as the world’s fastest-growing major economy, tying with China. It has a projected growth rate of 6.1 per cent for the current fiscal year, despite an almost one per cent cut in the forecast. However, India’s economy is projected to pick up and grow by […]

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Who are Kurds?

November 29, 2019

Who are Kurds? At an estimated 25 million to 35 million population, they are the world’s largest stateless ethnic group. The majority among the Kurdish people today are Sunni Muslim, but there are adherents of other faiths too, including Sufism and other mystical practices. They live in the highlands of southern and eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, the northeastern Syria, northwestern Iran, […]

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2019 Global Hunger Index

November 29, 2019

Context: The 2019 Global Hunger Index report has been released. The GHI ranks countries on a 100-point scale, with 0 being the best score (no hunger) and 100 being the worst. Values less than 10 reflect low hunger, values from 20 to 34.9 indicate serious hunger; values from 35 to 49.9 are alarming; and values of 50 or more are extremely […]

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The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019:

November 29, 2019

Awarded “for contributions to our understanding of the evolution of the universe and Earth’s place in the cosmos”. Winners are: James Peebles “for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology”. Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz “for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star”. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019: John B. Goodenough, M. Stanley Whittingham and Akira Yoshino “for the development of lithium-ion batteries” […]

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Dark Grey list?

November 29, 2019

Context: Pakistan is on the verge of strong action by the international terror financing watchdog FATF and the country may be put in the ‘Dark Grey’ list, the last warning to improve. Pakistan is on the verge of strong action by FATF, given its inadequate performance, whereby it managed to pass in only six of 27 items. What […]

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India China -second Informal Summit.

November 29, 2019

Context: Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping met in the ancient coastal town of Mamallapuram or Mahabalipuram in Tamil Nadu for a second Informal Summit. The two countries convened their first Informal Summit in central China’s Wuhan in April 2018, where they exchanged views on issues of global and bilateral significance. Outcomes: To celebrate the 70th anniversary of diplomatic relations […]

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National Medical Commission.

November 29, 2019

Context: Government selects 25 members of National Medical Commission. For selecting members of the commission, that replaces the Medical Council of India (MCI), health ministry held a draw of lots. The draw of lot was held from the nominations sent by the state governments, union territories and state medical councils. The members include 10 Vice-Chancellors (VCs) […]

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Election Manifesto

November 29, 2019

What are Manifestos? Election manifestos are not legally enforceable documents. This has been reiterated by the Supreme Court in 2015. They are a formality, and their release is often no more than a photo-op in the campaign of political parties. They are frequently delayed, leaving no time for voters to go through the contents in order […]

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Green wall 

November 29, 2019

Context: The Centre is mulling an ambitious plan to create a green wall on North- Western part of India. About the proposed wall: It will be a 1,400km long and 5km wide green belt from Gujarat to the Delhi-Haryana border, on the lines of the “Great Green Wall” running through the width of Africa, from Dakar (Senegal) to Djibouti, to combat climate […]

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Himalayas and Climate change

November 29, 2019

Context: To better gauge the impact of climate change on the Hindu Kush mountains, which includes the Himalayas, and spruce up data-gathering, the India Meteorological Department (IMD) will collaborate with meteorological agencies in China and Pakistan, among others, to provide climate forecast services to countries in the region.   About Hindu Kush-Himalayan region: The Hindu Kush-Himalayan region spans an […]

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Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN)

November 29, 2019

Context: The Union Government has launched Surakshit Matritva Aashwasan (SUMAN) to provide quality healthcare at zero cost to pregnant women, new mothers and newborns. About the scheme: It aims to provide dignified and quality health care at no cost to every woman and newborn visiting a public health facility. Under the scheme, the beneficiaries visiting public health facilities are […]

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POSHAN Atlas

November 29, 2019

Context: The ministry of Women and Child Development (WCD) in association with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Deendayal Research Institute is developing a POSHAN atlas under POSHAN abhiyan. About the POSHAN Atlas: Aim: to map the crops and food grains grown in different regions of the country so that nutritious protein rich food in local areas can be […]

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DHRUV

November 29, 2019

Context: Pradhan Mantri Innovative Learning Programme- ‘DHRUV’, a 14 day learning programme, was launched recently from Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) Headquarters at Bengaluru. About DHRUV: The programme is called DHRUV (after the Pole Star) and every student to be called ‘DHRUV TARA’. 60 students, 30 each from Science and Performing Arts discipline, have been selected for this […]

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 Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

November 29, 2019

Context: Ten years ago (Oct. 9), NASA slammed a hunk of space junk into the moon, forever changing our perception of Earth’s nearest neighbour. Background: The space agency’s Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) missions launched together on June 18, 2009, riding atop a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket. LRO sped to lunar […]

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C40 Cities Climate Summit:

November 29, 2019

Context: C40 Cities World Mayors Summit is being held in Copenhagen. Key facts: C40 is a network of the world’s megacities committed to addressing climate change. The C40 Cities Climate Leadership Group (C40) is a group of 94 cities around the world. C40 is focused on tackling climate change and driving urban action that reduces greenhouse gas emissions and climate risks, while increasing the health, wellbeing and economic opportunities of […]

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GRAP

November 29, 2019

Context: Soon, some stricter measures to fight air pollution will come into force in Delhi’s neighbourhood, as part of the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP). As per the plan: Measures aimed at stopping the use of diesel generator sets will extend beyond Delhi to the NCR, where many areas see regular power cuts. Measures will be incremental. As […]

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Global Competitiveness Index

November 29, 2019

Context: GCI 2019 has been released. The Global Competitiveness Index (GCI), which was launched in 1979, maps the competitiveness landscape of 141 economies through 103 indicators organised into 12 pillars. The pillars, which cover broad socio-economic elements are: institutions, infrastructure, ICT adoption, macroeconomic stability, health, skills, product market, labour market, the financial system, market size, business […]

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Nobel Prize in detail

November 29, 2019

Context: The 2019 Nobel Prize in Medicine has been awarded jointly to William G. Kaelin Jr, Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza “for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability.”a Why does this matter? The oxygen-sensing ability of the body has a role in the immune system and the earliest stages of development inside […]

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Sedition law

November 29, 2019

Context: Recently, a Bihar court directed the filing of an FIR against 49 eminent persons who signed an open letter to the Prime Minister expressing concerns over mob lynching. However, many experts opined that this move is shocking, disappointing, and completely disregards the true meaning of the law. Need of the hour: Many would agree […]

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Single use plastics

November 29, 2019

Context: The government has launched massive campaigns against single-use, or disposable, plastic products, as part of the year-long celebrations to mark 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. What are Single-use plastics? They are disposable plastics meant for use-and-throw. These comprise polythene bags, plastic drinking bottles, plastic bottle caps, food wrappers, plastic sachets, plastic wrappers, straws, stirrers and […]

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Hyderabad Nizam heirs win UK court battle with Pakistan

November 29, 2019

Context: The UK high court has ruled in favour of India and the titular 8th Nizam of Hyderabad and his younger brother in a case they had been fighting against Pakistan relating to who has the rights to £35m (Rs 306 crore) stashed away in a British bank account since Partition. What is the dispute all about? On September 20, 1948, a corpus of […]

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Gandhian Challenge

November 29, 2019

Context: On the 150th birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, AIM, NITI Aayog’s Atal Tinkering Labs (ATL) and UNICEF India, including Generation Unlimited, have launched ‘The Gandhian Challenge’. What is it? This innovation challenge provides a platform for every child across India to ideate innovative solutions for a sustainable India of their dreams, using Gandhi’s principles. The winners of The Gandhian […]

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Supreme Court verdict on SC/ST Act

November 29, 2019

Context: Supreme Court has recalled its directions in a March 20, 2018 verdict that had effectively diluted provisions of arrest under the Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. This was following a plea by the Centre seeking a review of that judgment. Background: Dilution of the stringent provisions of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act had […]

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School Education Quality Index

November 29, 2019

Context: NITI Aayog releases the first edition of School Education Quality Index (SEQI). About the School Education Quality Index (SEQI): Developed by NITI Aayog to evaluate the performance of States and Union Territories (UTs) in the school education sector. Aim: To bring an ‘outcomes’ focus to education policy by providing States and UTs with a platform to identify their […]

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National nutrition survey

November 29, 2019

Context: With the help of UNICEF, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare recently conducted the first-ever comprehensive National Nutrition Survey. The survey recorded malnutrition that included micronutrient deficiencies and details of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol and kidney function in children and adolescents.   Key findings of the survey: Around 10% of children in the age group of 5 to 9 […]

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Emissions Trading Scheme

November 29, 2019

What is it? Launched in Surat by Gujarat Government, the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is a regulatory tool that is aimed at reducing the pollution load in an area and at the same time minimising the cost of compliance for the industry. ETS is a market in which the traded commodity is particulate matter emissions. It is also being described as the world’s […]

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Sardar Sarovar Dam 

November 29, 2019

Context: Oustees displaced in Madhya Pradesh due to the backwaters of the Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat are not convinced by the government of Madhya Pradesh’s promises to help them even as they stare at continual displacement.   Background: The height of the dam was increased to 138.68 metres in 2017. The water level in the dam reached 136.04 […]

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6th Schedule amendment

November 29, 2019

Context: National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (NCST) Writes to Union Home Minister & Union Tribal Affairs Minister Conveying Its recommendation to Include Union Territory of Ladakh Under 6th Schedule of Constitution Of India. The total tribal population in Ladakh region is more than 97%. The region is inhabited by following Scheduled Tribes, namely: Balti Beda Bot, Boto Brokpa, […]

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District Mineral Foundation (DMF)

November 29, 2019

Context: Amendments to District Mineral Foundation (DMF) Trust Rules, 2015, by Chhattisgarh government has made it more inclusive, people-centric and will also empower people affected by mining in the state, according to Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a New Delhi-based non-profit. Background: Chhattisgarh became the first state in July 2019, to amend DMF rules. The new rule mandates […]

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Indias Cooling Action Plan

November 29, 2019

Context: India’s Cooling Action Plan (ICAP) has received appreciation from the UN on World Ozone Day. Significance of ICAP: India is the first country in world to develop such a document. The goals emerging from the suggested interventions stated in ICAP are: Reduction of cooling demand across sectors by 20% to 25 % by year 2037-38. Reduction of refrigerant […]

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Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR)

November 29, 2019

Context: India is going to be possibly the first country in the world to implement a Scientific Social Responsibility (SSR) Policy on the lines of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). A draft of the new policy has been made available by the Department of Science and Technology (DST). Aims: To encourage science and technology (S&T) institutions and individual […]

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Market Intervention Price Scheme:

November 29, 2019

Context: The government is planning to procure almost 12 lakh metric tonnes of apple this season, under the MISP. About the Market Intervention Price Scheme: It is a price support mechanism implemented on the request of State Governments. It is for procurement of perishable and horticultural commodities in the event of a fall in market prices. The Scheme […]

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Recent reforms in Judiciary

November 29, 2019

Context: The recent controversy over the transfer of the Chief Justice of the Madras High Court, Justice Vijaya Kamlesh Tahilramani, to the Meghalaya High Court has once again brought to the fore a long-standing debate on the functioning of the ‘Collegium’ of judges. What is the Collegium system? The Collegium of judges does not figure in the Constitution. It […]

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‘NIRVIK’ scheme

November 29, 2019

Context: Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India (ECGC) has introduced ‘NIRVIK’ scheme to ease the lending process and enhance loan availability for exporters. Key features of the scheme: Insurance cover guaranteed will cover up to 90 percent of the principal and interest. The increased cover will ensure that foreign and rupee export credit interest rates are below 4 percent […]

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 Kisan Man Dhan Yojana.

November 29, 2019

Context: PM Modi to launch Kisan Man Dhan Yojana. Aim: To improve the life of small and marginal farmers of the country. Salient features of the scheme: The scheme is voluntary and contributory for farmers in the entry age group of 18 to 40 years. A monthly pension of Rs. 3000/– will be provided to them on attaining the age of 60 […]

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National Genome Grid

November 29, 2019

Context: Recently, the government has announced to set up a National Genomic Grid (NGG). About NGG: It will study genomic data of cancer patients from India. It will collect samples from cancer patients, through a network of pan-India collection centres by bringing all cancer treatment institutions on board. The grid to be formed will be in line with the National Cancer Tissue Biobank […]

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UN Peacekeeping Reforms

November 29, 2019

Context: India calls for reforms in peacekeeping at UNSC debate. Need for reforms: Peacekeeping currently is in a “no-man’s land” between trying to keep the peace in fragile environments and trying to enforce the maintenance of peace, where there is none to keep. There is not effective improvement of the cooperation between Troop Contributing Countries (TCCs), the […]

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Krishna Water Dispute

November 29, 2019

Context: The Krishna river dispute has taken a new turn with Maharashtra and Karnataka CMs agreeing to jointly oppose Andhra Pradesh’s application seeking a relook at the Krishna Water Disputes Tribunal’s 2010 order on water distribution between the riparian states. What is the Krishna river dispute, and what has been done to resolve it? The Krishna: It is an east-flowing […]

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Hepatitis A,B and C

November 29, 2019

Context: On September 3, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Thailand became the first four countries in the World Health Organization’s southeast Asia region to have successfully controlled hepatitis B. The virus is said to be controlled when the disease prevalence is reduced to less than 1% among children less than five years of age. India’s scenario: Despite the introduction of […]

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Indian Ocean Conference 2019

November 29, 2019

Context: Fourth Indian Ocean Conference 2019 was recently held in Male, capital of Maldives. Theme: ‘Securing the Indian Ocean Region: Traditional and Non-Traditional Challenges’. About Indian Ocean Conference: Initiated by India Foundation along with its partners from Singapore, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh. It is an annual effort to bring together Heads of States/Governments, Ministers, Thought Leaders, scholars, diplomats, bureaucrats and practitioners from […]

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Eastern Economic Forum

November 29, 2019

Context: India extends $1 billion line of credit for development of Russia’s Far East. This was announced by PM Modi at the ongoing 5th Eastern Economic Forum. About the Eastern Economic Forum: Established by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation in 2015. It takes place each year in Vladivostok. Serves as a platform for the discussion of key issues in the world economy, regional integration, and […]

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Measles and Rubella

November 29, 2019

Context: Member-countries of the World Health Organisation (WHO) South-East Asia Region have resolved to eliminate highly infectious childhood killer diseases measles and rubella by 2023. A resolution to eliminate the diseases was adopted at the 72nd session of the WHO Regional Committee for South-East Asia in Delhi. How the new target is to be achieved? By strengthening the immunisation […]

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Advance Price agreements

November 29, 2019

Context: The Central Board of Direct Taxes (CBDT) has entered into 26 Advance Pricing Agreements (APAs) in the first 5 months of the financial year (April to August, 2019). Out of these 26 APAs, 1 is a BAPA entered into with the United Kingdom and the remaining 25 are Unilateral Advance Pricing Agreements (UAPAs). What are APAs? An APA […]

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Global Liveability Index 2019.

November 29, 2019

Context: The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) has released the Global Liveability Index 2019. The index ranks 140 global cities based on their living conditions. Significance: The liveability index quantifies the challenges that might be presented to an individual’s lifestyle in 140 cities worldwide, and assesses which locations provide the best living conditions. The list is topped by Vienna (Austria) for […]

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ANDREX project

November 29, 2019

Context: Scientists have discovered that, contrary to existing assumptions, biological processes far out at sea are the most important factors determining how the ocean absorbs carbon dioxide. This enhances the understanding of the link between the Southern Ocean — next to Antarctica — and the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. Scientists studied data collected as part of the ANDREX […]

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Male Declaration

November 29, 2019

Context: The fourth South Asian Speakers’ Summit was held recently in Maldives capital with the secretary general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union and senior lawmakers from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Background: This is the fourth event in a series of Speakers’ Summits for the region on SDGs, the previous three having been hosted by the Jatiya Sangsad of Bangladesh (in 2016), […]

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Samudrayaan

November 29, 2019

Context: India to undertake deep ocean mining with ‘Samudrayaan’ project. About Samudrayaan: It is a pilot project of the Ministry of Earth Sciences for deep ocean mining for rare minerals. It proposes to send men into the deep sea in a submersible vehicle for ocean studies. The project is expected to become a reality by 2021-22. The project […]

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‘Build for Digital India’ programme

November 29, 2019

Context: The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) and Google have signed a statement of intent to roll-out ‘Build for Digital India’ programme. Key features of the programme: The programme will give engineering students a platform to develop market-ready, technology-based solutions that address key social problems. Applicants will take part in online and offline learning opportunities on key technologies such […]

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Economic capital framework

November 28, 2019

Context: Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has approved the transfer of record Rs 1.76 lakh crore dividend and surplus reserves to the government. The excess reserve transfer is in line with the recommendation of former RBI governor Bimal Jalan-led panel constituted to decide size of capital reserves that the central bank should hold. Background: RBI had constituted a panel […]

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G-7

November 28, 2019

Context: The 45th Annual G7 Summit is being held in the French town of Biarritz. What is G7 Summit? G7 Summit is an event conducted annually where world leaders from seven powerful economies of the world come together to discuss burning issues happening around the globe. They, by mutual understanding, also form policies or figure out […]

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Open Acreage Licensing Policy

November 28, 2019

Context: Govt offers seven oil and natural gas blocks for bidding under OALP-IV. What is Open Acreage Licensing Policy (OALP)? The OALP, a critical part of the Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy, provides uniform licences for exploration and production of all forms of hydrocarbons, enabling contractors to explore conventional as well as unconventional oil and gas resources. Fields are […]

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Mitra

November 28, 2019

Context: On 23 August, Chandrayaan-2 captured images of various craters on the moon while passing over its north polar region. Of the various craters, it spotted one called ‘Mitra’. Why is it named so? It is an impact based crater named after noted Indian physicist Sisir Kumar Mitra. The name was given by Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (WGPSN), […]

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Gravitational lensing

November 28, 2019

Context: Using NASA’s James Webb Space Telescope as a sort of time machine, researchers plan to investigate how new stars are born, with the help of a natural phenomenon called “gravitational lensing”. What is gravitational lensing? How it works? Gravitational lensing is an effect of Einstein’s theory of general relativity – simply put, mass bends light. The gravitational field of […]

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Regional comprehensive economic Partnership

November 28, 2019

Context: Stakeholders’ Consultations by Department of Commerce on RCEP. What you need to know about RCEP? RCEP is proposed between the ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) (Brunei, Burma (Myanmar), Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam) and the six states with which ASEAN has existing FTAs (Australia, China, India, Japan, South […]

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Oxytoxin Ban

November 28, 2019

Context: The final decision on whether the government can block private pharmaceutical companies from manufacturing and selling vital pregnancy drug oxytocin in India has been deferred, with the Supreme Court deciding the issue needs further deliberation. Background: The health ministry in April 2018 notified a ban on private firms from manuacturing and selling oxytocin, stating […]

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Financial Action Task Force

November 28, 2019

Context: Financial Action Task Force affiliate Asia Pacific Group (APG) places Pakistan on Blacklist for failing to combat terrorism, money laundering and meeting the required global standards. Pakistan was put in the list for the following reasons: Pakistan was non-compliant in 32 of the 40 Compliance Parameters on Money Laundering & Terror Financing and Pakistan was low in 10 […]

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South-South and Triangular Cooperation

November 28, 2019

Context: An international dialogue on South-South and Triangular Cooperation was recently held in New Delhi. About South-South and Triangular Cooperation: South-South cooperation is a broad framework of collaboration among countries of the South in the political, economic, social, cultural, environmental and technical domains. Involving two or more developing countries, it can take place on a bilateral, regional, intraregional or […]

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WTO Reforms

November 28, 2019

Context: WTO reforms must be taken up by all member countries: Piyush Goyal. Need of the hour: The World Trade Organization remains an indispensable organisation but it requires urgent modernisation. Members have to face the reality that the organisation requires non-cosmetic, serious root-and-branch reform for a WTO adapted to 21st century economic and political realities. Problems facing […]

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International Court of Justice

November 28, 2019

Context: Pakistan has said it will approach the International Court of Justice (ICJ) over the Kashmir issue, weeks after India revoked the special status to Jammu and Kashmir. India has categorically told the international community that the scrapping of Article 370 of the Constitution to revoke the special status of Jammu and Kashmir was an internal matter and […]

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NISHTHA

November 28, 2019

Context: Union HRD Minister launches NISHTHA to build capacities of 42 Lakh government teachers across the country. About NISHTHA: NISHTHA is the world’s largest teachers’ training programme of its kind in the world. It has been launched to improve Learning Outcomes at the Elementary level. The basic objective of this massive training programme is to motivate and equip teachers to […]

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Chief of defence staff

November 28, 2019

Context: On Independence Day, Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the creation of the post of Chief of Defence Staff (CDS). When was it first proposed? Officially, this post was first proposed by the Group of Ministers Report in 2001 but the idea for a CDS can be traced back to Lord Louis Mountbatten, the architect of India’s higher defence organisation. Also […]

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Fly Ash

November 28, 2019

Context: IIT Hyderabad scientists convert fly ash into waterproofing material. Treating fly ash with stearic acid, used in soaps and shampoos, modified the nature of fly ash and helped develop materials with contrasting adhesion behaviours — high adhesions like a rose petal and low adhesion like a lotus leaf. What is Fly Ash? Fly ash is a major source of […]

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CHANDRAYAAN-2

November 28, 2019

Context: The second moon mission of India, the Chandrayaan-2 has been precisely inserted in defined orbit. Next in line is the landing mission. The soft landing will be near lunar South Pole.   WHAT IS CHANDRAYAAN-2? It was launched from Sriharikota on 22nd July this year. It was launched on-board the powerful Geostationary satellite launch vehicle (GSLV)-Mk-111 M-1. While the orbiter would revolve around the […]

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No First Use’ doctrine

November 28, 2019

Context: India’s ‘No First Use’ doctrine (NFU) on the use of nuclear weapons is open for change in the future, defence minister Rajnath Singh has indicated, reflecting thinking within the establishment that no policy is writ in stone and could be modified to deal with current realities. What is No First Use doctrine, and how did it come into […]

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Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana

November 28, 2019

Context: The Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana is hailed as a timely intervention to rectify the harm caused by Household Air Pollution (HAP). Challenges that India is currently facing: The single greatest contributor to air pollution in India is the burning of solid fuels in households. Burning of such solid fuels, like firewood, impacts the health of household members […]

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National Resource Efficiency Policy 2019.

November 28, 2019

Context: Driven by serious sustainability concern, the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change had proposed a draft National Resource Efficiency Policy 2019. It aims to streamline the efficient use of these resources with minimum negative impact on environment. Key features of the policy: It seeks to set up a National Resource Efficiency Authority (NREA) with a core working group housed in the […]

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Public Safety Act (PSA).

November 27, 2019

Why in News? Former IAS officer has been detained under the Public Safety Act (PSA). What is the J&K PSA? The Jammu and Kashmir Public Safety Act (PSA) received the assent of the J&K Governor on April 8, 1978. The Act was introduced as a tough law to prevent the smuggling of timber and keep the smugglers “out of circulation”. […]

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World wide fund report-First Ever assessment forest biodiversity

November 27, 2019

Context: World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) has released the first-ever global assessment of forest biodiversity. Background: Until now, forest biodiversity had never been assessed, but forest area was often used as a proxy indicator. The new findings were based on the Forest Specialist Index, developed following the Living Planet Index methodology — an index that tracks wildlife that […]

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CBI Autonomy

November 27, 2019

Context: Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has recommended a comprehensive legislation to make the Central Bureau of Investigation functional as an efficient and impartial investigative agency. Problems associated with CBI: The agency is dependent on the home ministry for staffing, since many of its investigators come from the Indian Police Service. The agency depends on the law […]

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Gulf War and India

November 26, 2019

Context: In an emotive gesture, Iraq recently handed over the remains of 48 Kuwaiti nationals, more than 28 years after the Gulf War ended. What is the Gulf War? The Gulf War, which lasted between August 1990 and February 1991, was an international conflict that erupted after Iraq, under dictator Saddam Hussain, invaded neighbouring Kuwait, claiming it […]

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Stubble burning

November 26, 2019

Context: Through the various efforts under the Central Sector Scheme on ‘Promotion of Agricultural Mechanization for In-Situ Management of Crop Residue in the State of Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh & NCT of Delhi’ the paddy residue burning events have reduced by 15% and 41% in 2018 as compared to that in 2017 and 2016, respectively […]

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Bank Nationalisation in India and present status

November 26, 2019

Context: Nationalisation of banks in 1969 was a watershed moment in the history of Indian banking. From July 19 that year, 14 private banks were nationalised; another six private banks were nationalised in 1980. Why Nationalisation of banks was necessary? Large share of non- institutional sources: At the time of Independence, India’s rural financial system was marked by the domination of […]

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What is resolution 47

November 26, 2019

Context: Pakistan PM Imran Khan has termed the Government of India’s decision to remove the special status for the state of Jammu and Kashmir by modifying Article 370 as illegal since it violates UNSC resolution 47. What is Resolution 47? Resolution 47 of the UNSC focuses on the complaint of the Government of India concerning the dispute over the State […]

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Simla Agreement

November 26, 2019

What is Simla Agreement and why was it signed? The Simla Agreement was signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 2 July 1972, following a full-blown war between India and Pakistan in 1971. The Simla Agreement was “much more than a peace treaty seeking to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war […]

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Samagra Shiksha-Jal Suraksha’

November 26, 2019

Context: ‘Samagra Shiksha-Jal Suraksha’ Drive has been launched by the Department of School Education & Literacy, HRD Ministry to create awareness about water conservation among all school students in the country. Five Major Objectives: To educate students learn about conservation of water. To sensitize Students about the impact of scarcity of water. To empower Students to […]

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CITES

November 26, 2019

Context: India has submitted proposals regarding changes to the listing of various wildlife species in the CITES secretariat meeting, scheduled later this month in Geneva, Switzerland. The proposals submitted are regarding changes in the listing of the smooth-coated otter, small-clawed otter, Indian star tortoise, Tokay gecko, wedgefish and Indian rosewood. The country seeks to boost the protection of all […]

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PM Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana.

November 26, 2019

Context: Registration opens for PM Kisan Maan Dhan Yojana. Aim: To improve the life of small and marginal farmers of the country. Also Read : Fame 2 Salient features of the scheme: (Note: The list is comprehensive, but important from exam point of view). The scheme is voluntary and contributory for farmers in the entry age group […]

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Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs

November 26, 2019

  Context: Vice President Venkaiah Naidu has sought a consensus on a Code of Conduct for MPs and MLAs. This has been a longstanding concern — progress has been slow and uneven, however. A Code of Conduct for members of Rajya Sabha has been in force since 2005; there is no such code for Lok Sabha. Background: Code […]

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FAME 2

November 26, 2019

Context: The Department of Heavy Industry has approved the sanction of 5595 electric buses to 64 Cities, State Government Entities, State Transport Undertakings (STUs) for intra-city and intercity operation under FAME India scheme phase II in order to give a further push to clean mobility in public transportation. Also Read : PM Kisan  What are the salient […]

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National Medical Commission Act 2019

November 26, 2019

Context: The National Medical Commission Act 2019 has been passed by both Houses of Parliament is historic and path-breaking. What is the NMC Bill? The National Medical Commission Bill seeks to improve the medical education system in the country by ensuring availability of adequate and high-quality medical professionals, periodic assessment of medical institutions, adoption of the latest […]

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Article 371

November 26, 2019

Context: Northeastern states of India have expressed apprehension that having rendered Article 370 irrelevant, the government might unilaterally move to abrogate or modify Article 371. However, the government has clarified that it had no intention of removing Article 371 of the Constitution. What is Article 371 all about? Articles 369 through 392 appear in Part XXI of the Constitution, titled ‘Temporary, […]

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Consumer Protection Bill, 2019

November 26, 2019

Context: Landmark Consumer Protection Bill, 2019 gets Parliamentary approval. Key Provisions of the Bill: Definition of consumer: A consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or avails a service for a consideration. What it covers? It covers transactions through all modes including offline, and online through electronic means, teleshopping, multi-level marketing or direct selling. What […]

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Reorganisation of Jammu and Kashmir

November 26, 2019

Context: Ending Jammu & Kashmir’s special status in the Indian Union, the government has extended all provisions of the Constitution to the State in one go, downsized the State into two Union Territories and allowed all citizens to buy property and vote in the State. In this regard, Union Minister for Home Affairs, Shri Amit Shah, introduced two […]

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The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 

November 26, 2019

Context: The Lok Sabha has passed the Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2019 by a voice vote. Key features of the bill: Regulation of surrogacy: The Bill prohibits commercial surrogacy, but allows altruistic surrogacy. Also Read : Right to education and amendments  Purposes for which surrogacy is permitted: Surrogacy is permitted when it is: (i) for intending couples who suffer from proven infertility; (ii) altruistic; […]

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The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2019.

November 26, 2019

Context:  Lok Sabha approves The Transgender Persons (Protection of Rights) Bill 2019. Impact: The Bill will benefit a large number of transgender persons, mitigate the stigma, discrimination and abuse against this marginalized section and bring them into the mainstream of society. This will lead to inclusiveness and will make the transgender persons productive members of the society.  Background: […]

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Rajasthan Assembly Passes Anti-Lynching Bill.

November 26, 2019

Context: Rajasthan Assembly Passes Anti-Lynching Bill. Key features of the bill: Definitions: “Mob”– a group of two or more individuals. “Lynching“- “an act or series of acts of violence or those of aiding, abetting or attempting an act of violence, whether spontaneous or preplanned, by a mob on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, place […]

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POCSO Act

November 26, 2019

Context: Parliament has passed the Amendments in the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012. Key changes proposed: Penetrative sexual assault: The bill increases minimum punishment for this offence from 7 years to 10 years. It also provides for with imprisonment between 20 years to life, with fine if person commits penetrative sexual assault on child […]

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Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019.

November 26, 2019

Why is it in news? : Parliament passes the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019. Key features of the Bill: The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. Who may commit terrorism: Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: (i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism, (ii) […]

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Institution of eminence Scheme

November 26, 2019

Context: The UGC, in its Recent meeting, has considered the reports of the Empowered Expert Committee (EEC) appointed by Government under the Chairmanship of Shri N Gopalaswami recommending  (15) Public institutions and (15) Private institutions for considering to give status of Institutions of Eminence. Background: Since the scheme has only provided for (10) Public and […]

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Inter-State River Water disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019.

November 26, 2019

Context: Lok Sabha has passed the Inter-State River Water disputes (Amendment) Bill, 2019. The Bill seeks to amend the Inter State River Water Disputes Act, 1956 with a view to streamline the adjudication of inter-state river water disputes and make the present institutional architecture robust. Features of the bill: Disputes Resolution Committee: The Bill requires the central government to set […]

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Development Administration: Concept and Features

November 26, 2019

The essence of development administration is to bring about change through integrated, organised and properly directed governmental action. In the recent past the governments in most of the developing nations have shifted their focus on development by means of planned change and people’s participation. With this shift of administrative concern towards developmental objectives the researchers […]

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New Educational Policy

November 26, 2019

Context: Vice President of India and Chairman of Rajya Sabha, Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu has said that the New Educational Policy will make India a global educational hub. He urged the public to give their views and suggestions on the draft NEP by the stipulated time of 15th of this month. The Draft Policy is built on foundational […]

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J and K Reservation Bill

November 26, 2019

Context: Rajya Sabha passed the Jammu and Kashmir Reservation Bill. Passed by Lok Sabha last week, the Bill partially amends a Presidential Order of 1954 in order to amend the state’s Reservation Act. Highlights: It aims to extend the reservation in appointments and promotions for state government posts to socially and educationally backward classes. The bill […]

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Supreme Court judges from 31 to 34.

November 26, 2019

Context: Cabinet approves increasing strength of Supreme Court judges from 31 to 34. At present, the sanctioned strength of the apex court is 31. Need: 59,331 cases are pending in the top court. Due to paucity of judges, the required number of Constitution Benches to decide important cases involving questions of law are not being formed. […]

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Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019

November 26, 2019

Context: The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019, which seeks to amend the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, has been passed by the Rajya Sabha. Key highlights:  Compensation for road accident victims: The central government will develop a scheme for cashless treatment of road accident victims during golden hour. The central government may also make a scheme for providing interim relief to claimants seeking compensation […]

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Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) Program.

November 26, 2019

Context: Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) launches Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) Program. About ACIC Program: Aim: The programme aims at spurring community Innovation in underserved and unserved areas of the country. Significance: ACIC can serve as the bridge between the knowledge base existing in communities and the advanced technical ecosystem prevalent in the market base, addressing the needs of […]

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Commission to Examine Sub Categorization of other Backward Classes

November 26, 2019

Context: Cabinet approves Extension of term of the commission constituted under Article 340 of the constitution to examine the issue of Sub-categorization within other Backward Classes in the Central List. Background: Article 14 of the Constitution guarantees equality before the law. That means un-equals cannot be treated equally. Measures are required to be taken for the upliftment of un-equals […]

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Kerala Internet Rights

November 26, 2019

Why in news? The Kerala government has officially cleared the K-Fon project to provide free high speed Internet connection to over 20 lakh BPL families in the state. What are the key provisions? The government accorded administrative sanction for the Rs. 1548 crore project to be completed by December 2020. The project envisages a State-wide […]

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New zealand Zero-carbon Act

November 26, 2019

Why in news? New Zealand’s Parliament recently passed The Zero-Carbon Act, which will commit New Zealand to zero carbon emissions by 2050 or sooner. What is the Act on? The Act comes as part of the country’s attempts to meet its Paris climate accord commitments. The Act is not a separate legislation but is an […]

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Bolivian Crises

November 26, 2019

Why in news? The Bolivian senator Jeanine Anez has declared herself the country’s interim president after the resignation of Bolivian President Evo Morales. Who is Mr. Morales? Mr. Morales is Bolivia’s first indigenous President. He came to power in 2006, riding South America’s so-called “pink tide”. He rose to the top office through left-wing unionism. […]

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UN resolution on torture

November 26, 2019

Context: India joined ranks with Russia and 42 other nations to abstain from voting on a General Assembly resolution aimed at examining options to end trade in goods used for capital punishment and torture. The resolution was introduced by Romania. India’s arguments: Incorporating capital punishment into the scope of this resolution “raises concerns that it may be an attempt to […]

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Maratha Reservation Issue

November 26, 2019

Context: The Bombay High Court has upheld the constitutional validity of reservation for the Maratha community in education and government jobs in Maharashtra, but directed that it be slashed from the present 16 per cent to 12 per cent and 13 per cent respectively. Background: The Marathas who are almost one-third of Maharashtra’s population are not a homogeneous community. […]

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Indo-Pacific regional command

November 26, 2019

For Mains: Significance and potential of the region, need for international cooperation to main peace and order in the region. Context: The term Indo-Pacific has been gaining traction in Indian policy circles for some time now, it achieved operational clarity after the Indian vision was presented by Prime Minister in his keynote address at the Shangri-La Dialogue in June 2018. What […]

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Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana

November 26, 2019

For Mains: Significance of the programme and similar policies for the aid of old aged. Rashtriya Vayoshri Yojana: The Scheme aims at providing Senior Citizens, belonging to BPL category and suffering from any of the age-related disability/infirmity Low vision, Hearing impairment, Loss of teeth and Locomotor disability, with such assisted-living devices which can restore near normalcy in their […]

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DNA Technology Regulation Bill

November 26, 2019

Context: The Union Cabinet cleared the DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill once again, paving the way for its reintroduction in Parliament. Issues with the Bill: Written consent is required from everyone for their DNA samples to be collected, processed and included in the database except from those who have committed crimes with punishment of 7+ years […]

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Article 370

November 26, 2019

Context: Article 370 only temporary provision, not permanent, Said Union Home Minister Amit Shah recently. He said this during a debate on extension of President’s rule in J&K. What is Article 370? Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is a ‘temporary provision’ which grants special autonomous status to Jammu & Kashmir. Under Part XXI of the Constitution of India, which deals with […]

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Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana

November 26, 2019

Context: Houses Sanctioned Under PMAY(U) now Stands at 83.62 Lakhs. Uttar Pradesh tops list for Sanctioned Houses at 13 Lakhs. About PMAY- Urban: The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban) Programme launched by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation (MoHUPA), in Mission mode envisions provision of Housing for All by 2022, when the Nation completes 75 years of its Independence. The Mission seeks […]

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Van Dhan Yojana

November 26, 2019

Context: Training Workshop for implementing teams of Van Dhan Yojana Organized. About Van Dhan Vikas Kendras initiative: The initiative aims to promote MFPs-centric livelihood development of tribal gatherers and artisans. It mainstreams the tribal community by promoting primary level value addition to MFP at grassroots level. Significance: Through this initiative, the share of tribals in the value chain of […]

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United Nations Permanent Security Membership

November 26, 2019

Context: India’s candidature for a non-permanent seat in the Security Council has been endorsed unanimously by the Asia Pacific group, which comprises 55 countries, including Pakistan. The endorsement means that India has a “clean slate” candidature – that is there is no other contestant from the group – for the elections that will be held for five non-permanent […]

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Joint Comprehensive plan of Action

November 26, 2019

Context: Amid escalating tensions with the United States, Iran has said that it would surpass the limit on the uranium supply permitted under the 2015 nuclear agreement, a potentially combustible new phase in the country’s confrontation with Washington. Iran’s response: Iranian leaders have sought to justify these steps as a response to the Trump administration’s abandonment of […]

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Atal Tinkering labs

November 25, 2019

Context: 8878 schools have been selected for establishing Atal Tinkering Lab (ATLs) to promote research and innovation in schools. What are ATLs? With a vision to ‘Cultivate one Million children in India as Neoteric Innovators’, Atal Innovation Mission is establishing Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs) in schools across India. Objective: The objective of this scheme is to […]

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Jal Skakti Abhiyan

November 25, 2019

Context: The Centre is set to initiate the Jal Shakti Abhiyan to ramp up rainwater harvesting and conservation efforts in 255 water-stressed districts from July 1, in line with the government’s promise to focus on water. Also READ : What is Shangari la dialogue Key features: The campaign would be coordinated by 255 central IAS officers of Joint or […]

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Methane on Mars

November 25, 2019

Context: NASA’s Curiosity rover recently discovered high amounts of methane in the air on Mars, leading to excitement whether this was an indication of life on the Red Planet, or beneath its surface. However, later it was confirmed that the methane had fallen back to usual levels. What caused this variation? High amounts of methane were a transient […]

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Space Activities bill

November 25, 2019

Context: The government is likely to introduce the Space Activities Bill which will allow commercial use of space. Features of Space activities bill: It is a proposed Bill to promote and regulate the space activities of India. The new Bill encourages the participation of non-governmental/private sector agencies in space activities in India under the guidance and authorisation of the government through the Department of Space. […]

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DNA Technology Regulation Bill 

November 25, 2019

Context: Cabinet has cleared the DNA Technology (Use and Application) Regulation Bill once again, paving the way for its reintroduction in Parliament. The Bill had been passed by Lok Sabha in January this year, but could not get the approval of Rajya Sabha. As a result, it lapsed once the tenure of the previous Lok Sabha expired […]

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NITI Aayog’s Health Index

November 25, 2019

Context: NITI Aayog has released its second edition of comprehensive Health Index report titled, “Healthy States, Progressive India”. What you need to know about the report? The report has been developed by NITI Aayog, with technical assistance from the World Bank, and in consultation with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). The report ranks states […]

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National register of citizens

November 25, 2019

Context: Over one lakh people who were part of the final draft of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) published in July last year but were found ineligible thereafter — they have been named in the Additional Draft Exclusion List published recently. Why they are out of Assam NRC additional draft exclusion list? These over one lakh people were found […]

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Motion of Thanks

November 25, 2019

What is “Motion of Thanks” and what it contains? The President makes an address to a joint sitting of Parliament at the start of the Budget session, which is prepared by the government and lists its achievements. It is essentially a statement of the legislative and policy achievements of the government during the preceding year and gives a […]

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Jal hi jeevan hai

November 25, 2019

Context: The farmers of northern districts of Haryana have shown a keen interest in crop diversification scheme called ‘Jal Hi Jeevan Hai’ of the Haryana government which promotes to diversify paddy area into maize, arhar dal (pigeon pea) and soybean. About the scheme: The scheme is for replacement of Paddy by Maize and other crops in 7 dark zone blocks. […]

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National Policy on domestic Workers

November 25, 2019

Context: Draft National Policy on Domestic Workers Under Consideration. There is a need for the policy due to the following reasons: Employer-dominated, domestic work industry is characterised by low, stagnant wage rates. Wages are particularly low for Bengali and Adivasi workers. Irregular payment of wages by employer. Extraction of more work than agreed upon at the start […]

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Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana:

November 25, 2019

Context: 7.23 Crore Connections released under Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana. About Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana: Pradhan Mantri Ujjwala Yojana aims to provide LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) connections to poor households. Who is eligible? Under the scheme, an adult woman member of a below poverty line family identified through the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC) is given a deposit-free LPG […]

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National Policy on Biofuels

November 25, 2019

Context: The National Policy on Biofuels-2018 approved by the Government envisages an indicative target of 20% blending of ethanol in petrol and 5% blending of bio-diesel in diesel by 2030. National Policy on biofuels- salient features: Categorization: The Policy categorises biofuels as “Basic Biofuels” viz. First Generation (1G) bioethanol & biodiesel and “Advanced Biofuels” – Second Generation (2G) […]

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Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission.

November 25, 2019

Context: National Workshop on Experience Sharing under Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission. About SPMRM: The Shyama Prasad Mukherji Rurban Mission (SPMRM) is a unique programme, designed to deliver catalytic interventions to rural areas on the threshold of growth. Funding Support: There is a funding support of up to 30% of the estimated investment for each Rurban cluster, given as Critical […]

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World Population Prospects 2019 report

November 25, 2019

Context: As per the report, India is projected to become the most populous country by 2027 surpassing China, and host 1.64 billion people by 2050; the world as a whole could be home to 8.5 billion people in just over a decade from now, and the number could go up to 9.7 billion by mid-century. New challenges […]

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Removal of Judges

November 25, 2019

Context: Months after an in-house panel found an Allahabad High Court judge, Justice S.N. Shukla, guilty of misconduct, Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi has written to Prime Minister Narendra Modi to initiate a motion for his removal. Removal of Judges: Article 124(4) and the Judges Inquiry Act 1968 determine the procedure of removal of the […]

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Common Service Centres

November 25, 2019

Context: NSIC signs MoU with Commom Service Centres– eGovernance Services India for enhancing new offerings for the MSME sector. What are CSCs? Common Services Centers (CSCs) are a strategic cornerstone of the Digital India programme. They are the access points for delivery of various electronic services to villages in India, thereby contributing to a digitally and financially inclusive society. They are multiple-services-single-point model for […]

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Cryptocurrency

November 25, 2019

Context: There is a new cryptocurrency called Libra, announced by Facebook . While this signals Facebook’s plans to expand into the digital currency market, it has also raised privacy concerns. How cryptocurrency works? It is a virtual currency, which users buy and store in any of several available digital wallets, and use it for transactions on a decentralised network […]

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Superconductivity

November 25, 2019

Context: IISc researchers have reported superconductivity at room temperature. Their finding, now under review, will be a breakthrough if verified. Background: Superconductivity is a phenomenon that, so far, has been possible only at extremely low temperatures, in the range of 100°C below zero. The search for a material that exhibits superconductivity at room temperature, or at least […]

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Rashtriya Gokul Mission:

November 25, 2019

Context: Funds have been mobilized under Rashtriya Gokul Mission (RGM) for setting up of 21 Gokul Grams as Integrated Cattle Development Centres. About Rashtriya Gokul Mission: To conserve and develop indigenous bovine breeds, government has launched ‘Rashtriya Gokul Mission’ under the National Programme for Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBD). The Mission is being implemented with the objectives to: a) […]

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African Union

November 24, 2019

Context: India has for the first time extended $15 Million financial support to Niger as a support for organising African Union (AU) summit scheduled to be held in Niger. This will be the 1st time that Niger will be hosting an AU summit. About AU: The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 55 countries of the continent of […]

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Financial Stability and development council

November 24, 2019

Context: FSDC meeting held recently was chaired by the Union Finance Minister. About FSDC: The Financial Stability and Development Council (FSDC) was constituted in December, 2010. The FSDC was set up to strengthen and institutionalise the mechanism for maintaining financial stability, enhancing inter-regulatory coordination and promoting financial sector development. An apex-level FSDC is not a statutory body. Composition: The […]

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Squandering the gender dividend

November 24, 2019

Context: The 61st round of the National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) recorded 48.5% rural women above the age of 15 as being employed either as their major activity or as their subsidiary activity but this number dropped to 23.7% in the recently released report of the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS). If labour force survey data are to be believed, rural India is […]

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Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill 2019.

November 24, 2019

Context: The Union Cabinet has approved the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill 2019. Benefits: The proposed Bill will protect the rights of married Muslim women and prevent divorce by the practice of instantaneous and irrevocable ‘talaq-e-biddat’ by their husbands. It provides the rights of subsistence allowance, custody of minor children to victims of triple talaq i.e. talaq-e-biddat. Key provisions […]

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Shanghai Cooperation organisation

November 24, 2019

Context: SCO Summit 2019 is being held in Bishkek, capital of Kyrgyzstan. About SCO: What is it? The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, also known as the Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai. Founding members: China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. The cooperation was renamed to Shanghai Cooperation Organisation after […]

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The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2019

November 24, 2019

Context: In a major move aimed at making Aadhaar people friendly, the Union Cabinet has approved “The Aadhaar and Other Laws (Amendment) Bill, 2019” to replace the earlier ordinance. Impact: The amendments would enable UIDAI to have a more robust mechanism to serve the public interest and restrain the misuse of Aadhaar. Subsequent to this amendment, no […]

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Tenure and salaries of CIC and ICs under the Right to Information Rules, 2019

November 24, 2019

The Right to Information (Amendment) Act, 2019 amended the Right to Information Act, 2005.  The RTI Act, 2005 specified the tenure, terms of service and salaries of the Chief Information Commissioner (CIC) and Information Commissioners (ICs) at the central and state levels, in the parent law.  The RTI (Amendment) Act, 2019 removed these provisions and […]

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All States can now constitute Foreigners Tribunals

November 24, 2019

Context: The MHA has amended the Foreigners (Tribunals) Order, 1964, Changes proposed as per the amendment: It has empowered district magistrates in all States and Union Territories to set up tribunals to decide whether a person staying illegally in India is a foreigner or not. The amended Foreigners (Tribunal) Order, 2019 also empowers individuals to approach the Tribunals. The amended […]

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Three Language formula

November 24, 2019

Why is it in the news now? A 50-year-old controversy got a new lease of life recently when a paragraph in the Draft New Education Policy 2019 referred to the mandatory teaching of Hindi in States where Hindi is not spoken. This was a reiteration of the Central government’s three-language formula, but it set off a storm […]

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Hong kong Protest

November 24, 2019

Context: Huge protests in Hong Kong. Reasons behind: The protesters were marching against proposed changes in the law that would allow suspects accused of crimes such as murder and rape to be extradited to mainland China to face trial. Once the law is changed, Hong Kong will also hand over to China individuals accused of crimes […]

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Bharat Stage

November 24, 2019

Context: International Centre for Automotive Technology (ICAT) has released India’s first Type Approval Certificate (TAC) for Bharat Stage – VI (BS – VI) norms for the two wheeler segment. Last year, ICAT issued the approval for BS –VI norms to M/s Volvo Eicher Commercial Vehicles for the Heavy Commercial Vehicle segment which was also the first in its segment in India. […]

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Leader of opposition

November 24, 2019

Why in News? Congress, with 52 MPs, has declined to stake claim for the position of Leader of Opposition in Parliament. Background: Any party that has 55 members can get the post as recognised as such by the speaker/chairman. Who is the Leader of Opposition? The LOP is leader of the largest party that has not less than one-tenth […]

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Shanta Kumar Committee

November 24, 2019

Context: Union Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Shri Ram Vilas Paswan lays down the future roadmap for Food Corporation of India (FCI). He stated that primacy will be given to ensuring that the functioning of FCI is streamlined and fast paced as per recommendations of the Shanta Kumar Committee. Also Read : Bangladesh […]

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What is Strategic arms reduction theory?

November 24, 2019

Context: Russia has warned that it was prepared to drop New START treaty with the U.S. and warned of “global catastrophe” if Washington keeps dismantling a global arms control regime. It alleged that Washington showed no genuine interest in conducting talks on extending the New START treaty, which caps the number of nuclear warheads well below Cold […]

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Cabinet Committees

November 24, 2019

Context: The Union government has released the composition of eight Cabinet Committees, including two new ones — one on Investment, the other on Employment and Skill Development. What are these Cabinet Committees for? Government of India Transaction of Business Rules, 1961 emerging out of Article 77(3) of the Constitution states: “The President shall make rules for the more convenient […]

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PM-KISAN

November 24, 2019

Context: The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi has approved that the ambit of the Pradhan Mantri KisanSamman Nidhi (PM-KISAN) would be comprehensively extended. The revised Scheme is expected to cover around 2 crore more farmers, increasing the coverage of PM-KISAN to around 14.5 crore beneficiaries. With this decision, all land holding eligible […]

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Examining the rise of Non-Performing Assets in India

November 24, 2019

The issue of Non-Performing Assets (NPAs) in the Indian banking sector has become the subject of much discussion and scrutiny. The Standing Committee on Finance recently released a report on the banking sector in India, where it observed that banks’ capacity to lend has been severely affected because of mounting NPAs. The Estimates Committee of Lok […]

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Global Talent Competitive Index

November 23, 2019

Context: Global Talent Competitive Index (GTCI) for 2019 has been released. Background: GTCI, launched in 2013, is an annual benchmarking report that measures the ability of countries to compete for talent. It is released by INSEAD business school in partnership with Tata Communications and Adecco Group. The report measures levels of Global Talent Competitiveness by looking at 68 variables […]

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InSight Lander

November 23, 2019

Context: NASA’s Mars Lander InSight has recorded its first ‘Marsquake.’ It has recorded a quake of 2 or 2.5 magnitude which is hard to predict on Earth’s surface. About InSight Mission: InSight is part of NASA’s Discovery Program, managed by the agency’s Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. It will be the first mission to peer deep […]

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Priority Watch List

November 23, 2019

Context: The United States has again placed India on its ‘Priority Watch List’. India has been on the priority watch list reportedly for over 25 years, for “lack of sufficient measurable improvements to its IP framework that have negatively affected US right holders”. The office of the US Trade Representative identified 11 countries, including India, in […]

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Global Food Policy Report-2019.

November 23, 2019

Context: International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) has recently released Global Food Policy Report-2019. The report reviews the major food policy issues, developments, and decisions of 2018, and considers challenges and opportunities for 2019. This year’s Report highlights the urgency of rural revitalization to address a growing crisis in rural areas. Key observations: Rural population account for 45.3% of the […]

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Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY)

November 23, 2019

Why in News? Five years after its launch, the Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana (PMJDY) scheme has almost achieved a total balance of ₹1-lakh crore. Key facts: According to the latest data, the total balance in these basic bank accounts stood at ₹99,752 crore with 35.50 crore beneficiaries. Public sector banks have the lion’s share in total balance at ₹79,177 crore, […]

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BCIM

November 23, 2019

Why in News? India’s decision to skip the Belt and Road Forum (BRF) may have led to the exclusion of the Bangladesh- China- India- Myanmar (BCIM) Economic corridor from the list of projects covered by the China-led Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) umbrella.   Details of the issue? Citing “sovereignty” concerns, India, for the second time, has not officially participated in the […]

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National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

November 23, 2019

Context: MoEFCC has constituted a committee to implement the National Clean Air Programme (NCAP). Composition: The committee will be chaired by the Secretary, Union Environment Ministry and has among its members the Joint Secretary (Thermal), Ministry of Power; Director-General, The Energy Resources Institute (TERI) etc. Terms of reference: The committee would be headquartered in New Delhi and […]

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World Wildlife Fund

November 23, 2019

Context: Six mammal, bird and fish species are facing the spectre of extinction in Russia according to World Wildlife Fund (WWF). These include the Saiga antelope, the gyrfalcon, the Persian leopard, the spoon-billed sandpiper, the Sakhalin sturgeon and the kaluga, also a type of sturgeon. About WWF: It is an international non-governmental organization Founded in 1961 Headquarter — Gland (Switzerland). […]

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BIMSTEC

November 23, 2019

Context: By inviting leaders from the BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation) countries, Kyrgyz Republic and Mauritius at his swearing-in ceremony on May 30, Prime Minister Narendra Modi has made a carefully calibrated diplomatic move that signals a major outreach to India’s neighbourhood from the Bay of Bengal to Central Asia, as […]

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World Heritage site

November 23, 2019

Context: The Orchha town of Madhya Pradesh has been included in tentative list of the World Heritage Sites of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO). About Orchha Town: It is Situated on the banks of the river Betwa, in Niwari district of Bundelkhand region of Madhya Pradesh. Significance: The town is celebrated for its rich and ancient architecture […]

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Coral reef Bleaching

November 23, 2019

Context: Researchers have found an alarming pattern of bleaching in the reefs in Mandapam, Keezhakkarai and Palk Bay in Gulf of Mannar regions. Key findings: Sea surface temperature ranged from 28.7°C to 31°C in the August 2018-February 2019 period and there was no bleaching seen then. However, when the temperatures rose to between 32°C and […]

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Chagos Archipelago Issue

November 23, 2019

Why in News? The United Nation General Assembly (UNGA) has passed a non-binding resolution asking United Kingdom (UK) to return Chagos Archipelago in Indian Ocean to Mauritius. What has the International Court of Justice said on this? The UK should end its control of the Chagos Islands in the Indian Ocean as rapidly as possible. The islands are […]

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Anthropocene

November 23, 2019

Context: A team of scientists have voted to declare “Anthropocene” as a new chapter in the Earth’s geological history- the new epoch. The result builds on an informal vote taken at the 2016 International Geological Congress in Cape Town, and lays the groundwork for a formal proposal by 2021 to the International Commission on Stratigraphy. What is […]

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Ultima Thule

November 23, 2019

Context: NASA has found evidence of a unique mixture of water ice, methanol, and organic molecules on Ultima Thule’s surface. This mixture is very different from most icy objects explored previously by spacecraft till date.   About Ultima Thule: Located in the Kuiper belt in the outermost regions of the Solar system. Measures approximately 30 km in […]

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United Nations under the definition of state

November 23, 2019

Context: The Delhi High Court has ruled that the United Nations is not a State under Article 12 of the Constitution of India and is not amenable to its jurisdiction under Article 226 of the Constitution. Background: A plea was filed by a former UNO employee who was found guilty of misconduct. The petitioner was convicted by a US Federal […]

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Masala Bonds

November 23, 2019

Context: Kerala Infrastructure Investment Fund Board issued Masala Bonds to raise funds from the overseas market. What are Masala Bonds? Masala Bonds are rupee-denominated bonds i.e the funds would be raised from overseas market in Indian rupees. Eligibility: Any corporate, body corporate and Indian bank is eligible to issue Rupee denominated bonds overseas. Limitations: RBI mandates that the money […]

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7th Economic Census

November 23, 2019

Context: The 7th Economic Census -2019 is being conducted by MoSPI to provide disaggregated information on various operational and structural aspects of all establishments in the country. Implementing agency: MoSPI has partnered with Common Service Centres, CSC e-Governance Services India Limited, a Special Purpose Vehicle under the MEITY as the implementing agency. About Economic Censuses: Launched in 1976 as a plan scheme. Coverage: All […]

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Aditya

November 23, 2019

Context: The Indian Space Research Organization is planning to launch Aditya- L1 mission to study the sun early in 2020. About Aditya- L1 mission: What is it? It is India’s first solar mission. Objectives: It will study the sun’s outer most layers, the corona and the chromospheres and collect data about coronal mass ejection, which will also […]

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Naming of cyclones

November 23, 2019

Context: The newest cyclone to emerge out of the Bay of Bengal has been named Fani. Before that, there were cyclones Hudhud in 2014, Ockhi in 2017 and Titli and Gaja in 2018. How are these cyclones named? Each Tropical Cyclone basin in the world has its own rotating list of names. For cyclones in […]

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Sovereign Internet Bill

November 23, 2019

Context: Russian President Vladimir Putin has signed into law a “sovereign internet” bill. Key features: The measures include creating technology to monitor internet routing and to steer Russian internet traffic away from foreign servers, ostensibly to prevent a foreign country from shutting it down. The bill created a system that gives the authorities the capacity to block access to […]

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Mission Shakti

November 23, 2019

Why in News? Stating that defence and offensive space technologies are being developed with various aims of spying, gaining control, deactivating service and destroying, French Envoy in India Alexandre Ziegler has supported India’s Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile test as a response to these growing threats. What is it? Mission Shakti is a joint programme of the Defence Research and Development […]

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LG of Puducherry

November 23, 2019

Context: The Madras High Court has ruled that the Lieutenant-Governor (L-G) of Puducherry could not interfere with the day-to-day administration of the Union Territory when an elected government was in place. The court said incessant interference from the L-G would amount to running a “parallel government.” Key observations made by the court: The Central government as well as the Administrator [the […]

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Electoral bonds

November 23, 2019

What is the Electoral Bonds Scheme? The Finance Bill, 2017 introduced “electoral bonds” — interest-free bearer bonds (like Promissory Notes) that can be purchased from specified branches of the State Bank of India in a designated 10-day window in every quarter of the financial year. The scheme, which was notified on January 2, 2018, allows individuals […]

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E-cigarettes

November 23, 2019

Context: The Commerce Ministry has asked the Health Ministry to frame a law banning manufacture and sale of e-cigarettes in the country as in the absence of a domestic legislation, it would not be possible to put a blanket ban on its imports. What are e-cigarettes? An electronic cigarette (or e-cig) is a battery-powered vaporizer that mimics tobacco smoking. […]

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Official Secrets Act

November 23, 2019

Recently ,Supreme Court has rejected the Centre’s twin arguments and ruled that classified documents accessed by the media on the Rafale fighter jet deal can be admitted as evidence and agreed to review its own order that the government had interpreted as a clean chit. The court upheld the right of The Hindu newspaper to […]

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Arms Trade Treaty

November 23, 2019

Context: US President Donald Trump has rejected the United Nations’ 2013 Arms Trade Treaty aimed at regulating the global arms trade. Trump described the UN arms trade treaty as misguided and an intrusion on US sovereignty. By pulling out of the ATT, the US joins India, which has not signed the treaty. Why is India against this treaty? […]

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BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE (BRI)

November 23, 2019

Context: Recently, China held its 2nd Belt and Road Forum (BRF) to showcase its trillion-dollar Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) without India’s presence for the second consecutive time, while 37 heads of the state and government, including from Pakistan, attended the three-day grand event. India has been boycotting the BRI to protest over the USD […]

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SAGAR Programme

November 23, 2019

SAGAR Programme (Security and Growth for All in the Region) SAGAR is a term coined by PM Modi in 2015 during his Mauritius visit with a focus on blue economy. It is a maritime initiative which gives priority to Indian Ocean region for ensuring peace, stability and prosperity of India in Indian Ocean region. The […]

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Project Mausam

November 23, 2019

Mausam Project ‘Mausam’ is a Ministry of Culture project to be implemented by Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA), New Delhi as the nodal coordinating agency with support of Archeological Survey of India and National Museum as associate bodies. Project Launch The unique idea of this project to showcase a Transnational Mixed Route (including Natural and Cultural Heritage) on the […]

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QUAD and QUAD Plus

November 23, 2019

What is QUAD and why are they coming together? The coming together of India, the US, Japan and Australia is being seen as building a strategic partnership to deal with China’s rise and its implications. As all these countries have noted in different ways, China’s rise has presented a serious challenge to a rules-based international […]

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Indo-Pacific division

November 23, 2019

India has set up an Indo-Pacific division in the Ministry of External Affairs. The new division is intended to give a coherent architecture to the policy, which was articulated by the prime minister at the Shangri-La Dialogue in 2018. Highlights of PM Narendra Modi’s address at Shangri-La By projecting an equivalence in ties with the US, Russia, and […]

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What is the Shangri-La Dialogue?

November 23, 2019

What is the Shangri-La Dialogue? The IISS Asia Security Summit was launched in 2002 by British think tank the International Institute for Strategic Studies and the Singaporean government. This annual dialogue brings together defence ministers and military chiefs from 28 Asia-Pacific countries to talk about security in the region. It gets its name from the […]

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Lateral entry in India

November 23, 2019

What is lateral entry? The lateral entry mode, which pertains to the appointment of specialists from private sector in government organisations, is an attempt by the government to bring in fresh talent into the bureaucracy. Almost a year after it invited applications to induct outside professionals into government departments, the Centre has appointed nine non-governmental […]

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VVPAT

November 23, 2019

Recently A PIL has been moved in the Delhi High Court seeking directions to the Election Commission to inspect the paper slips of the VVPAT electronic voting machines (EVMs) of all constituencies in the 2019 Lok Sabha elections. The petition, by a person claiming to be a social worker, has sought inspection of the voter-verified […]

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Citizenship

November 20, 2019

The laws in India are governed by the Constitution of India. Citizenship Article 5 to 11 deal with the Citizenship of India. The draft regarding the citizenship was created and destroyed multiple times, before incorporating the final draft in the Constitution as Part II, it was amended over 100 times. The problem of citizenship was as […]

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CHRIS ARGYRIS

November 19, 2019

Chris Argyris was basically a psychologist who studied organisation from the stand point of psychology. He has dwelt on length on the social and psychological needs of the organisation and the demands of an organisation.Chris Argyris has extensively applied the research findings of psychology, social psychology and human relations in the study of organisations. He studied […]

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Water quality in India

November 19, 2019

Why in news? A recent report of the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution highlight the concern with tap water quality in major Indian cities. What is the current state of water quality? Going by the matrix of tests carried out by the Bureau of Indian Standards for the Ministry, Delhi has abysmal […]

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Plague in China

November 19, 2019

China reported a third case of bubonic plague on Sunday after two other plague cases were revealed last week, but the disease remains rare despite its fearsome reputation and authorities say the cases appear unrelated. How does the infection occur? Two patients from Inner Mongolia were quarantined in Beijing suffering from pneumonic plague, authorities said […]

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William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations!

November 18, 2019

William Ouchi’s Theory Z of Motivation: Features and Limitations! William Ouchi developed Theory Z after making a comparative study of Japanese and American management practices. Theory Z is an integrated model of motivation. Theory Z suggests that large complex organisations are human systems and their effectiveness depends on the quality of humanism used. A type […]

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Federalism in India

November 18, 2019

Nature of Indian federalism The constitution of India has not described India as a federation. However, Article 1 of Indian constitution describes India as a ‘’Union of States.’’ This means India is a union comprising of various states which are an integral part of it. Here, the states cannot break away from the union. They […]

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MAKING OF THE CONSTITUTION

November 18, 2019

Constitution is the fundamental and supreme law of a country, which describes the method of formation of Government, nature of Government, its powers and responsibilities. Our Constitution also describes who citizens are, and what are their rights and duties. SOURCES OF OUR CONSTITUTION Government of India Act, 1935, is considered as the base of the […]

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Parliamentary form of government in India

November 18, 2019

Parliamentary System in India The democratic system of government can be divided into the parliamentary and the presidential system based on the relationship between the executive and the legislature. In a parliamentary system, executive is a part of legislature, which implements the law and plays an active role in framing it as well. In a […]

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Preamble of India

November 18, 2019

The Preamble serves as an introduction to the Constitution. It was amended by the 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act in 1976, which determined to constitute India into a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, and Democratic republic. It secures justice, liberty, equality to all the citizens of India and promotes fraternity among the people. The Preamble states: WE, THE […]

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Aging Population issue in India

November 18, 2019

Aging Population issue in India Ageing in India is exponentially increasing due to the impressive gains that society has made in terms of increased life expectancy. With the rise in elderly population, the demand for holistic care tends to grow. By 2025, the geriatric population is expected to be 840 million in developing countries . […]

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Citizenship Amendment Bill

November 18, 2019

The government intends to introduce The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill in Parliament’s Winter Session that commences on Monday and is scheduled to continue until December 13. What is this Bill, and why is it contentious? What is The Citizenship (Amendment) Bill? The Bill seeks to amend The Citizenship Act, 1955 to make Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist, Jain, […]

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CJI and RTI

November 14, 2019

What is the recent ruling of supreme court in RTI Case? The Supreme Court ruled that the office of the Chief Justice of India (CJI) is a public authority under the Right to Information (RTI) Act. A five-judge Constitution Bench headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi, and including Justices N V Ramana, D Y Chandrachud, Deepak Gupta, […]

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Scientific Management Movement

November 5, 2019

Scientific Management Movement Management is the art of getting things done. There have been two important events in history which influenced the nature of the organizations and organizational management. Enlightenment (Renaissance- 16th Century)– This was the era where there was restlessness and rejection pertaining to control of church, irrationality, superstitions, unscientific approaches, feudalism, monarchies etc. This […]

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Contribution of Administration Thinkers.

November 5, 2019

Here we are giving the Significant Works and Ideas of Administrative Thinkers which will help the candidates. Public Administration Thinkers | Administrative Thinkers Name Who Important Concepts Abraham Maslow 1908-1970 American Psychologist and Motivation Theorist Hierarchy of needs Self-actualisation Peak experiences Chester, I. Barnard 1886-1961 American Executive and Management Thinker Acceptance theory of authority and […]

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Salient features of Indian Constitution

November 2, 2019

The Constitution of India is considered as a distinctive constitution around the globe. It is the largest written liberal democratic constitution of the world. It offers for a mixture of federalism and Unitarianism, and flexibility and with rigidity. The Constitution of India was outlined by a Constituent Assembly. This Assembly was an indirectly chosen body. […]

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Bureaucracy and development

November 2, 2019

Bureaucracy as an organization is expected to play a pivotal role, in process of development. The concept of Development Administration had originated in U.S.A. and as such bureaucratic systems are expected to be effective instruments to achieve objectives of development. With their emphasis on rules and regulations, division of labour, hierarchy, role specialists, rationality, impersonally […]

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Political culture

November 1, 2019

POLITICAL CULTURE: Political culture can be defined as “The orientation of the citizens of a nation toward politics, and their perceptions of political legitimacy and the tradition of political practice,” and the feelings expressed by individuals in the position of the elected offices that allow for the nurture of a political society. Political culture is […]

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Constitutionalism

November 1, 2019

In the present post, we will briefly understand the definitions relating to constitution, constitutional law, constitutionalism and metaconstitution.   Constitution means the codified bare text of the constitution and Constitutional law means the constitution as interpreted and construed by the courts.This interpretation or the construction which the courts do to the constitution is called constitutional […]

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Employment Growth in India?

November 1, 2019

Ever since the results of the Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) 2017-18 became public — they showed that unemployment in India was at a 45-year high — there has been vigorous public debate about the true state of unemployment in the country. What has fueled this debate — and allowed different people to arrive at differing conclusions […]

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What is Edge computing?

November 1, 2019

What is cloud computing? Cloud computing — by which remote servers hosted on the Internet store and process data, rather than local servers or personal computers — is ready to move to the next level. Amazon, Microsoft, and Alphabet, the parent company of Google — the technology giants that provide cloud computing infrastructure to major corporates and governments […]

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Modi-Xi meet in Mahabalipuram for ‘Informal Summit.

October 14, 2019

What are informal summmits?What is their importance? Informal Summits act as supplementary exchanges to annual Summits and other formal exchanges such as the G20 Summit, EU-India Summit and the BRICS Summit among others, and allow for “direct, free and candid exchange of views” between countries, something that may not be possible to do through formal […]

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What is IIP and why does it matter?

October 14, 2019

Why is it in News? According to the data for the “Quick Estimates of Index of Industrial Production” released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) on Friday, India’s industrial sector production contracted by 1.1 per cent in August when compared to the production in the same month in 2018. As far as such year-on-year […]

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Why Lok Sabha is still 543

October 14, 2019

Why the issue is in news? Last week, former Union Minister and Congress leader Jitin Prasada said the number of Lok Sabha seats should be rationalised on the basis of population. The composition of the Lower House has remained more or less the same for four decades. How is the composition determined, and what are […]

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What is PMC Bank fraud and how it started

October 14, 2019

What was RBI’s orders w.r.t PMC Bank fraud ? The RBI also put sanctions on the withdrawal of money from the bank to just Rs 1,000 per customer for the next six months, sending the small account holders into tizzy. The limit was raised to Rs. 10,000 but angry customers have continued to protest. Why […]

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Importance of NCERT BOOKS for UPSC Exams (Why, What, How)

October 9, 2019

 Why NCERT books are important? Being the most basic books and written in very simple language, lucid and neutral perspective makes NCERTs as the base for the entire preparation. One will get most of their basic covered for the geography and history from these books. Secondly, mains answer writing language should be similar to the writing style of […]

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Multiple Regulatory Bodies in India – Issues & Suggestions

October 4, 2019

Regulatory body is an organization set up by the Government to monitor, guide and control a particular sector such as banking, insurance, education or healthcare. The number of regulatory bodies in India has increased greatly after the economic liberalization of 1991 when the government gradually transformed itself from player to umpire. Today, we’ve independent regulators for most of […]

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Bangladesh v/s India growth rate

October 2, 2019

The latest economic outlook update released by the Asian Development Bank has shown how Bangladesh, and not India, is the standout economy in terms of growth momentum in South Asiia As charts 1 and 2 show, Bangladesh is experiencing high and consistently rising economic growth rate while maintaining a stable level of inflation For instance, […]

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Pert and CPM

September 27, 2019

Project management can be understood as a systematic way of planning, scheduling, executing, monitoring, controlling the different aspects of the project, so as to attain the goal made at the time of project formulation. PERT and CPM are the two network-based project management techniques, which exhibit the flow and sequence of the activities and events. Program […]

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National Population Register

September 27, 2019

What is the NPR(National Population Register)? The NPR is a list of “usual residents of the country”. According to the Ministry of Home Affairs, a “usual resident of the country” is one who has been residing in a local area for at least the last six months, or intends to stay in a particular location […]

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Quantum Supremacy

September 26, 2019

What is quantum supremacy? It means only that researchers have been able to use a quantum computer to perform a single calculation that no conventional computer, even the biggest supercomputer, can perform in a reasonable amount of time. The case of Google: This calculation involved checking whether the output of an algorithm for generating random numbers […]

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Bank Merger in India- Indepth analysis

September 26, 2019

Recently, Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman announced the government’s decision to merge 10 state-owned banks to create four large entities or lenders. Under the plan, Oriental Bank of Commerce and United Bank of India will be merged with Punjab National Bank; Canara Bank with Syndicate Bank; Andhra Bank and Corporation Bank with Mumbai-based Union Bank of India; and […]

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O and M Working in India

September 25, 2019

Organisation and Methods (O & M) The Meaning of O and M-The O and M is an abbreviation for Organization and Methods’. O & M work means reviewing the internal organization and procedures of any administrative agency with a view to suggest improvements so as a ensure greater efficiency in its working Efficiency is of […]

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PPP model of Indian government-Examples

September 23, 2019

Some of the successful or failure examples of PPP models of Indian government are:- CASES OF SUCCESSFUL PPP MODELS: 1.) IN TRANSPORT SECTOR: A.) SECOND VIVEKANANDA BRIDGE (now Sister Nivedita Bridge) in Kolkata:- >>This bridge is one the first BOT projects, undertaken in 1995. BOT was one of the earliest model of PPP. Other than […]

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What is Houthi Movement ?

September 21, 2019

What is Houthi Movement? The Houthis officially called Ansar Allah, is a Zaidi tribal political movement that emerged from and is based around Sa’dah in northern Yemen under the leadership of Hussein Badreddin Al-Houthi. They developed in the 1990s and have been fighting the central government on and off since 2004. seeking an end to […]

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How is scaling done in UPSC?

September 20, 2019

Many of the UPSC CSE candidates break their heads trying to figure out the scaling system done by the UPSC. A lot of candidates who take up maths or science subjects as optionals worry that because of scaling, they stand to get fewer marks than what they should be getting. But the UPSC does scaling […]

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Failed Talbian USA peace talks?

September 20, 2019

What is the result of Failed talks between USA and Iran? How has taliban responded to the failed talks? When the U.S.-Taliban talks collapsed last week, the insurgent group threatened to step up attacks in Afghanistan. It made good on its pledge on Tuesday using two suicide bombers who killed at least 48 people by targeting a […]

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What is Corporate Social Responsibility

September 20, 2019

What is Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a self-regulating business model that helps a company be socially accountable — to itself, its stakeholders, and the public. By practicing corporate social responsibility, also called corporate citizenship, companies can be conscious of the kind of impact they are having on all aspects of society […]

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Riggs model of Comparative Public Administration

September 16, 2019

Fred Riggs Every culture offers support and obstacles to change and development. Fred Riggs wanted to demonstrate how external conditions influence administrative systems. Three Tools: Ecological approach Structural – Functional Ideal models.   Ecological Approach: Administration is one subsystem of a society and so is influenced by other subsystems viz. political, social, cultural and economic dimensions. […]

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Amazon Forest Fires

September 11, 2019

The record number of fires ravaging the Amazon has drawn international outrage because of the rainforest’s importance to the global environment and prompted Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro to dispatch the military to assist in firefighting. Here is what you need to know about the disaster. WHY DOES THE AMAZON MATTER? The Amazon – 60% of […]

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NPT and NSG

September 8, 2019

NPT(nuclear non proliferation treaty ) was signed in 1968 to prevent spread of nuclear materials,technology and weapons and to develop co-operation among the nations . This treaty was signed by a total of 191 countries except for India, South Sudan,Israel and Pakistan.This treaty recognised two groups of countries namely the NWS(nuclear weapon States) comprising US, UK ,China,France and Russia […]

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India’s Three stage Nuclear Power Programme

September 8, 2019

India’s Three-Stage Nuclear Power Programme India’s three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated by Homi Bhabha in the 1950s to secure the country’s long term energy independence, through the use of uranium and thorium reserves found in the monazite sands of coastal regions of South India. The ultimate focus of the programme is on enabling the thorium reserves of India to be utilized in […]

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Causes for the slowdown in the Indian Economy

September 4, 2019

Much has been written and said about the ongoing economic slowdown in the Indian Economy. What was being indirectly said about several economic indicators flashing warning signals for the last year or so, what has triggered the present criticism is the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) figures for the last quarter which came in at 5.7% […]

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NRC issue explained in detail

September 4, 2019

What is the issue? The final updated list of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) was released on August 31, 2018. Fear and disquiet have gripped nearly around two million residents of Assam after their names failed to show up in the list. What is the tragedy? The Bengali-origin Assamese whose names appear on the […]

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HERBERT A. SIMON

August 18, 2019

DECISION-MAKING SCHOOL OF THOUGHT Herbert Simon was an American social scientist who began his career in local government. His early interest is evaluating the efficiency of different methods of local administration led him to the new field of `operations research’. He was Director of the Social Science Research Council and Nuclear Science and Engineering Corporation. […]

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Comparison of Human Relations School with the Classical School

August 18, 2019

Comparison of Human Relations School of Thought with the Classical School Human Relations Theory of George Elton Mayo is basically built upon the successes and not on the failures of classical theory i.e. it is not that the ideas of the structural school of thought were totally discarded by the scholars of the Human Relations […]

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Elton Mayo

August 18, 2019

Elton Mayo  The development of the human relations theory can be traced back to the contributions of the Hugo Munster Berg and Elton Mayo and his colleagues. Hugo Munster Berg– is widely recognised as the founder of the concept of Industrial Psychology and he published his book ‘Psychology and Industrial Efficiency’ in 1913. He developed […]

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Chief of Defence Staff

August 17, 2019

Practice so far: India has had a feeble equivalent known as the Chairman, Chiefs of Staff Committee (CoSC); but this is a toothless office, given the manner in which it is structured. The senior-most among the three Service Chiefs is appointed to head the CoSC, an office that lapses with the incumbent’s retirement.   Why change it […]

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Delimitation in Jammu and Kashmir

August 14, 2019

What is the provision of delimitation in Jammu and kashmir in Jammu and Kashmir reorganisation Act 2019  The Jammu and Kashmir Reorganisation Act, 2019, provides for increasing the number of assembly seats in the newly formed Union territory of Jammu and Kashmir from 107 to 114. Delimitation is the process of fixing limits or boundaries […]

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Consumer Protection Bill, 2019

August 14, 2019

Consumer Protection Bill, 2019 The Consumer Protection Bill, 2019 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Ram Vilas Paswan on July 8, 2019. The Bill replaces the Consumer Protection Act, 1986. Who is a Consumer? A consumer is defined as a person who buys any good or […]

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Recently Passed bills in 2019

August 14, 2019

This was the first session of the Parliament after the Lok Sabha elections, the Parliament passed not only landmark bills like repealing of Article 370, geographical reorganisation of Jammu and Kashmir, Triple Talaq Bill, new Motor Vehicle Amendment Bill, but also created the record for maximum Bills passed in the last 67 years. Here’s the […]

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Slowdown in the economy

August 12, 2019

Is Slowdown phenomenon confined to India? INDIA is not alone in suffering an economic slowdown. From Japan to Thailand, the economic scene is not rosy and the governments of many neighbouring countries in the East are trying to revive growth through stimulus packages. The biggest casualty is the manufacturing sector which has been facing a […]

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The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019

August 12, 2019

The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019 The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill, 2019 was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of State for Women and Child Development, Mr. Virendra Kumar on January 8, 2019. The Bill amends the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act, 2012.  The Act seeks to […]

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Hong Kong China Conflict

August 12, 2019

Is Hong Kong an independent nation? Hong Kong is semi-autonomous – with it’s own money, passports, immigration channels and legal system. But it isn’t quite independent either. In fact, Hong Kong was never an independent country. Britain controlled the region as a British colony until 1997, when a 99-year lease expired. China agreed to govern […]

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Simla Agreement

August 12, 2019

Q. What was the Simla agreement? The Simla Agreement was signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto on 2 July 1972, following a full-blown war between India and Pakistan in 1971. As ‘East Pakistan’ gained independence to become Bangladesh, India was left to deal with approximately 90,000 Pakistani soldiers captured […]

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Unlawful Activities prevention Act amendment

August 9, 2019

Background: The Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967 aims at the effective prevention of unlawful activities across India and abroad. Its main objective was to provide powers to central agencies and states to deal with terrorist activities. Recently Rajya Sabha has cleared the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019 or anti-terror law. The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities […]

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National Medical Commission Bill:

August 9, 2019

  Background: The Medical Council of India was first established in 1934 under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1933. This Act was repealed and replaced with a new Act in 1956. Under the 1956 Act, the objectives of MCI include: Maintenance of standards in medical education through curriculum guidelines, inspections and permissions to start colleges, courses or increasing number […]

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Critical Appraisal of Theory of Principles (or Classical Theory)

August 8, 2019

Classical school Public Administration The thinking in the Classical School of thought which believes in organisational principles was influenced by the writings of Henry Fayol. Since he was the one who for the first time advocated the functional division of work, he is called the earliest “Functionalist”. Also for the attempt on his part to […]

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Article 370 and its relationship with Afghanistan

August 7, 2019

Background:Article 370 and its relationship with Afghanistan  India’s move to end the special status for Jammu and Kashmir indicates that the government is bracing for serious geo-strategic shifts that wiall unfold in South Asia over the next few months. Though the domestic reasons for ending the special status was presented through a detailed analysis of the negative […]

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Gilgit Baltistan Region Issue

August 7, 2019

The Gilgit Baltistan was a region of princely state of India ruled by Maharaja Hari Singh. Before independence; a rebellion occurred and rebels established an independent rule for a short time. After that; keeping view of the Muslim predominance in the region; it has been merged with Pakistan but still the region is neither recognized […]

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Article 370 and the Future of Jammu and Kashmir | Editorial Analysis

August 7, 2019

Is Art 35A and Art 370 justified? The law on the subject is well settled as previous Benches have already shown approval for the 1954 presidential order. Even otherwise, Art 35A is not amenable to a conventional basic structure challenge. This is because India’s Constitution establishes a form of asymmetric federalism. Clearly, some States enjoy […]

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370(3) Current affairs class no 5 | 2020

August 7, 2019

Is Art 35A and Art 370 justified? The law on the subject is well settled as previous Benches have already shown approval for the 1954 presidential order. Even otherwise, Art 35A is not amenable to a conventional basic structure challenge. This is because India’s Constitution establishes a form of asymmetric federalism. Clearly, some States enjoy […]

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Forest Act 1927 and amendment | 4th Class | 2020

August 6, 2019

Amendments to Forest Act and Tribal Revolt Recently DISTRICTS with sizeable tribal populations saw several protests and demonstrations on Monday. The protests were organised by the Bhumi Adhikar Andolan. There were two issues that the demonstrators were decrying. One,the proposed amendments to the Indian Forest Act (IFA), 1927; the concerned amendments to the IFA have […]

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NCERT Lecture Series | Lecture # 1

August 6, 2019

NCERT form the basis of IAS preparation. Indus lecture series on NCERT, rugby covering the entire NCERT book from class 6th to 12th.All Ncerts will be covered.You can download the link of the NCERT Gist books created by G.Rajput Sir.

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Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019: Key Amendments

August 3, 2019

Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, 2019: Key Amendments 1. Road Safety The Bill proposes to increase penalties for traffic violations to act as a future deterrent. It proposes stricter provisions for offences such as drunken driving, juvenile driving, driving without licence, over-speeding, dangerous driving and overloading. It also proposes stricter provisions for driving without helmets. The […]

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Amendments to Forest Act and Tribal Revolt

August 3, 2019

Recently DISTRICTS with sizeable tribal populations saw several protests and demonstrations on Monday. The protests were organised by the Bhumi Adhikar Andolan. There were two issues that the demonstrators were decrying. One, the proposed amendments to the Indian Forest Act (IFA), 1927; the concerned amendments to the IFA have been sent to states for consultation. […]

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Global Innovation Index and India’s ranking

August 2, 2019

Introduction: The Government of India has launched the Global Innovation Index (GII) in New Delhi. This is the first time that the GII is being launched in an emerging economy. The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT) of Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Government of India, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and […]

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Federal Reserve Cut and its impact on Indian Economy

August 2, 2019

What is the Global Trend w.r.t easing of interest Rates? Central banks globally are moving towards monetary easing. The European Central Bank and Bank of Japan are slated to meet this week. In recent months, central banks of China, India, Malaysia, and the Philippines have opted for accommodating measures with South Korea and Indonesia being the latest. […]

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Blockchain Technology Uses

July 28, 2019

Blockchain Technology Uses Blockchain is the digital, distributed, and decentralized ledger underlying most virtual currencies that’s responsible for logging all transactions without the need for a financial intermediary, such as a bank. In other words, it’s a new means of transmitting funds and/or logging information. You’re probably wondering what this potentially game-changing technology can actually […]

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Blockchain Technology Explained in Easiest way

July 28, 2019

Block Chain Technology Explained in Easiest Way Blockchain explained in easiest way- Let’s imagine you are a singer. You finished recording a song and posted it online or sent it to a friend. Basically what you did was creating duplicates of the same file. One held by you, the other by your friend and another […]

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Q.What should be the right strategy to prepare for Ethics paper?

July 27, 2019

How to prepare for ethics Paper? (Ethics, Integrity and Aptitude) (250 Marks) Introduction of this Paper: This paper will include questions to test the candidate’s attitude and approach to issues relating to integrity, probity in public life and his problem solving approach to various issues and conflicts faced by him in dealing with society. Questions […]

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How to Prepare for Sociology Optional Strategy?

July 27, 2019

Sociology Optional Strategy Sociology is a very interesting subject and easy to understand. It has a relatively short syllabus, which can be completed in a span of 4 months and is considered a safe optional with respect to marks. It has good overlap with general studies and helps in essay paper as well. You should […]

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What should be the right strategy to prepare for Political Science optional subject?

July 27, 2019

Political Science And International Relations  Why ? The minor reasons are- 1. Help in GS II 2. Help in Essay 3. Help in Interview (questions on constitution and IR are very common) Time Needed to prepare Political science optional Subject I think a minimum of 3 months are required to finish one reading but that […]

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How should one study for Public Administration optional?

July 27, 2019

Public Administration is one tricky subject depending on the average scores candidates have got in last few years. Relatively in 2018 CSE exam, There is a good number of candidates making it to final list taking Public Administration as optional. To score good marks in Public Administration, one has to understand that there is difference […]

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What should be the right strategy to study Indian Polity?

July 26, 2019

Indian Polity is an important subject in Civil Services Exam. The subject deals with different topics including State Legislature, Union Executive, Union Legislature, Fundamental Duties, The Judiciary, Constitutional History and many more. In order to score high marks in Polity, you should follow a unique study plan. Strategy for studying Indian Polity: How to ready […]

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Narasimhan Committee-II Recommendations

July 25, 2019

Narasimhan Committee-II Recommendations The Narasimhan Committee on banking sector reforms submitted its report in April 1998 and made a series of sweeping recommendations. The report covers an entire gamut of issues ranging from bank mergers and the creation of globalised banks to bank closures, recasting bank boards and revamping banking legislations. The Committee makes a […]

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Narasimhan Committee Recommendations:

July 25, 2019

Narasimhan Committee Recommendations: The Committee on Financial Sector Reforms headed by Mr. M. Narasimhan (1991) recommended a large number of measures to reform the banking and financial sector. Major recommendations of the Committee were as follows: (i.) There should be no bar to new banks being set up in the private sector, provided they conformed […]

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Transfer Pricing and Advance Pricing Agreements

July 25, 2019

Transfer Pricing and Advance Pricing Agreements Transfer Pricing refers to the pricing of assets, tangible and intangible, services, and funds transferred within an organisation in cross-border transactions. In other words, transfer pricing is the price at which a company sells goods to its own parent or subsidiary. Tax administrations apply stringent rules to pricing of […]

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What is outcome Budgeting?

July 25, 2019

OUTCOME BUDGET A system of performance budgeting by Ministries handling development programmes was introduced in 1969 following the recommendations of the Administrative Reforms Commission. For long, a need has been felt to address certain weaknesses that have crept into the performance budgeting framework such as lack of clear one-to-one relationship between the financial and the […]

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Non-Banking Financial Companies

July 25, 2019

Non-Banking Financial Companies Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) broadly fall into three categories, viz., NBFCs accepting deposits from the public; NBFCs not accepting/holding public deposits: and core investment companies (i.e., those acquiring shares / securities of their group/ holding/ subsidiary companies to the extent of not less than 90 percent of total assets and which do […]

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Inflation in India

July 25, 2019

Inflation is defined as a situation in which there is a gradual rise in the general price level and a fall in the value / purchasing power of money observed over a period of time which may generate expectations of a further rise. Inflation implies a sustained, unchecked rise in the general price level observed […]

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GENERAL ANTI-AVOIDANCE RULES (GAAR)

July 23, 2019

GAAR is incorporated in Direct Tax Code as a very important provision of direct tax policy. Objective of GAAR: Its objective is to prevent misuse and abuse of tax policy and counter aggressive tax avoidance schemes while ensuring that it is used only in appropriate cases by enabling a review of GAAR. It aims at […]

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Direct Taxes Code

July 23, 2019

Salient Features and Highlights of the diluted DTC are as follows: DTC removes most of the categories of exempted income. Unit Linked Plans (ULIPs), Equity Linked Mutual Funds (ELSS), Term deposits, NSCs (National Savings certificates), Long term infrastructures bonds, house loan principal repayment, stamp duty and registration fees on purchase of house property will lose […]

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CONCEPT OF DEFICITS

July 23, 2019

A budget can be a balance budget, surplus budget or a deficit budget on revenue account. The Union Budget every year projects four deficits viz., revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit and effective revenue deficit. It may also project monetised deficit which reflects borrowing from the RBI. Various deficits that appear in Union Budget are […]

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Non-Banking Financial Companies

July 23, 2019

Non-Banking Financial Companies (NBFCs) broadly fall into three categories, viz., NBFCs accepting deposits from the public; NBFCs not accepting/holding public deposits: and core investment companies (i.e., those acquiring shares / securities of their group/ holding/ subsidiary companies to the extent of not less than 90 percent of total assets and which do not accept public […]

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BASEL NORMS

July 23, 2019

BASEL NORMS These are norms of sound banking practices laid down by the Basel Committee on Bank Supervision located at Basel, Switzerland. This Committee operates under the auspices of the Bank for International Settlement (BIS) located in Basel which acts as Central bank of Central banks, of which the RBI is also a member. Basel […]

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What is authorized, issued, subscribed and paid up capital?

July 22, 2019

Authorized capital: The amount of capital with which a company is registered with the registrar of companies (body responsible for registration of companies). It is the maximum amount of capital which a company can raise through shares i.e. shared capital can be maximum up to the authorized capital and not beyond. Due to this reason […]

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Q.Is it necessary to read the NCERT for the UPSC?

July 19, 2019

Well, It is Must, no matter from which background you come. WHY IT IS MUST TO READ 6th-12th but not directly from 11th and 12th. Because, imagine how a 6th class student is taught on a particular topic. and how a 12th standard student is taught on same topic. Let’s say Our EARTH in Geography. […]

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How to Crack IAS in First Attempt

July 19, 2019

Crack IAS in First Attempt Let me start by saying – One’s 1st attempt should be one’s BEST attempt. To crack one of the most challenging exams of the country , you need to strategize your preparation right from the beginning. Being in 2nd year of college, you can religiously study and marvel each and […]

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Q.”Administrative efficiency is enhanced by keeping at a minimum the number of organizational levels through which a matter must pass before it is acted upon”. – (Herbert A. Simon)

July 19, 2019

Ans: Administrative structure of public or private space is based on hierarchy. The hierarchy is nothing but various levels of organization. In an organization there is top level i.e., executive, then there is middle level management i.e., manager and third level is supervisor at lower level. Now decisions taken at top level are transmitted to […]

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Q.Whereas Downs model is largely dependent on a theory of psychological motivation, Niskanen’s model is framed by neo-classical thinking. In the light of the above, discuss the public choice approach to decision-making.

July 18, 2019

Ans. Public choice approach to the study of organizations focus on problems of control and responsiveness. Using economic tools of analysis, this brand of research analyzes the pathologies of the administrative state and their implications for organizational performance. The main argument of the Public Choice Approach is that bureaucratic agencies are sufficiently ossified that they […]

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Q. In the evolution of’ the discipline of Public Administration, Minnowbrook Conferences 1,11 and III reflect the discipline’s re-conceptualisation and its changing values. Elucidate. (CSE, 2011)

July 18, 2019

Ans. There has long been a polemical discussion within the field of Public administration regarding the theoretical basis of the field. Some authors argue that Public Administration is, or used to be a part of political science or management. Other considers Public administration to be a multi-disciplinary area of interest. Academics have long sought to […]

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Q.”The field of pub adm is a field of business”. (Woodrow Wilson)

July 18, 2019

Ans: According to Woodrow Wilson, the affairs of public adm are similar to that of business. It implies that the primary concern of business, namely efficiency, economy and effectiveness should also be that of public administration. Wilson gave the concept of Politics-Administration Dichotomy which espoused the development of public adm as a separate subject of […]

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Q.In the last two decades, almost all countries of the world have experienced transformations in their ad-ministrative systems.’ Explain this phenomenon with examples from the developed and the developing nations in the context of New Public Management Movement.

July 18, 2019

Ans : In the world, during 1980’s and 1990’s remarkable changes took place in public sector management in almost all the countries. Structurally the change was from rigid, hierarchial and bureaucratic form of public administration to a flexible, market-based form of public administration. There was remarkable change in the role of government in society and […]

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Q. Calling Woodrow Wilson, the father of Public Administration is doing injustice to equally or even more eminent contributions made prior to him.’ Comment.

July 18, 2019

Ans : Woodrow Wilson is known as the father of Public Administration. His seminal contribution, ‘The Study of Administration’ was published in the ‘Political Science Quarterly’ in 1887. Even though Wilson contributed immensly to Public Administration, before him number of political scientists and other administrators contributed equally and even more. Public Administration, as a practice, […]

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Q. “Kautilya was not only the foremost politico-administrative thinker of ancient India but he was an advo¬cate and preacher of moral values too.” Comment.

July 18, 2019

Ans: The study of administration in India starts with the work of Kautilya. He finally blended the administrative studies with moral values. His work, the Arthashastra contains Kautilya’s philosophy of state administration. Promotion of public security and welfare was considered as important aspects of the state policy and the king was responsible for the ‘security’ […]

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Q. “Public and Private administrations are two species of the same genus, but they also have special values and techniques of their own.” Comment.

July 18, 2019

The dichotomy between Public and Private administrations dates back to the starting of administrative studies. .The classical writers held the view that public and private administrations are the undifferentiated members of the genus administration. Henri Fayol, for example says that there is only one administrative science which can be applied equally well to public and […]

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Q. Democracy and good governance are contradictions in terms. Discuss with examples.

July 17, 2019

Ans: Democracy means popular government and it broadly takes two forms —parliamentary and presidential. These two forms refer to the differences in the distribution of political resources and in the sharing and exercising of power. It is a government wherein the whole people or a numerous portion of them exercise through deputies, periodically elected by […]

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Q. Give an account of major landmarks in the growth of the discipline of public administration in the 20th century. What are the possible trends in its growth in the first decade of 219’ century?

July 17, 2019

Evolution of Public Administration Stages Though Public administration as an activity has existed in human society from time immemorial, its emergence as a branch of study and learning is rather recent, going back no farther than the closing years of 19th century. As a field of systematic study, the development of public administration has been […]

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Q.Describe the evolution of the discipline of public administration with special emphasis on post-1970 devel¬opments.

July 17, 2019

Evolution of Public Administration Ans: The discipline of public administration, despite the uncertainty and turmoil in the pre-1970s registered progress and entered the seventies with an enriched vision. Public administration attracted within its fold scholars from various disciplines and thus was becoming truly interdisciplinary in its nature. Indeed of all the social sciences, it is […]

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Q.”… The paradigms of public administration may be understood in terms of locus on focus.” – (Golembiewski). In the light of the above statement describe the “five-paradigms” of Nicholas Henry about the evolution of the discipline of public administration.

July 17, 2019

Ans: According to Golembiewski, each phase may be distinguished and understood in terms of its locus or focus. ‘LOCUS’ refers directly to the ‘where’, to the contexts that are conceived to yield the phenomena of interest. ‘Focus’ refers to the analytical targets of public administration, the ‘what’ with which specialists are concerned. Now, Nicholas Henry […]

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Q. “The inculcation of belief in the real existence of common purpose is an essential executive function.” Comment.

July 17, 2019

Ans: Organisation whether public or private is primarily concerned with co-ordination of all the resources through the process of, planning, organizing, staffing, commanding and control to achieve the predetermined goals or objectives of an organisation. Now, in the above paragraph it is clear that any organization has certain goals and it is this goal which […]

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Q.”If public administration is to play a major legitimizing role in governing our complex society, it needs to be more fully conceptualized”. Discuss.

July 17, 2019

Virtually every society today has been experiencing a transformation in its structure and functioning which is the result of collective working of many factors like industrialization, urbanization, globalisation etc. When the society develops it becomes more complex to administer. For this purpose the public administration also need a change and innovation through conceptualisation to cope […]

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Q.”Administrative question are not political questions”. Discuss.

July 17, 2019

Ans: The relationships between politics and public administration have evolved over a period of time. The American statesman right from the beginning of their Republic have observed a difference between policy matters and administrative matters. This developed into a dichotomy between politics and administration. Although this thesis was finally abandoned after the second World War. […]

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Q.The advent of the concept of “roll back of the state” since the 1980’s has been altering the role of Pub. Ad. but certainly not diminishing its central place in human society”. Discuss.

July 17, 2019

Ans: With the ever increasing complexity of Public Administration and its scope, it has become ‘very difficult for the governments to oversee the administrative set up. “The roll back of state” a humble concept given by former U.K. Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1989 gave a great opportunity to shed off its burden but not […]

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What are the best books for UPSC? What are books for UPSC?

July 16, 2019

What did UPSC CSE toppers study to clear IAS preliminary exam? What are the best-selling books to crack UPSC Civil Services Prelims? See the list of 10 books referred by toppers to clear IAS preliminary exam. Links are provided to buy the books online at discounted prices. If clearing UPSC Prelims is your immediate goal, we […]

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Q” Though there are certain points of similarity between public and private administration yet no private organization can ever be exactly the same as a public one”. Examine.

July 16, 2019

Answer- The classical writers held the view that public and private administrations are the undifferentiated members of the genus administration. Henri Fayol, for example says that there is only one administrative science which can be applied equally well to public and private sectors. But then no private organization can hold as much responsibility for public, […]

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Minnowbrook conference in U.S.A. identified four features crucial to ‘new public administration’. Explain.

July 16, 2019

The Minnowbrook conference held in 1968 in U.S.A. was a youth conference and it was this young academic get together which gave rise to what has come to be known as ‘New Public Administration’. Dwight Waldo has played an important role in the changing the direction in which public administration was moving.It was primarily to […]

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“Publicness” of Public Administration in an ideal democratic government remains the ultimate value in theory and practice.” Elucidate.    

July 15, 2019

Answer- Publicness in public administration can be understood from two prospectus. First perspective- what is the ultimate goal of public administration? Second prospective – what is the role of government in public administration. Since the evolution of public administration it has travelled and treaded different paths. The significance of ‘Publicness’ of public administration is that […]

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Q.”A science of administration would be a body of formal statements describing invariant relationships between measurable objects, units, or elements. Unquestionably administrative research has produced definite percepts and hypothesis that are applicable to concrete situations.” – (Fritz Morstein Marx)

July 15, 2019

1. “A science of administration would be a body of formal statements describing invariant relationships between measurable objects, units, or elements. Unquestionably administrative research has produced definite percepts and hypothesises that are applicable to concrete situations.” – (Fritz Morstein Marx) Fritz Morstein Marx in this statement is focusing on the nature public administration. Morstein Marx […]

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Economic survey Chapter # 10 |Technology MNREGA

July 12, 2019

Refuting criticism of Aadhaar-linked payments and the direct benefit transfer system, the Economic Survey 2018-19 has used the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS) as a case study to show the benefits of the use of technology in improving targeting and efficiency in welfare schemes, especially for the most vulnerable groups. Going forward, […]

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What is the Indo-Pacific Strategy?

July 12, 2019

The US Indo-pacific strategy is the US new strategy since last five years across the Indian and Pacific Ocean with the objective of maintaining peace and stability in the region, ensuring freedom of navigation and protection of US and her allies in the region. Its undeclared objective is also to balance the rising and asserting […]

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Economic survey lecture # 5 Judicial reforms

July 10, 2019

Here are the highlights of Economic Survey: Investment for growth The Survey states that pathways for trickle-down opened up during the last five years, and benefits of growth and macroeconomic stability reached the bottom of the pyramid. Sustained real GDP growth rate of 8 per cent needed for a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25. “Virtuous […]

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Economic Survey 2019| Lecture # 4 | Data as public good

July 10, 2019

The government has estimated gross domestic product growth of 7% for the fiscal year 2019-2020. The theme of the Economic Survey 2019 is about enabling a “shifting of gears” to sustained economic growth for objective of $5 trillion by 2024-25.

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Economic Survey 2019| Lecture # 3 | Dwarf enterprises

July 10, 2019

The government has estimated gross domestic product growth of 7% for the fiscal year 2019-2020. The theme of the Economic Survey 2019 is about enabling a “shifting of gears” to sustained economic growth for objective of $5 trillion by 2024-25.

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Economic survey lecture # 2 Nudge theory

July 10, 2019

Nudge is a concept in behavioral science, political theory and behavioral economics which proposes positive reinforcement and indirect suggestions as ways to influence the behavior and decision making of groups or individuals. Nudging contrasts with other ways to achieve compliance, such as education, legislation or enforcement.

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Economic Survey Lecture # 1 Role of private sector in investment

July 10, 2019

The Department of Economic Affairs, Finance Ministry of India presents the Economic Survey in the parliament every year, just before the Union Budget. It is prepared under the guidance of the Chief Economic Adviser, Finance Ministry. It is the ministry’s view on the annual economic development of the country. A flagship annual document of the […]

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Demographic Transition theory

July 10, 2019

Theory of Demographic Transition is a theory that throws light on changes in birth rate and death rate and consequently on the growth-rate of population. Along with the economic development, tendencies of birth-rate and death rate are different. Because of it, growth rate of population is also different. “Demographic transition refers to a population cycle […]

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Economic Survey 2019 | Lecture # 7 | Demography

July 10, 2019

India’s booming population is set to coming to a grinding halt over the next two decades, as the country witnesses a sharp slowdown in population growth, the Economic Survey 2018-2019 revealed on Thursday. “Demographic projections show that India’s population growth will continue to slow rapidly over the next two decades, growing less than 1% during […]

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Economic Survey 2019 | Chapter 8 | Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM)

July 10, 2019

Touting the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM) as one of the largest cleanliness drives in the world, the Economic Survey 2018-19 released on Thursday said the programme has significantly reduced still births, diarrheal and malarial deaths. The Survey tabled in Parliament by finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman, highlighted that even 67 years after India’s independence, in 2014, […]

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Economic Survey Summary

July 9, 2019

Here are the highlights of Economic Survey: Investment for growth The Survey states that pathways for trickle-down opened up during the last five years, and benefits of growth and macroeconomic stability reached the bottom of the pyramid. Sustained real GDP growth rate of 8 per cent needed for a $5 trillion economy by 2024-25. “Virtuous […]

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Is Parliamentary democracy withering | Editorial decoded and dissected

July 9, 2019

In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India. In 1931, Indian National Congress in its session at Karachi passed a resolution on how the constitution of independent India should look like. Both these two documents have included the right of universal adult franchise, right to freedom and equality, and […]

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Huawei and USA Conflict | 2nd Class | 2020

July 9, 2019

  What is Huawei company? Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. is a Chinese multinational technology company that provides telecommunications equipment and sells consumer electronics, including smartphones, headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. The company was founded in 1987 by Ren Zhengfei. Initially focused on manufacturing phone switches, Huawei has expanded its business to include building telecommunications networks, […]

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Economic Survey Chapter # 6

July 9, 2019

The Economic Survey 2018-19 has stressed the need for reducing economic policy uncertainty in the country to promote investment and has recommended the predictability of policies, quarterly monitoring of Economic Policy Uncertainty (EPU) index and quality certification. Union Minister for Finance and Corporate Affairs Sitharaman tabled the Economic Survey 2018-19 in Parliament on Thursday. The […]

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WTO

July 5, 2019

World Trade Organization, as an institution was established in 1995. It replaced General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT) which was in place since 1946. In pursuance of World War II, western countries came out with their version of development, which is moored in promotion of free trade and homogenization of world economy on western […]

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New economic reforms

July 3, 2019

New economic reforms in India refers to the neo-liberal polices introduced by the government in 1991 and in the later years. The central point of the reforms was liberalization of the economy, simplifying regulations, giving more role to the private sector and opening up of the economy to competition. New industrial policy of 1991 is […]

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Devaluation and Depreciation

July 2, 2019

Devaluation and Depreciation Depreciation and devaluation both affect the value of a country’s currency. Both of them lead to a fall in the value of a country’s currency in terms of other currency. However, the manner in which this happens is very different. The causes and long-term impacts on the country’s economy are different in […]

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How is inflation measured in india?

July 2, 2019

Inflation can be measured by CPI, WPI and GDP deflator. What differentiates the three is the following: CPI (representing a fixed basket of goods and some services) gives us the index for the consumer prices WPI (a fixed basket of goods and no services) gives us the index using wholesale prices GDP deflator (representing a […]

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What is exchange rate and how is it decided?

July 2, 2019

First of all the term exchange rate means the price of one currency in terms of the other currency. For example if someone says the rupee-dollar exchange rate is ₹ 50 this means that it costs ₹ 50 to buy 1$. This determination of exchange rates(ER) takes place in 3 different ways. Fixed ER or Pegged ER. […]

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Functions of the RBI

June 27, 2019

Major functions of the RBI are as follows: 1. Issue of Bank Notes: The Reserve Bank of India has the sole right to issue currency notes except one rupee notes which are issued by the Ministry of Finance. Currency notes issued by the Reserve Bank are declared unlimited legal tender throughout the country. Image Courtesy […]

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The future of parliamentary democracy | Ias coaching in chandigarh

June 26, 2019

Practise on Magi q/a Q.In your opinion is Indian democracy withering or getting strengthened? Master Vocab. quintessential representing the most perfect or typical example of a quality or class. “he was the quintessential tough guy—strong, silent, and self-contained”  consummate  make (a marriage or relationship) complete by having sexual intercourse. “they did not consummate their marriage […]

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Huawei company Issue and its likely impact on India?

June 26, 2019

What is Huawei company? Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd. is a Chinese multinational technology company that provides telecommunications equipment and sells consumer electronics, including smartphones, headquartered in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China. The company was founded in 1987 by Ren Zhengfei. Initially focused on manufacturing phone switches, Huawei has expanded its business to include building telecommunications networks, Aproviding operational and consulting services and equipment to enterprises inside […]

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Kaleshwaram project | 2020 | Current affairs class

June 26, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yOoRF72XmVE” What is Kaleshwaram Project? The total length of Kaleshwaram project is approximately 1,832 kms, of which 1,531 kms is gravity canals and 203 kms comprise water tunnels. There are 20 water lifts and 19 pump houses in the project. The massive project is divided into seven links and 28 packages […]

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What is monetary policy and how does it work?

June 25, 2019

The monetary policy of the RBI has a very important role to play in pushing up growth as this policy determines the amount of money and credit that will become available to various sectors of the economy. While adopting this policy, it has also to keep in mind that money supply does not exceed genuine […]

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What are M1, M2, M3 and M4 values defined as in economics?

June 25, 2019

Here M denotes measurement. M1, M2, M3, M4 they are four alternative measures of money supply. I would like to answer this in India context. M1 measurement M1= C+DD+OD (C refers to currency which includes coins and paper notes held by public, DD refers to demand deposits of public with commercial banks, OD refers to other […]

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What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative credit control methods?

June 25, 2019

Credit control is done by RBI to maintain monetary stability in the economy. It is one of the main functions of RBI. The main difference between Qualitative and Quantitative method is that: Quantitative method is used to control the volume of total credit through bank rate policy, open market operations, CRR, SLR, Repo rate etc. Qualitative method is used […]

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What is FRBM Act?

June 25, 2019

The Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management Act, 2003 (FRBM Act) is an act of Indian Parliament to institutionalize financial discipline, reduce India’s fiscal deficit, improve macroeconomic management and the overall management of the public funds by moving towards a balanced budget. This bill was approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of the Union Government of India […]

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Kaleshwaram project

June 25, 2019

What is Kaleshwaram Project? The total length of Kaleshwaram project is approximately 1,832 kms, of which 1,531 kms is gravity canals and 203 kms comprise water tunnels. There are 20 water lifts and 19 pump houses in the project. The massive project is divided into seven links and 28 packages and involved digging of 20 […]

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India must recognise the right to a minimally decent life | Editorial 25th June 2019

June 25, 2019

Read the editorial from The Hindu and master word meaning and video class   Learn word meanings from the editorial Robust – strong and healthy; vigorous. Apathetic – showing or feeling no interest, enthusiasm, or concern. Goons – a silly, foolish, or eccentric person. 2. NORTH AMERICAN a bully or thug, especially a member of […]

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The earth in the solar system

June 25, 2019

THE EARTH IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM The sun, the moon and all those objects shining in the night sky are called celestial bodies. Some celestial bodies are very big and hot and are made up of gases. They have their own heat and light, which they emit in large amounts. These celestial bodies are called […]

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The Editorial Decode| What are basic human rights? | Current Affairs

June 25, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DARIawf5jKo&t=12s” ‘Fundamental’ means the Constitution has separately listed and made special provisions for the protection of ‘Fundamental Rights.’ Fundamental Rights are different from other rights (i.e. ordinary legal rights) available to the citizens of India. Ordinary legal rights are protected and enforced by ordinary law; but Fundamental Rights are protected and […]

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Nipah Virus || Symptoms || Treatment

June 7, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EY_-O_CYZUA” Nipah Virus || Symptoms || Treatment

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Legality Of Exit Polls

June 7, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dfuMzE8ltC4”  

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Universal Basic Income || UBI || In-depth

May 20, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gsMxcNk5kWw” What is Universal Basic Income (UBI)? Universal Basic Income is a periodic, unconditional cash transfer to every citizen in the country. Here, social or economic positions of the individual are not taken into consideration. The concept of universal basic income has three main features. They are as following: UBI is […]

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ESSAY QUOTES || ETHICS PAPER

May 20, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WV6XQ9drevI”  

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Is free trade good for India? || Capitalism and Communism

April 27, 2019

This editorial is about the viability of free trade in today’s world? According to author, free trade has been propagated by the followers of Adam Smith who believed that the developing countries are in the need of the products generated by the developed countries and therefore there should be open trade. According to the author […]

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Arab Spring 2.0 || Explained || International Issues

April 25, 2019

This video pertains to the Arab Spring 2.0 The history of Arab Spring. Reasons of Arab Spring 2.0 Why Arab Spring started? Arab Spring in Algeria and Sudan This video is for IAS aspirants. This is important for current affairs. CSE Prelims and Mains 2019 SECTION- International Relations

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Pharmacovigilance program of India || PvPI || Current Affairs

April 25, 2019

This video deals with current affairs for IAS AND State PCS EXAMS. Pharmacovigilance Program of India i.e. PvPI is important as it ensures safe medicines for the people of India. Watch video to know more about Pharmacovigilance Program of India PvPI #BrainyIAS#www.brainyias.com

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Achievements of Indians in Science and technology-Class 1

April 24, 2019

This class is dedicated to Sir Chandrashekhara Venkata Raman and his contributions to the field of science. We have come up with a series of classes on the topic “achievements of Indians in Science and technology”. This pertains to CSE GS Mains paper 3. Stay tuned for more such informational videos.

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Indian Economy class 2 Concept of Income Explained UPSC

April 24, 2019

Accounting income, often referred to as business income or conventional income is measured in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. The profit and loss account or income statement determines the net income or operating performance of a business enterprise for some particular period of time. Hicks presented his concept of “well offness” as the basis […]

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Indian Economy class 1 Type of economic system & Modes of production Explained UPSC

April 24, 2019

The traditional economic system is the most traditional and ancient types of economies in the world. Vast portions of the world still function under a traditional economic system. These areas tend to be rural, second- or third-world, and closely tied to the land, usually through farming. In general, in this type of economic system, a […]

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Festivals of North East India Current Affairs class

April 17, 2019

This video deals with IAS preparation. What are the festivals of the North East India? Upsc prelims, upsc mains, art and culture

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India’s Geographical Indications current affairs

April 13, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NGHk-tOXJ-0” This class deals with Geographical Indications in India. Recently, GI tag was awarded to 5 types of coffees in India. This is a very important class for prelim 2019 and mains 2019 exam. Recent GI tags in India are also covered in the class. BrainyIAS academy in Chandigarh is going […]

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Office of Profit

April 12, 2019

What is the concept of ‘office of profit’? MPs and MLAs, as members of the legislature, hold the government accountable for its work. The essence of disqualification under the office of profit law is if legislators holds an ‘office of profit’ under the government, they might be susceptible to government influence, and may not discharge […]

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Q.Analyse why the Gandhian concept of “village republics” could not find place in original constitution with regards to Panchayati Raj Institutions.

April 12, 2019

Concept of Village republic by Mahatma Gandhi – village will be a complete republic, independent of its neighbours for its own vital wants. The government of the village will be conducted by the Panchayat of five persons, annually elected by adult villagers. Importance of Democratic Decentralization. The structure of village settlements reflected basic tenets of […]

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Q.Critically analyse how did the 1857 Revolt affect various aspects of India’s struggle for Independence.

April 12, 2019

The Revolt of 1857 was a major rebellion between dethroned nawabs, dispossessed zamindars, local chieftains, soldiers, etc. on one hand and the British on the other. Effect on various aspects of India’s freedom struggle 1. The Army was insulated from the nationalist movement with deliberate efforts to reduce the proportion of Indian soldiers and introduce […]

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What was Pakistan’s role in breaking the Soviet Union?

April 11, 2019

Pakistan provided sanctuary for the mujahideen fighters. Pakistan trained around 100,000 Afghans to fight the Soviet Union. Pakistan provided intelligence to the mujahideen fighters. Pakistan provided weapons the mujahideen fighters Weapons from the USA and Gulf states were funnelled through Pakistan. According to some Afghan sources EVERY Mujahideen unit had at the very least 1 […]

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South Indian Temples Current Affairs class

April 11, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aT6vPC3pi9w” need pdf of this video? WhatsApp me “South temple” at 8968658068 South Indian Temple architecture This video is important for IAS prelims and IAS Mains exam GS paper 1, Art and Culture UPSC QUESTIONS ON ART AND CULTURE BrainyIAS VIDEOS G RAJPUT VIDEOS

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Role of women during National Movement

April 9, 2019

India needs to dearly hold sacred its independence. For generations the cloak of the British Rule that had grappled, sometimes with force, sometimes with injustice the very essence of freedom that is the basic right of every individual citizen, was thrown over after many attempts. And hence the Independence of this nation was won in ways […]

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Ultima Thule Current Affairs class

April 9, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2MpRKkJQOY” Ultima Thule This video is about Ultima Thule. What is Ultima Thule? What is NASA’s New Horizon Probe? What is KBO? What is Kuiper Belt? What are Kuiper belt objects? These questions are very important for UPSC prelims and Mains 2019. Ultima Thule was in news recently, as the New […]

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Current affairs class India Cooling Action Plan ICAP

April 9, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JpfwTQhtbSo” India Cooling Action Plan Introduction India is one of the first countries in the world to develop a comprehensive Cooling Action plan which has a long term vision to address the cooling requirement across sectors and lists out actions which can help reduce the cooling demand. Cooling requirement is cross […]

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Golan Heights Importance

April 4, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IEyRibHc2eg’ Golan Heights, also called Golan Plateau, Arabic Al-Jawlān, Hebrew Ramat Ha-Golan or Ha-Golan, hilly area overlooking the upper Jordan River valley on the west. The area was part of extreme southwestern Syria until 1967, when it came under Israeli military occupation, and in December 1981 Israel unilaterally annexed the part of the Golan it held. The area’s name is from the biblical city […]

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Section 124 A Explained |84th class | Sedition law | IAS | Current Affairs

April 4, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R4QJJ3Op–Q” The recent episodes of sedition in India The Delhi Police filed a charge sheet against 10 people, including former Jawaharlal Nehru University Students Union (JNUSU) president Kanhaiya Kumar in a sedition case for allegedly raising “anti-national slogans”during an event on the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) campus in February 2016. This fits a disturbing pattern. There […]

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Section 124 A

April 4, 2019

The recent episodes of sedition in India: Section 124 A The Delhi Police filed a charge sheet against 10 people, including former Jawaharlal Nehru University Students Union (JNUSU) president Kanhaiya Kumar in a sedition case for allegedly raising “anti-national slogans”during an event on the Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU) campus in February 2016. This fits a disturbing pattern. There have been many […]

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Agriculture census 2015 – 2016 | IAS | UPSC | SSC

April 2, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7bfdJLOBvGo” The first comprehensive Agriculture Census was carried out with Agriculture year 1970-71 as the reference. This was one of the biggest operations in Agricultural Statistics ever launched in India in which over one lakh village level functionaries involved in the collection of data on various characteristics of 71.0 million operational […]

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What is Model Code of Conduct | MCC 2019

April 2, 2019

MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_e1xnn7B11A” MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE GUIDANCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND CANDIDATES I. General Conduct No party or candidate shall include in any activity which may aggravate existing differences or create mutual hatred or cause tension between different castes and communities, religious or linguistic. Criticism of other […]

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Agriculture census 2015-16

April 2, 2019

Agriculture census 2015-2016 The first comprehensive Agriculture Census was carried out with Agriculture year 1970-71 as the reference. This was one of the biggest operations in Agricultural Statistics ever launched in India in which over one lakh village level functionaries involved in the collection of data on various characteristics of 71.0 million operational holdings in […]

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Mahadayi river water dispute explained 81st current affairs class

March 30, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZHOi11MGv0” Mahadayi river Dispute What is the Mahadayi river Dispute all about? The dispute over Mahadayi river Disputehas resurfaced over the past few weeks and tensions have been rife between Goa and Karnataka. The dispute over Mahadayi river began in the 80s and grew stronger in the subsequent decades. The trigger was […]

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Mahadayi river Dispute

March 30, 2019

What is the Mahadayi river Dispute all about? The dispute over Mahadayi river Dispute has resurfaced over the past few weeks and tensions have been rife between Goa and Karnataka. The dispute over Mahadayi river began in the 80s and grew stronger in the subsequent decades. The trigger was Karnataka’s move to design a number of […]

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Turing award 2019 80th Current Affairs class

March 28, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PPMBgYWf5r8” Recently in news, Three researchers have won the 2018 Turing Award, known as the ‘Nobel Prize of computing,’for conceptual and engineering breakthroughs in artificial intelligence (AI). Yoshua Bengio, Geoffrey Hinton and Yann LeCun were named the recipients of the award on Tuesday by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). About the Award The ACM A.M. […]

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Shakti mission explained 79th editorial class

March 28, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nj-nx_BOZrs” What are anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons? • They are missile-based systems to attack moving satellites. • So far the United States, China and Russia were the only ones who’ve reported the ability to shoot down space objects from ground or airborne sources. • The development of such systems has a long […]

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What is an estuary ?

March 28, 2019

What is an estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. An Estuary forms a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine influences—such as tides, waves, and the influx of […]

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Interior of earth

March 28, 2019

INTERIOR OF THE EARTH The configuration of the surface of the earth is largely a product of the processes operating in the interior of the earth. Exogenic as well as endogenic processes are constantly shaping the landscape. A proper understanding of the physiographic character of a region remains incomplete if the effects of endogenic processes […]

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What is Generalised System of preferences?

March 27, 2019

What is Generalized System of Preferences? Generalized System of Preferences (GSP) is a preferential tariff system extended by developed countries to developing countries (also known as preference receiving countries or beneficiary countries). It is a preferential arrangement in the sense that it allows concessional low/zero tariff imports from developing countries. Developed countries including the US, […]

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Can you explain ‘Civil Services Activism’ in India with examples?

March 19, 2019

Civil services’ activism includes all or any of those proactive steps which are taken by civil servants to make the system/administration more people centric, transparent, efficient and abiding by constitutional values. It may include gamut of activities like civil servants holding regular public meetings, asking for people’s feedback, making people aware of their rights, ensuring […]

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SR Bommai Case

March 19, 2019

Who was S.R. Bommai? S.R. Bommai was the Chief Minister of the Janata Dal government in Karnataka between August 13, 1988 and April 21, 1989. His government was dismissed on April 21, 1989 under Article 356 of the Constitution and President’s Rule was imposed, in what was then a mostly common mode to keep Opposition […]

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Masood Azhar and China

March 13, 2019

Who is Masood Azhar? Azhar was released by the A B Vajpayee government in December 1999, along with Mushtaq Ahmed Zargar and Omar Sheikh, in exchange for release of the passengers of the hijacked Indian Airlines flight IC-814. Go through the following  Copy linkIndia’s Equation with China, Nepal & Pakistan Copy linkINTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS Copy linkDefence […]

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Uyghurs Conflict of China

March 13, 2019

Who are UYGHURS? Uyghurs are predominately Turkic-speaking Sunni Muslims who live primarily in the autonomous region of Xinjiang. Islam came to the region in the 10th century. Prior to Islam, the Uyghurs embraced Buddhism, Shamanism, and Manicheism. Uyghurs embraced Islam in 934 during the Karahanid Kingdom. Kashgar, the capital of the Kingdom, quickly became one […]

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THE PRESIDENT

March 12, 2019

THE PRESIDENT Art. 53. Executive power of the Union.— The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by Lin either directly or through officers sub-ordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution. Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Defence […]

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WHAT EXACTLY IS DOCTRINE OF BASIC STRUCTURE?

March 12, 2019

WHAT EXACTLY IS DOCTRINE OF BASIC STRUCTURE? The concept of ‘basic structure of the Constitution’ is nowhere explicitly mentioned in the Constitution. It is a judicial innovation and was given its shape by the Supreme Court in the Keshavananda Bharati vs. State of Kerala case (1973). The Court held, that if an Amendment Act passed […]

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Directive Principles of the state Policy

March 8, 2019

ARTICLE 36: DEFINITION In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires, “the State” has the same meaning as in Part III. ARTICLE 37: APPLICATION OF THE PRINCIPLES CONTAINED IN THIS PART ARTICLE 38: STATE TO SECURE A SOCIAL ORDER FOR THE PROMOTION OF THE WELFARE OF THE PEOPLE ARTICLE 39: CERTAIN PRINCIPLES OF POLICY TO BE […]

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AMENDMENDABILTY OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

March 8, 2019

AMENDMENDABILTY OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS The Fundamental Rights as provided in the Constitution of India are a guarantee against the actions of the State as well as individuals who might hinder the life and liberty of any citizen of India. As said often, they are fundamental to the existence of life of an individual. However, a […]

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Article 26 of Indian constitution

March 8, 2019

Article 26 of Indian constitution Freedom to manage religious affairs (Article 26) Article 26 reads as follows, Subject to public order, morality and health, every religious denomination or any section thereof shall have the right— to establish and maintain institutions for religious and charitable purposes; to manage its own affairs in matters of religion; to […]

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Article 25 of Indian constitution

March 8, 2019

RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF RELIGION (ARTICLE 25-28) Secularism Secularism as a modern political and constitutional principle involves two basic propositions. The first is that people belonging to different faiths and sections of society are equal before the law, the Constitution and government policy. The second requirement is that there can be no mixing up of […]

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Article 23 and 24 of Indian constitution

March 8, 2019

Article 23 and 24 of Indian constitution RIGHTS AGAINST EXPLOITATION (ARTICLES 23-24) Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour (article23) As per Article 23, Traffic in human beings and begar and other similar forms of forced labour are prohibited and any contravention of this provision shall be an offence punishable in accordance with […]

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Part 12 of the Indian constitution

March 6, 2019

Part 12 of the Indian constitution Part 12 of the Indian constitution is from Article 294 to 300 deals with the property, contracts, rights, liabilities, obligations and suits of the centre and the states. Article 294 states that all the property and assets which immediately before the commencement of the constitution were vested with the […]

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Dinesh Goswami Committee recommendations

March 6, 2019

Dinesh Goswami Committee: In 1990, Dinesh Goswami Headed a Committee made the following recommendations; Do you know about the electoral system of india? a. The ordering of re-poll or countermanding should be not only be on the report of the returning officer, but also otherwise and, also to give the Election Commission the requisite powers […]

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Article 22 of Indian constitution

March 5, 2019

Article 22 of Indian constitution Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases (Article 22) As per Article 22 — No person who is arrested shall be detained in custody without being informed, as soon as may be, of the grounds for such arrest nor shall he be denied the right to consult, and to […]

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Article 21A of indian constitution

March 5, 2019

Article 21 of Indian constitution  Right to Education (Article 21A) The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of 6 to 14 years in such manner as the State, may by law determine.” According to Supreme Court, “the right to life and dignity of an individual cannot be assured unless it is […]

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Article 21 of Indian constitution

March 5, 2019

Article 21 of Indian constitution  Protection of life and personal liberty (Article 21) According to Article 21, “No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.” Article 21 confers on every person the fundamental right to life and personal liberty. It is the most fundamental of […]

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Article 20 of Indian constitution

March 5, 2019

Protection in respect of conviction for offences (Article 20)— As per Article 20, No person shall be convicted of any offence except for violation of a law in force at the time of the commission of the Act charged as an offence, nor be subjected to a penalty greater than that which might have been […]

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Article 19 of Indian constitution

March 5, 2019

Protection of certain rights regarding freedom of speech, etc. (Article 19) According to Article 19, All citizens shall have the right— to freedom of speech and expression; to assemble peaceably and without arms; to form associations or unions or co-operatives; to move freely throughout the territory of India; to reside and settle in any part […]

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Article 18 of Indian constitution

March 5, 2019

Article 18 of Indian constitution Abolition of titles (Article 18) per Article 18— No title, not being a military or academic distinction, shall be conferred by the State. No citizen of India shall accept any title from any foreign State. No person who is not a citizen of India shall, while he holds any office […]

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Article 17 of Indian constitution

March 5, 2019

Abolition of Untouchability (Article 17) According to Article 17, “Untouchability” is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden. The enforcement of any disability arising out of “Untouchability” shall be an offence punishable in accordance with law. Parliament is authorised to make a law prescribing the punishment for violation of Fundamental Rights (Art. 35), […]

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Article 16

March 5, 2019

Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment (Article 16) Article 16 states, There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence or any of them, […]

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What is Doctrine of Eclipse?

March 4, 2019

The Doctrine of Eclipse says that any law inconsistent with Fundamental Rights is not invalid. It is not dead totally but overshadowed by the fundamental right. The inconsistency (conflict) can be removed by constitutional amendment to the relevant fundamental right so that eclipse vanishes and the entire law becomes valid. Explanation When a Court strikes a part of law, it becomes unenforceable. […]

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Punchhi Commission recommendations

March 2, 2019

Punchhi report There should be an amendment in Articles 355 and 356 to enable the Centre to bring specific trouble- torn areas under its rule for a limited period. I. The commission has proposed “localising emergency provisions” under Articles 355 and 356, con­tending that localised areas-either a district or parts of a district – be […]

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Are the amendments to the Constitution of India outside of Article 368 counted?

March 2, 2019

Article 368  Outside of Article 368 (special majority of parliament/special majority of parliament+50% state ratification), there are some articles which provide for amendment of provisions of constitution by a simple majority of parliament. But these amendments are not deemed to be ones under Article 368 (though they are amendments). These amendments are small ones like […]

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Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (Article 15)

March 2, 2019

Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth (Article 15) Article 15 says – The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them. No citizen shall, on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place […]

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Equality before law and equal protection of laws (Article 14)

March 2, 2019

Equality before law and equal protection of laws (Article 14) According to Article 14, “The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection laws within the territory of India”. Prima facie, the terms ‘equality before the law’ and ‘equal protection of the laws’ may seem to be identical, […]

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CLASSIFICATION OF FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS

March 2, 2019

The provisions of Part III of our Constitution which enumerate the Fundamental Rights are more elaborately mentioned than those in any other existing written constitutions. The Constitution itself classifies the Fundamental Rights. Originally, the Constitution provided for seven Fundamental Rights. There are now six Fundamental Rights which are grouped as follows: Right to equality (Art. […]

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The Significance of the 24th Amendment to the Constitution of India

March 2, 2019

The procedure for amending the Indian Constitution is neither flexible nor rigid, but a combination of both. Article 368 in Part XX of the Constitution deals with the powers of the Parliament to amend the Constitution and its procedure. The Parliament may in the exercise of its constituent power amend by way of addition, variation […]

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Article 31a, 31b & 31c of Indian Constitution: Property Rights In Indian Constitution

March 2, 2019

The Preamble of our constitution states that the India will work towards providing social, economic and political justice to its citizens. This simple statement has a wide meaning. For example, to provide economic justice to the population at large, there first needs to be economic growth, which means growth of the three sectors- primary, secondary […]

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Minerva mill Case explained

March 2, 2019

Minerva Mills case Minerva Mills case 1980 was a one of the landmark judgments of the Supreme Court of India. It strengthened the ‘Doctrine of Basic Structure’ which was propounded by the court in the historic Keshavananda Bharti case 1973. By this judgement, the court declared two changes made in the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment Act […]

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What is Maneka Gandhi Case?

March 1, 2019

This case is a landmark judgement which played the most significant role towards the transformation of the judicial view on Article 21 of the Constitution of India so as to imply many more fundamental rights from article 21. This case is always read and linked with A.K. Gopalan v. State of Madras case, because this case revolves around the […]

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What is AK Gopalan Case?

March 1, 2019

Ak Gopalan case As we know that the Article 21 of the Indian Constitution states that: “No person shall be deprived of life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law”. AK Gopalan Case VS State of Madras: Ak Gopalan was a communist leader who was detained in the Madras Jail under […]

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Why can’t we file a case against the President when he is in power?

March 1, 2019

Article 361 of the Constitution of India: Protection of President and Governors and Rajpramukhs.- (1) The President, or the Governor or Rajpramukh of a State, shall not be answerable to any court for the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of his office or for any act done or purporting to be done […]

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Why was ‘right to property’ removed from fundamental rights and kept as a legal right, in India?

March 1, 2019

The mood after independence was to further the Socialistic policy pursued by the then Prime Minister of India, Jawahar Lal Nehru and to abolish Zamindari and other rural intermediaries who under colonial rule had gained rights over vast tract of lands. When the government took steps to abolish these institutions, such moves were challenged using […]

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What is the difference between equality before law and equal protection of laws? How do they fit in the Indian context?

March 1, 2019

Article 14 (1) of constitution of india states equality before law – every person is equal in the eyest of law and no one is entitled of special priviledges Article 14(2) of constitution of india states equal protection of law-that means every person will be proctected equally. here what makes the difference is the word “protection” . that means, […]

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MEANING OF THE STATE AND LAW FOR PART Ill

March 1, 2019

Article 12. Definition of the State Article 12 of the Constitution simply provides the definition of the State, which says that the State” includes a) the Government and Parliament of India, b) the Government and the Legislature of each of the States, c) all local authorities, and d) other authorities, within the territory of India […]

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Difference between NRI, OCI and PIO

March 1, 2019

Indian nationality law largely follows the jus sanguinis (citizenship by right of blood) as opposed to the jus soli (citizenship by right of birth within the territory). Prior to 2011, the External Affairs Ministry was running a separate scheme for Person of Indian Origin (PIO). They are Indian-origin people up to four generations removed, except those living in […]

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Q.With respect to acquiring Indian citizenship, what is the difference between by descent, by registration and by naturalisation?

March 1, 2019

Acquiring citizenship through descent takes into consideration the citizenship status of either of their parents ( since 2004) Whereas registration and naturalisation are applications for citizenship by hitherto non-citizens. Major difference being, registration for those who were once indian citizens but had for some reasons have left indian citizenship.. whereas naturalisation is for a foreigner who wishes to acquire indian citizenship….. […]

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What is the Berubari case (1960)?

March 1, 2019

At the time of partition of India and Pakistan, the task of demarcation of boundaries was assigned to Sir Radcliffe.(it was decided that task of demarcation shall be assigned to a person who doesn’t know about geography of India and never visited it. This was to ensure no bias while demarcation) He distributed Thanas between […]

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Q.Is a constitutional amendment necessary for the creation of a new state in India?

March 1, 2019

The provisions for creating new states, and changing the boundaries of new states are provided in Articles 2-4 of the Constitution. Simply put, a simple law passed by both the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha is enough to create a new state.  However, only the central government (“President”) can introduce a Bill for this purpose.  And before […]

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Special Provisions in the Constitution Part 21 of the constitution

March 1, 2019

SPECIAL STATUS OF J & K (Article 370) • Jammu & Kashmir has truly federal relation with the union. • J & K got independence on 15th Aug, 1947 along with India, but daunted with the problems of forced annexation with Pakistan, it signed the Instrument of Accession with India & became a part of […]

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What was Golaknath Case?

March 1, 2019

Brief background of the case : The family of Henry and William Golaknath held over 500 acres of farmland in Jalandar, Punjab. In the face of 1953 Punjab Security and Land Tenures Act, the state government held that the brothers could keep only thirty acres each, a few acres would go to tenants and the […]

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What was keshvananda bharti case?

March 1, 2019

Keshvananda bharti case “ This case is famous for the victory of Indian Constitution, and is remarkable for the fight between the Parliament and Judiciary ” If you are a law aspirant then you must remember the date 24 April, 1973 not only for the birthdate of Sachin Tendulkar but also on the same date this remarkable case was decided, which has been playing […]

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THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY

March 1, 2019

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORY Articles 1 to 4 under Part — I of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory. Articles Provisions Article 1 Name and territory of the Union Article 2 Admission or establishment of new States Article 3 Formation    of    new    States    and    alteration    of   areas, boundaries or names of […]

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MEANING OF THE STATE AND LAW FOR PART Ill

March 1, 2019

MEANING OF THE STATE AND LAW FOR PART Ill Article 12. Definition of the State Article 12 of the Constitution simply provides the definition of the State, which says that the State” includes a) the Government and Parliament of India, b) the Government and the Legislature of each of the States, c) all local authorities, […]

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Types of majority required for amending the constitution

February 28, 2019

There are Four type of majorities mentioned in Constitution of India – 1. Simple/Functional Majority- more than 50% of members present and voting. Usage– Confidence Motion No Confidence motion vote of thanks to the President of India Censure motion Adjournment motion etc. For Ordinary Money and Finance bills Election of Speaker, Dy. Speaker of Lok […]

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 FEDERAL AND UNITARY FEATURES OF INDIAN STATE

February 28, 2019

 FEDERAL AND UNITARY FEATURES OF INDIAN STATE Is the Indian Constitution federal, unitary or quasi-federal? The members of the Drafting Committee of the Constituent Assembly of India called it federal. But there are jurists who dispute this title. It is, therefore, imperative to ascertain, what is a federal Constitution and what are its essential characteristics? […]

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SALIENT FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

February 28, 2019

SALIENT FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The Constitution of India expresses the vision of India as a democratic nation. While doing so, it also reflects core constitutional values. Constitutional values mentioned in the Preamble permeate all the salient features of Indian Constitution. The salient features of the Constitution are as follows: Longest written Constitution […]

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PREAMBLE of Indian Constitution 

February 28, 2019

PREAMBLE of Indian Constitution  Parts of Indian constitution The Preamble to any Constitution is a brief introductory statement that conveys the guiding principles of the document. It is like an introduction or preface of a book. As an introduction, it is not a part of the contents but it explains the purposes and objectives with […]

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Parts of the Indian Constitution

February 28, 2019

Parts of the Indian Constitution | Parts of the Indian Constitution Making of Indian constitution  Parts Title Articles Part I The Union and its Territory Articles 1-4 Part II Citizenship Articles 5-11 Part III Fundamental Rights Articles 12-35 Part IV Directive Principles of State Policy Articles 35-51 Part IV-A Fundamental Duties Article 51A Part V The […]

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Schedules of the Indian Constitution

February 28, 2019

Schedules of the Indian Constitution | Schedules of the Indian Constitution The Constitution of India at the time of adoption had only eight Schedules to which four more were added during the last fifty-seven years through various amendments.   First Schedule Contains the list of the States and Union Territories.     Second Schedule It consists […]

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DIFFERENT SOURCES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

February 28, 2019

DIFFERENT SOURCES OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION Objective resolution The architects of Indian Constitution went through all the then existing major Constitutions of the world before drafting their own and as Dr. Ambedkar observed, they tried to accommodate the best possible and time-tested features of each of them to the requirement of the country. Therefore, Constitution […]

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FRAMING OR MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION

February 28, 2019

 FRAMING OR MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION  FRAMING OR MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION- A Constitution is a document of peoples’ faith and aspirations possessing a special legal sanctity. It is the fundamental law of a country and all other laws and customs of the country in order to be legally valid shall conform to the […]

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Objective Resolution

February 28, 2019

Objective Resolution The Constitution is the supreme law of the nation. It cannot be drafted or adopted in a hurry. It must have a philosophical base — reflecting the nation’s ethos and the vision of its leaders, past and present. The philosophy underlying the Indian Constitution was embodied quite early in the Objective Resolution which […]

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Vroom’s Expectancy Theory

February 21, 2019

Vroom’s Expectancy Theory was proposed by Victor. H. Vroom, who believed that people are motivated to perform activities to achieve some goal to the extent they expect that certain actions on their part would help them to achieve the goal. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory is based on the assumption that an individual’s behavior results from the choices […]

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Sanskrit Syllabus for UPSC/IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Sanskrit Syllabus for UPSC/IAS Main Examination Paper-I There will be three questions  as indicated in the question paper which must be answered in Sanskrit. The remaining questions must be answered either in Sanskrit or in the medium of examination opted by the candidate. Section-A 1. Significant features of the grammar, with particular stress on Sanjna, […]

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Punjabi Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Punjabi Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I Answers must be written in Punjabi in Gurumukhi Script.   Section-A a) Origin of Punjabi language : different stages of development and recent development in Punjabi language : characteristics of Punjabi phonology and the study of its tones: classification of vowels and consonants. b) Punjabi morphology : the number-gender […]

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Management Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Management Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I The candidate should make a study of the concept and development of management as science and art drawing upon the contributions of leading thinkers of management and apply the concepts to the real life of government and business decision making keeping in view the changes in the […]

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Hindi Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Hindi Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination Paper – I Answers must be written in Hindi. Section-A 1.History of Hindi Language and Nagari Lipi. I. Grammatical and applied forms of Apbhransh, Awahatta & Arambhik Hindi. II. Development of Braj and Awadhi as literary language during medieval period. III. Early form of Khari-boli in Siddha-Nath […]

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English Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

English Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination The syllabus consists of two papers, designed to test a first-hand and critical reading of texts prescribed from the following periods in English Leterature : Paper I : 1600-1900 and Paper II : 1900-1990. There will be two compulsory questions in each paper : a) A short-notes question […]

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Arabic Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Arabic Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I Answers must be written in Arabic Section-A 1. (a) Origin and development of the language-an outline. (b) Significant features of the grammar of the language, Rhetorics, Prosody. (c) Short Essay in Arabic. Section-B 2. Literary History and Literary Criticism : Socio-Cultural Background, Classical literature, literary movements, modern trends, […]

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Anthropology Syllabus for IAS/ UPSC Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Anthropology Syllabus for IAS/ UPSC Main Examination Is anthropology a good option ? Anthropology is one of the very few subjects in the UPSC Syllabus of which has been cut down considerably over the past several times. Due to the elimination of topics like Ethnicity, Anthropology (Development), Reproductive Biology and many others, the subject has […]

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Zoology Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Zoology Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-1 1.Non-chordata and Chordata: (a) Classification and relationship of various phyla up to subclasses: Acoelomate and Coelomate, Protostomes and Deuterostomes, Bilateria and Radiata; Status of Protista, Parazoa, Onychophora and Hemichordata; Symmetry. (b) Protozoa: Locomotion, nutrition, reproduction, sex; General features and life history of Paramaecium, Monocystis, Plasmodium and Leishmania. […]

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Statistics Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Statistics Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I 1.Probability: Sample space and events, probability measure and probability space, random variable as a measurable function, distribution function of a random variable, discrete and continuous-type random variable, probability mass function, probability density function, vector-valued random variable, marginal and conditional distributions, stochastic independence of events and of random […]

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Sociology Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Sociology Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination Sociology is the scientific study of society, social relationships including patterns of social communication and culture. It uses a variety of methods to investigate and analyse the body of knowledge about social order, transformation and change. In terms of UPSC, Sociology Syllabus for UPSC IAS Exam plays […]

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Public Administration Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Public administration is one of the common optional in the UPSC civil services exam for any aspirants. Irrespective of the academic background, any student can attempt for mains for the Public administration exam. Because, self-interest is the prime motive for choosing not just public administration, but also for any optional subject. Each Public administration paper […]

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Psychology Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Psychology Syllabus for UPSC /IAS Main Examination PAPER – I Foundations of Psychology 1. Introduction: Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems. 2. Methods of Psychology: Types of research: […]

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Political Science Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Political Science Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination PART – I Political Theory and Indian Politics 1.Political theory meaning and approaches 2.Theories of the state: Liberal, Neoliberal, Marxist, Pluralist, Post-colonial and feminist. 3.Justice: Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques. 4.Equality: Social, political and economic;relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative […]

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Physics Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Physics Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination PAPER – I 1. a. Mechanics of Particles: Laws of motion; conservation of energy and momentum, applications to rotating frames, cent r ipetal and Cor iol is accelerat ions; Motion under a central force; Conservation of angular momentum, Kepler’s laws; Fields and potentials; Gravitational field and potential due […]

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Philosophy Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Philosophy Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I History and Problems of Philosophy 1. Plato and Aristotle: Ideas; Substance; Form and Matter; Causation; Actuality and Potentiality. 2. Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.   3. Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; […]

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Medical Science Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Medical Science Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I 1. Human Anatomy: Applied anatomy including blood and nerve supply of upper and lower limbs and joints of shoulder, hip and knee. Gross anatomy, blood supply and lymphatic drainage of tongue, thyroid, mammary gland, stomach, liver, prostate, gonads and uterus   Applied anatomy of diaphragm, perineum […]

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Mechanical Engineering Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Mechanical Engineering Syllabus for UPSC/IAS Main Examination Paper-I 1. Mechanics: 1.1 Mechanics of rigid bodies: Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics.   1.2 Mechanics of deformable bodies: Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design […]

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Mathematics syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Mathematics syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I (1) Linear Algebra: Vector spaces over R and C, linear dependence and independence, subspaces, bases, dimension; Linear transformations, rank and nullity, matrix of a linear transformation. Algebra of Matrices; Row and column reduction, Echelon form, congruence’s and similarity; Rank of a matrix; Inverse of a matrix; Solution […]

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Law syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 18, 2019

Law syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper – I Constitutional and Administrative Law  Constitution and Constitutionalism: The distinctive features of the Constitution. Fundamental rights – Public interest litigation; Legal Aid; Legal services authority. Relationship between fundamental rights, directive principles and fundamental duties. Constitutional position of the President and relation with the Council of Ministers. […]

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What is IAS exams procedure?

February 17, 2019

The IAS Exam is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission in a three stage process which lasts close to one year. The first stage of the exam is an objective type examination consisting of two papers. The first paper is called General Studies while the second paper is called CSAT (Civil Service Aptitude Test). CSAT examination is purely […]

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What are the secrets to success in Civil Service Mains exam?

February 17, 2019

What are the secrets to success in Civil Service Mains exam? There are some big secrets for UPSC CSE mains exam. Quality matters to the most – When you will pen down for your mains papers, you will find certain word limits for every single question and that means how well you know and how well […]

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February 16, 2019

Personnel Administration   11.1        Introduction ♦ Kautilya: While the mantrins were the highest advisors to the King, the amatyas were the civil servants.   There were three kinds of amatyas: the highest, the intermediate and the lowest, based on the quali cations possessed by the civil The key civil servant was the samahartr, who prepared […]

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History Syllabus For UPSC/IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

History Syllabus For UPSC/IAS Main Examination Paper – I Sources: Archaeological sources: Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments Literary sources: Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature. Foreign accounts: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers. Pre-history and Proto-history: Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic). […]

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Geology Syllabus for UPSC/IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Geology Syllabus for UPSC/IAS Main Examination Paper-1 1. General Geology: The Solar System, Meteorites, Origin and interior of the earth and age of earth; Volcanoes- causes and products, Volcanic belts; Earthquakes-causes, effects, Seismic zones of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drifts; Seafloor spreading, Plate tectonics; Isostasy. 2. Geomorphology and Remote Sensing: Basic concepts of […]

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Geography Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Geography Syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Paper-I Principles of Geography Physical Geography: 1. Geomorphology: Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crust; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Vulcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic […]

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Electrical Engineering Syllabus for UPSC Examination

February 16, 2019

Electrical Engineering Syllabus for UPSC/IAS Main Examination Paper-I Circuit Theory:Circuit components; network graphs; KCL, KVL; circuit analysis methods: nodal analysis, mesh analysis; basic network theorems and applications; transient analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits; coupled circuits; balanced 3-phase circuits; Two-port networks. Signals & Systems: Representation of continuous-time and discrete-time signals […]

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Economics Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Economics Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination Economics Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination Part-I 1. Advanced Micro Economics: (a) Marshallian and Walrasiam Approaches to Price determination. (b) Alternative Distribution Theories: Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki (c) Markets Structure: Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly. (d) Modern Welfare Criteria: Pareto Hicks & Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A.K. […]

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Commerce syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination 

February 16, 2019

Commerce syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination  Commerce syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination  PAPER – I Accounting and Finance Accounting, Taxation & Auditing 1. Financial Accounting: Accounting as a Financial Information System; Impact of Behavioural Sciences. Accounting Standards e.g., Accounting for Depreciation, Inventories, Research and Development Costs, Long-term Construction Contracts, Revenue Recognition, Fixed […]

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Civil Engineering Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Civil Engineering Syllabus for Main Examination Civil Engineering Syllabus for Main Examination Paper-I 1. Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis: 1.1 Engineering Mechanics: Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force, free body diagram, conditions […]

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Chemistry Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Chemistry Syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination PAPER-I 1. Atomic Structure:Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, Schrodinger wave equation (time independent); Interpretation of wave function, particle in one-dimensional box, quantum numbers, hydrogen atom wave functions; Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.   2. Chemical Bonding: Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle; covalent bond […]

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Bodo syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Bodo syllabus for UPSC / IAS Main Examination Paper-I History of Bodo Language and Literature (Answers must be written in Bodo) Section- A History of Bodo Language Homeland, language family, its present status and its mutual contact with Assamese. (a) Phonemes : Vowel and Consonant Phonemes (b) Tones. Morphology : Gender, Case & Case endings, […]

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Botany syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination 

February 16, 2019

Botany syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination  Botany syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination Botany syllabus for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination  PAPER-I 1. Microbiology and Plant Pathology: Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses, viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis. Important […]

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Indian languages UPSC/IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Indian languages UPSC/IAS Main Examination Indian languages UPSC/IAS Main Examination The aim of the paper is to test the candidate’s ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly in the Indian language concerned. The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :- (i) Comprehension of given […]

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English Qualifying paper for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

English Qualifying paper for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination English Qualifying paper for UPSC/ IAS Main Examination The aim of the paper is to test the candidate’s ability to read and understand serious discursive prose, and to express his ideas clearly and correctly in English. The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :- (i) […]

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Animal Husbandry Syllabus for UPSC /IAS Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Animal Husbandry Syllabus for UPSC /IAS Main Examination Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science syllabus for UPSC/IAS Main examination  Paper-I 1.Animal Nutrition: 1.1 Partitioning of food energy within the animal. Direct and indirect calorimetry. Carbon – nitrogen balance and comparative slaughter methods. Systems for expressing energy value of foods in ruminants, pigs and poultry. Energy requirements for […]

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General Studies Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination

February 16, 2019

General Studies Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination General Studies Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination General Studies Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination Paper – 1 General Studies -I 250 Marks (Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society) Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient […]

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Agriculture Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination

February 16, 2019

Agriculture Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination Agriculture Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination Agriculture Syllabus for UPSC Main Examination Paper-I Ecology and its relevance to man, natural resources, their sustainable management and conservation. Physical and social environment as factors of crop distribution and production. Agro ecology; cropping pattern as indicators of environments. Environmental pollution and associated hazards […]

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Chapter # 41. Data Led Governance and Policy Making

February 14, 2019

Objectives Evidence based policy making should be made integral to the overall governance structure in New India, 2022-23. To achieve this, timely generation and dissemination of robust data at all levels of governance would be a pre-requisite. This would require: Collecting data for new measurable parameters using latest technologies. Improving efficiencies in processes related to […]

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Chapter # 40. Optimizing the Use of Land Resources

February 14, 2019

Optimizing the Use of Land Resources-Ensuring that land markets function smoothly, through efficient allocation of land across uses, provision of secure property rights and titles, and clear and consistent regulations around the operations, leasing and sale of land are critical for India to achieve and sustain high economic growth. To this end, the following goals […]

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Chapter # 39. Modernizing City Governance For Urban Transformation

February 14, 2019

Objective  City Governance For Urban Transformation To transform our cities into economically vibrant and environmentally sustainable habitats that provide equitable access to basic infrastructure, public services and opportunities to all citizens and platforms for democratic participation. Current Situation Global experience indicates that cities are central to raising economic productivity, enhancing job creation and improving public […]

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Chapter # 38. Civil Services Reforms

February 14, 2019

Objective  civil-services-reforms To put in place a reformed system of recruitment, training and performance evaluation of the civil service to ensure more effective and efficient delivery of public services to achieve the development goals envisaged in New India 2022. Current Situation The Second Administrative Reforms Commission (ARC) was constituted in 2005 and in 2009, the […]

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Chapter # 37. Legal, Judicial and Police Reforms

February 14, 2019

Objective To ensure the safety and security of citizens and ensure access to effective legal systems and speedy delivery of justice. Current Situation  Legal and judicial reforms are urgently needed to address the massive pendency and capacity issues in Indian courts, which impede access to justice. Several archaic and defunct laws have already been repealed […]

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Chapter # 36. The North-East Region

February 14, 2019

Objectives The North-East Region (NER) should: Have adequate road, rail and air connectivity, waterways, internet connectivity and financial inclusion. This will form the platform upon which suitable interventions for all sectors where the North-East Region has a comparative advantage (for e.g., tourism, hydropower generation, handicrafts, organic agriculture, etc.) can be effectively implemented. By 2022-23, the region […]

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Chapter # 35. Balanced Regional Development: Transforming Aspirational Districts

February 14, 2019

Objective  Balanced Regional Development: Transforming Aspirational Districts Achieve balanced development in India by uplifting 115 districts, currently below the national average in the areas of health and nutrition, education, agriculture and water resources, financial inclusion and skill development, and basic infrastructure. Current Situation The Aspirational Districts Programme (ADP) was launched on January 5, 2018, by […]

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Chapter # 34. Scheduled Castes (SCs), Scheduled Tribes (STs), Other Backward Classes (OBCs), Other Tribal Groups and Minorities

February 14, 2019

SCs, STs, OBCs, De-Notified Tribes (DNTs), Nomadic Tribes (NTs) and Semi-Nomadic Tribes (SNTs) Objective  To accelerate the socio-economic development of SCs, STs, OBCs, safai karamcharis as well as DNTs, NTs and SNTs through focused affirmative action so as to bring them on par with the rest of the population as far as key human development indicators are […]

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Chapter # 33. Senior Citizens, Persons with Disability and Transgender Persons

February 13, 2019

SENIOR CITIZENS  Objective To ensure a life of dignity, social security and safety for senior citizens, enabling them to actively participate in economic development and the nation building process. Current Situation  As per Census 2011,1 India had 10.38 crore senior citizens (60 years and above). Of this, 3.8 crore were above the age of 80 […]

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Chapter # 32. Gender

February 13, 2019

Objective  To create an enabling environment, sans institutional and structural barriers. To enhance the female labour force participation rate to at least 30 per cent by 2022-23. Current Situation  As highlighted in the Economic Survey 2018, a number of indicators that reflect the position of women in Indian society have moved in the right direction. […]

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Chapter # 31. Nutrition

February 13, 2019

Objectives  Under POSHAN Abhiyaan, achieve the following outcomes by 2022-23, compared to the baseline of 2015-16 (National Family Health Survey-4): Reduce the prevalence of stunting among children to 25 per cent or less. Reduce the prevalence of underweight in children (0-6 years) to 25 per cent or less. Reduce the prevalence of anaemia among young […]

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Chapter # 30. Universal Health Coverage

February 13, 2019

Objectives  On the strong platform of Pradhan Mantri – Jan Arogya Yojana (PM-JAY): Attain a coverage of at least 75 per cent of the population with publicly financed health insurance (covering most secondary and tertiary care procedures) by 2022-23. Reduce by 50 per cent the proportion of households facing catastrophic health expenditure from the current […]

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Chapter # 29. Human Resources for Health

February 13, 2019

Objectives  Achieve a doctor-population ratio of at least 1:1400 (WHO norm 1:1000) and nurse-population ratio of at least 1:500 (WHO norm 1:400) by 2022-23. Ensure availability of paramedics and doctors as per Indian Public Health Standard (IPHS) norms in high priority districts by 2020 (National Health Policy, 2017). Deploy mid-level providers (MLPs) to manage the […]

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Chapter # 28. Comprehensive Primary Health Care

February 13, 2019

Objectives  Under Ayushman Bharat, scale-up a new vision for comprehensive primary health care across the country, built on the platform of health and wellness centres (HWCs), to: Provide quality ambulatory services for an inclusive package of diagnostic, curative, rehabilitative and palliative care, close to the people. Deliver preventive and promotion services, and action on the […]

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Chapter # 27. Public Health Management and Action

February 13, 2019

Objectives  To revamp radically the public and preventive health system in the nation through the following strategic interventions: Mobilize public health action through an integrated, inter-sectoral and pan-stakeholder approach, targeted at communities and individuals as well as grassroots organizations, aimed at creating an unprecedented people-led movement for health and wellness. Operationalize vital enablers – a) […]

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Chapter # 26. Skill Development

February 13, 2019

Obejctives  For harnessing the demographic advantage that it enjoys, India needs to build the capacity and infrastructure for skilling/reskilling/up-skilling existing and new entrants to the labour force. The goals to be met until 2022-23 are as follows Increase the proportion of formally skilled labour from the current 5.4 per cent1 of India’s workforce to at […]

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Chapter # 25. Teacher Education and Training

February 13, 2019

Objectives There cannot be a quality education system without quality teachers. Therefore, a thorough revamp of the entire ecosystem of teacher education both at the school and college level is necessary. In this context, the objectives for 2022-23 include: Enforcing minimum teacher standards through rigorous teacher eligibility tests and criteria for the induction of teachers. […]

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Chapter # 24. Higher Education

February 13, 2019

Objectives  Increase the gross enrolment ratio (GER) in higher education from 25 per cent in 2016-17 to 35 per cent by 2022-23. Make higher education more inclusive for the most vulnerable groups. Adopt accreditation as a mandatory quality assurance framework and have multiple highly reputed accreditation agencies for facilitating the process. Create an enabling ecosystem […]

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23. School Education

February 13, 2019

Objectives Universal access and retention: o Hundred per cent enrolment and retention at elementary education and secondary education levels; achieve zero dropouts until Class X. o Equitable participation by all society seg-ments, in terms of attendance, retention and years of schooling to ensure maximum social inclusion. Improvement in learning outcomes for elementary and secondary education, […]

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Chapter # 22. Sustainable Environment

February 13, 2019

Objective  The objective is to maintain a clean, green and healthy environment with peoples’ participation to support higher and inclusive economic growth through sustainable utilization of available natural resources. The 2022-23 goals include the following. Air pollution:  Bringing down PM2.5 levels in Indian cities to less than 50. Creating 175 GW of renewable energy generation […]

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Chapter # 21. Water Resources

February 12, 2019

Objectives By 2022-23, India’s water resources management strategy should facilitate water security to ensure adequate availability of water for life, agriculture, economic development, ecology and environment. This broader vision can be achieved by attaining the following sectoral goals: Provide adequate (rural: 40 litres per capita per day (lpcd); urban 135 lpcd) and safe drinking water (piped) and water for […]

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Chapter # 20. Swash Bharat Mission

February 12, 2019

Objectives The key objectives of the Swachh Bharat Mission include: 1. Making India Open Defecation Free (ODF) by October 2, 2019. 2. Carrying out extensive information, education and communication (IEC) and behaviour change campaigns to change the attitude of people regarding healthy sanitation practices. 3. Ensuring scientific solid and liquid waste management. 4. Augmenting the […]

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Chapter # 19.Smart Cities for Urban Transformation

February 12, 2019

Objectives  Leverage the ‘Smart Cities’ concept in select urban clusters to: Drive job creation and economic growth. Significantly improve efficiencies in service delivery. Leverage technology for inclusive, sustainable and participatory development by 2022-23. Current Situation Smart Cities is an approach to urban development characterized by area-based development, efficient delivery of basic infrastructure and services in […]

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Chapter # 18. Digital Connectivity

February 12, 2019

Objectives Given the relevance of digital connectivity to economic growth and the need to eliminate the digital divide by 2022-23, India should aim to achieve: Physical digital connectivity across all states, districts and gram panchayats (GPs). Delivery of government services digitally by 2022-23. Hundred per cent basic digital literacy across the country to be able […]

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Chapter # 17. Logistics

February 12, 2019

Objectives Achieve multi-modal movement of cargo on par with global logistics standards. Reduce the logistics cost to less than 10 per cent of GDP from the current level of 14 per cent. Expand the logistics market to USD215 billion by 2020 from the current level of USD160 billion.1 Improve logistics skilling and increase jobs in […]

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Chapter # 16.Ports, Shipping and Inland Waterways

February 12, 2019

Objectives  Double the share of freight transported by coastal shipping and inland waterways from 6 per cent in 2016-171 to 12 per cent by 2025. Increase the port handling capacity to 2,500 million metric tonnes (MMT)2 by 2022-23. Reduce the turnaround time at major ports from about 3.44 days (2016-17)3 to 1-2 days (global average) […]

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Chapter # 15. Civil Aviation

February 12, 2019

Objectives Enhance the affordability of flying to enable an increase in domestic ticket sales from 103.75 million in 2016-171 to 300 million by 2022.2 Double air cargo handled from about 3.3 million tonnes in 2017-18 to about 6.5 million tonnes. Expand the maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) industry from USD 1.8 billion in 2017 to […]

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Chapter # 14. Railways

February 12, 2019

Objectives By 2022-23, India should have a rail network that is not only efficient, reliable and safe, but is also cost-effective and accessible, both with respect to the movement of people and goods. This requires achieving the following objectives: Augment the capacity of existing railway infrastructure. Increase the speed of infrastructure creation from the present […]

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Chapter # 13. Surface Transport

February 12, 2019

Objectives Increasing the coverage and quality of roads and highways is critical to enhancing connectivity and internal and external trade. By 2022-23, we should achieve the following objectives: Increase connectivity by expanding the road network: Achieve the Bharatmala Phase-I target by completing 24,800 km by 2021-22, including 2,000 km of coastal and port connectivity roads.1 […]

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Chapter # 12. Energy

February 12, 2019

Objectives The government’s on-going energy sector policies aim “to provide access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy”. At the convergence of its domestic goals and the global development agenda, it also intends to hit the following milestones on the way – Make available 24×7 power to all by 2019. Achieve 175 GW of renewable […]

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Chapter # 11. Minerals

February 12, 2019

Objectives Double the area explored from 10 per cent of obvious geological potential (OGP) area to 20 per cent.1 Accelerate the growth of the mining sector from 3 per cent in 2017-18 to 14 per cent, with an average growth of 8.5 per cent during 2018-23. Increase the job contribution (direct, associated and indirect) from […]

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Chapter # 10. Travel, Tourism and Hospitality

February 12, 2019

Objectives  Increase India’s share in global international tourist arrivals from 1.18 per cent to 3 per cent. Increase the number of foreign tourist arrivals from 8.8 million to 12 million. Double the number of domestic tourist visits, from 1,614 million in 2016 to 3,200 million visits. Current Situation There has been significant progress in the […]

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Chapter # 9. Housing For All

February 12, 2019

Objectives Provide every family with a pucca house, with a water connection, toilet facilities, and 24×7 electricity supply and access. Build 2.95 core housing units in rural areas and 1.2 crore housing units in urban areas. Current Situation The President’s clarion call to ensure the provision of houses to every family remains the key objective […]

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Chapter # 8. Financial Inclusion

February 12, 2019

Objectives Banking for the unbanked  o Bank accounts: Ensuring universal access to bank accounts, which are a gateway to all financial services.  o Digital payment services: Providing access to digital payment services and increasing its penetration.  Securing the unsecured  o Insurance and social security: Ensuring universal coverage of insurance for life, accidents, etc., and of […]

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Chapter # 7.Doubling Farmers’ Income (III): Value Chain & Rural Infrastructure

February 11, 2019

Objectives • Transform the rural economy through the creation of modern rural infrastructure and an integrated value chain system. • Leverage the value chain to boost India’s exports of food products. • Create occupational diversification and quality employment opportunities for doubling farmers’ income by 2022-23. Current Situation Despite rapid progress, rural India suffers from an […]

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Chapter # 6.Doubling Farmers’ Income (II): Policy & Governance

February 11, 2019

Objectives Create a policy environment that enables income security for farmers, whilst maintaining India’s food security. Encourage the participation of the private sector in agricultural development to transition from agriculture to robust agri-business systems. Promote through government policies the emergence of ‘agripreneurs’ so that even small and marginal farmers can capture a higher share of […]

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Chapter # 5.Doubling Farmers’ Income (I): Modernizing Agriculture

February 11, 2019

Objectives • Modernize agricultural technology, increase productivity, efficiency and crop diversification. • Generate income and employment through a paradigm shift that ensures food security while maximizing value addition in agriculture. Current Situation The existing yield levels of a majority of crops remains much lower than the world average. The predominant causes are low irrigation, use […]

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Chapter # 4.Industry

February 11, 2019

Objectives Double the current growth rate of the manufac-turing sector by 2022. Promote in a planned manner the adoption of the latest technology advancements, referred to as ‘Industry 4.0’, that will have a defining role in shaping the manufacturing sector in 2022. Current Situation India is the fifth largest manufacturer in the world with a […]

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Chapter # 3. Technology and Innovation

February 11, 2019

Objectives India should be among the top 50 countries in the Global Innovation Index by 2022-23.1 Five of our scientific research institutions should be amongst the top 100 in the world. India should aim to spend at least 2 per cent of gross domestic product (GDP) on R&D with equal contributions from the public and […]

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Chapter # 2.Employment and Labour Reforms

February 11, 2019

Objectives Complete codification of central labour laws into four codes by 2019. Increase female labour force participation to at least 30 per cent by 2022-23. Disseminate publicly available data, collected through rigorous household and enterprise surveys and innovative use of administrative data on a quarterly basis by 2022-23. Encourage increased formalization of the labour force […]

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Chapter # 1 Growth (India @ 75)

February 10, 2019

Objectives Steadily accelerate the gross domestic product(GDP) growth rate to achieve a target of about 8 per cent during 2018-23 This will raise the economy’s size in real terms from USD 2.7 trillion in 2017-18 to nearly USD 4 trillion by 2022-23. Besides having rapid growth, which reaches 9-10 per cent by 2022-23, it is […]

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Testing

February 10, 2019

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BN Srikrishna Committee recommendations

February 6, 2019

The ministry of electronics and information technology (MEITY) has released a white paper on data protection framework, prepared by a committee of experts headed by justice BN Srikrishna. It has sought public feedback on the paper by December 31, 2017. The ministry had formed the committee in July to “study various issues relating to data […]

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Sashakt

February 6, 2019

What is Project Sashakt? Project Sashakt was proposed by a panel led by PNB chairman Sunil Mehta. Bad loans of up to ₹ 50 crore will be managed at the bank level, with a deadline of 90 days. For bad loans of ₹ 50-500 crore, banks will enter an inter-creditor agreement, authorizing the lead bank […]

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Compoundable and Non-Compoundable offence in India

February 1, 2019

Compoundable or non compoundable In our society, there are certain criminal offences which are not very serious in nature. In these cases, the Indian Criminal Law allows a compromise between the parties as the object of the criminal law is to punish the criminal attitude of the accused or wrongdoer rather than punishing him only […]

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Cognizable and Non Cognizable offences

February 1, 2019

Offences can be classified as cognizable and non-cognizable offences. Cognizable offences are those in which the police can arrest without any warrant. These are more serious in nature. Non-cognizable offences on the other hand are those for which a police officer has no authority to arrest, unless with a warrant. Difference between Cognizable and Non […]

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Chester Barnard

January 31, 2019

Chester barnard Without discussing his background and life, I will directly come to Chester barnard’s theory.He has highlighted three elements in an organization Common Purpose– Objective Purpose– He refers to the organizational purpose or the common purpose. He calls this as individual’s purpose or individual’s goal. Unless the individuals come together, cooperate with each other, […]

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Difference Between Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy

January 31, 2019

The economic position of a country can be monitored, controlled and regulated by the sound economic policies. The fiscal and monetary policies of the nation are the two measures, which can help in bringing stability and developing smoothly.Fiscal policy is the policy relating to government revenues from taxes and expenditure on various projects. Monetary Policy, on the […]

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Contract Farming in India Issues

January 31, 2019

The government has been making efforts to integrate farmers with agro-industries to ensure that they get better prices for their produce. This is why contract farming has come to be seen as a panacea. Contract farming refers to an agreement between farmers and marketing firms for the production and supply of agricultural products under forward […]

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