CONTACT US

084594-00000

About Us  :  Online Enquiry

Indian Polity

Types Of Courts In India

September 6, 2021

Types Of Courts In India What Is A Lok Adalat? The concept of Lok Adalat (People’s Court) is an innovative Indian contribution to the world jurisprudence. The introduction of Lok Adalats added a new chapter to the justice dispensation system of this country and succeeded in providing a supplementary forum to the victims for a […]

Read More

FOREIGN POLICY

September 3, 2021

FOREIGN POLICY Introduction From the time India first attained independence in 1947, its foreign policy during the Cold War period evolved from being pro-Soviet and antithetical to Western interests, to now becoming an important Western strategic partner and providing a counterweight to China. Over the last six-and-half decade India has massively expanded its influence worldwide, […]

Read More

NATIONAL INTEGRATION

September 3, 2021

NATIONAL INTEGRATION National Integration in India is very important to enhance unity among all sections of society in a country like India, which is replete with diversity in many spheres of life. This article helps one understand the role of the education system, cinema, people from middle class background, working class, intellectuals, different multinational companies […]

Read More

PRESSURE GROUPS

September 3, 2021

PRESSURE GROUPS Introduction A pressure group is a group of people who are organised actively for promoting and defending their common interest. It is called so, as it attempts to bring a change in public policy by exerting pressure on the government. It acts as a liaison between the government and its members. The pressure […]

Read More

COALITION GOVERNMENT

September 1, 2021

COALITION  GOVERNMENT Meaning of Coalition Government The term ‘coalition’ is derived from the Latin world ‘coalition’ which means ‘to grow together’. Thus, technically, coalition means the act of uniting parts into one body or whole. Politically, coalition means an alliance of distinct political parties. Coalition usually occurs in modern parliaments when no single political party can muster […]

Read More

VOTING BEHAVIOUR

September 1, 2021

VOTING BEHAVIOUR INTRODUCTION Voting behaviour, also known as electoral behaviour, involves understanding the factors and reasons which influence voting patterns. To interpret voting behavior both political science and psychology expertise were necessary and therefore the field of political psychology emerged including electoral psychology. According to Sociologist Gordon Marshall: “The study of voting behaviour invariably focuses on […]

Read More

ELECTORAL REFORMS

September 1, 2021

ELECTORAL REFORMS INTRODUCTION Electoral reforms refer to the development and benign change in election processes in India in order to facilitate better democracy, clean politics, ideal members of legislative houses, equality of representation and so on. Articles 324-329 deal with elections and electoral reforms. Electoral reforms are required to uphold the aspiration of our ancestors, […]

Read More

Election Laws

August 30, 2021

Election Laws Election laws is a discipline falling at the juncture of constitutional law and political science. It researches “the politics of law and the law of politics”. Since 1950 many laws have been passed in India regarding the functioning of elections. This article will shed light on them within the context of the polity […]

Read More

Role of Regional Parties

August 30, 2021

Role of Regional Parties Regional Parties in India Other than the 8 national parties- Indian National Congress, Bharatiya Janata Party, Nationalist Congress Party, Communist Parties, Bahujan Samaj Party, Rashtriya Janata Dal, All India Trinamool Congress and National People’s Party; most of the major parties of the country are classified by the Election Commission as ‘State […]

Read More

POLITICAL PARTIES

August 30, 2021

POLITICAL PARTIES  A political party is a group of individuals who are united in a specific political cause or opinion, especially on a national or regional basis who try to gain political gain through constitutional means.  A political party’s main function is to link the rulers and the ruled.  This it does through nominating candidates […]

Read More

Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes

August 28, 2021

Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes INTRODUCTION Articles 330 and 332 deals with the reservation of seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies respectively. Article 330 provides for the reservation of seats in the Lok Sabha for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The number of seats reserved in any State or Union territory for such […]

Read More

Rights and Liabilities of the Government

August 28, 2021

Rights and Liabilities of the Government INTRODUCTION Articles 294 to 300 in Part XII of the Constitution of India deals with the property contracts, rights, liabilities, obligations, and suits of the Union and the states. Article 294 states that all the property and assets which immediately before the commencement of the constitution were vested with […]

Read More

Concept of Public Service

August 28, 2021

Concept of Public Service A public service is associated with government and it is offered by administrative bodies to people living within its region and considered essential to modern life. The term is linked with a social agreement (usually expressed through democratic elections) that numerous services should be offered to all, irrespective of income. Even […]

Read More

Public Services

August 27, 2021

Public Services Introduction As per Article 312 of the Indian Constitution, the Parliament is entitled to create one or more All India services (including an All India Judicial Service) common to the Union and the States. The recruitment to all these services is made by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC).          […]

Read More

National Disaster Management Authority

August 27, 2021

National Disaster Management Authority INTRODUCTION The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the apex statutory body for disaster management in India. The NDMA was formally constituted on 27th September 2006, in accordance with the Disaster Management Act, 2005 with Prime Minister as its Chairperson and nine other members, and one such member to be designated as Vice-Chairperson. Mandate: Its primary purpose is to […]

Read More

National Investigation Agency

August 27, 2021

National Investigation Agency INTRODUCTION The National Investigation Agency (NIA) was constituted under the National Investigation Agency (NIA) Act, 2008. Headquarters: New Delhi It is a central agency to investigate and prosecute offences related to terrorism and certain other Act post-2008 Mumbai terror attacks such as: Affecting the sovereignty, security and integrity of India, security of State, friendly relations with foreign States. Against atomic and […]

Read More

Special Provisions for Some States

August 26, 2021

Special Provisions for Some States Historical Background  Recognizing that some regions in the country were historically disadvantaged in contrast to the others, the 5th Finance Commission in 1969 introduced the concept of Special Category Status. There are a few states which have been given the special category status. The 5th Finance Commission sought to provide […]

Read More

Advocate General of the State

August 26, 2021

Advocate General of the State Definition of Advocate General of the State The highest law officer of the states in India is called the Advocate General of the State. Some important points about the Advocate General of the State in India, for UPSC, are: In the Order of Precedence, Additional Solicitor General is above the Advocate […]

Read More

Attorney General of India

August 26, 2021

Attorney General of India Attorney General- Facts: The Attorney General for India is the central government’s chief legal advisor, and its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court of India. He is a part of the Union Executive. Appointment and Eligibility: AG is appointed by the President on the advice of the government. S/he must be a person who is qualified […]

Read More

Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities

August 26, 2021

Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities What is a Linguistic Minority? Before we go into detail on what is a Special Officer for a Linguistic Minority, one must know the definitions of linguistic minority. A linguistic minority is a class of people whose mother tongue is different from that of the majority in the state or […]

Read More

STATE INFORMATION COMMISSION

August 26, 2021

STATE INFORMATION COMMISSION INTRODUCTION The State Information Commission will be constituted by the State Government through a Gazette notification. It will have one State Chief Information Commissioner (SCIC) and not more than 10 State Information Commissioners (SIC) to be appointed by the Governor. Tenure and Service The State Chief Information Commissioner and a State Information Commissioner […]

Read More

SUBORDINATE COURTS

August 25, 2021

SUBORDINATE COURTS Introduction to Indian Judiciary The judiciary is that branch of the government that interprets the law, settles disputes and administers justice to all citizens. The judiciary is considered the watchdog of democracy, and also the guardian of the Constitution. For democracy to function effectively, it is imperative to have an impartial and independent […]

Read More

TRIBUNALS

August 25, 2021

TRIBUNALS Introduction Tribunals are not originally a part of the Constitution of India. They were introduced in 1985. Tribunals were constituted with the objective of delivering speedy, inexpensive and decentralised adjudication of disputes in various matters. Tribunal are created to avoid the regular courts’ route for dispensation of disputes. Some triibunals are specialised government agencies […]

Read More

STATE LEGISLATURE

August 25, 2021

STATE LEGISLATURE What is a Unicameral State? It is a form of the legislature where only one house (one central unit) exists to make and implement laws for the state/country. What is a Bicameral State? It is a legislative body with two houses. India is one such example where there are two houses both at […]

Read More

STATE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS

August 25, 2021

STATE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS BACKGROUND Portfolio system was started by Lord Canning in Indian Councils Act 1861. In the United Kingdom – the Council of Ministers is the real executive which is left on the convention. In India – the System of Council of Ministers is codified and mentioned in Indian Constitution. In S.R. Chauhan vs State of Punjab (2001), Supreme Court held that a […]

Read More

Public Interest Litigation

August 25, 2021

Public Interest Litigation What is Public Interest Litigation? Public interest Litigation (PIL) means litigation filed in a court of law, for the protection of “Public Interest”. Any matter where the interest of the public at large is affected can be redressed by filing a Public Interest Litigation in a court of law such as Pollution, […]

Read More

Judicial Activism

August 24, 2021

Judicial Activism Judicial Activism Methods There are various methods of judicial activism that are followed in India. They are: Judicial review (power of the judiciary to interpret the constitution and to declare any such law or order of the legislature and executive void, if it finds them in conflict with the Constitution) PIL (The person […]

Read More

Parliamentary Group

August 24, 2021

Parliamentary Group What is a Parliamentary Group?  A parliamentary group, parliamentary party, or parliamentary caucus is a group consisting of members of the same political party or electoral fusion of parties in a legislative assembly such as a parliament or a city council. What is Indian Parliamentary Group?   In 1949, IPG was formed as an […]

Read More

Parliamentary Forums

August 24, 2021

Parliamentary Forums These are constituted for sharing of knowledge and providing a platform of discussions and dialogue between parliamentarians and government officials and key experts. The speaker is the president of every forum except one where the chairman of Rajya Sabha is the president. The deputy chairman, deputy speaker, concerned minister and chairman of standing […]

Read More

ZONAL COUNCILS

August 24, 2021

ZONAL COUNCILS Introduction Issues such as inter-State water dispute, power transmission, coal royalty, forest clearance for railway and other infrastructure projects and extension of banking and telecom services in rural pockets will figure in the discussion. ZONAL COUNCILS are advisory councils and are made up of the states of India that have been grouped into […]

Read More

Federalism and Interstate River Water Governance in India

August 24, 2021

Federalism and Interstate River Water Governance in India Interstate (River) Water Disputes (ISWDs) are a continuing challenge to federal water governance in the country. Rooted in constitutional, historico-geographical, and institutional ambiguities, they tend to become prolonged conflicts between the states that share river basins. Given the significant nature of such disputes, it is essential to examine the […]

Read More

Unitary Features Of The Constitution

August 23, 2021

Unitary Features Of The Constitution Strong Centre The division of powers is in favour of the Centre and highly inequitable from the federal angle. Firstly, the Union List contains more subjects than the State List. Secondly, the more important subjects have been included in the Union List. Thirdly, the Centre has overriding authority over the […]

Read More

Legislative Centre-State Relations

August 23, 2021

Legislative Centre-State Relations Introduction Articles 245 to 255 in Part XI of the Constitution deal with the legislative relations between the Centre and the states. Besides these, there are some other articles dealing with the same subject. Like any other Federal Constitution, the Indian Constitution also divides the legislative powers between the Centre and the […]

Read More

Federal Features of the Constitution

August 23, 2021

Federal Features of the Constitution Dual Polity The Constitution establishes a dual polity consisting the Union at the Centre and the states at the periphery. Each is endowed with sovereign powers to be exercised in the field assigned to them respectively by the Constitution. The Union government deals with the matters of national importance like […]

Read More

Financial Center-State Relations

August 23, 2021

Financial Center-State Relations Introduction Articles 268 to 293 in Part XII of the Constitution deal with Centre State financial relations. Besides these, there are other provisions dealing with the same subject. Allocation of Taxing Powers The Constitution divides the taxing powers between the Centre and the states in the following way: The Parliament has exclusive […]

Read More

Administrative Center-State Relations

August 23, 2021

Administrative Center-State Relations Introduction Articles 256 to 263 in Part XI of the Constitution deal with the administrative relations between the Centre and the states. In addition, there are various other articles pertaining to the same matter. Distribution of Executive Powers The executive power has been divided between the Centre and the states on the […]

Read More

Armed Forces/ Martial Law and Fundamental Rights

August 21, 2021

Armed Forces/ Martial Law and Fundamental Rights Introduction Article 33 empowers the Parliament to restrict or abrogate the fundamental rights of the members of armed forces, para-military forces, police forces, intelligence agencies and analogous forces. The objective of this provision is to ensure the proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline among […]

Read More

Writs-Types and Scope

August 21, 2021

Writs-Types and Scope Introduction The Supreme Court (under Article 32) and the high courts (under Article 226) can issue the writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, certiorari and quo-warranto. Further, the Parliament (under Article 32) can empower any other court to issue these writs. Since no such provision has been made so far, only the […]

Read More

Act of 1786 and Charter Act of 1793

August 21, 2021

Act of 1786 and Charter Act of 1793 Act of 1786 In 1786, Lord Cornwallis was appointed as the Governor-General of Bengal. He placed two demands to accept that post, viz., He should be given the power to override the decision of his council in special cases. He would also be the Commander-in-Chief. Lord Cornwallis was appointed as […]

Read More

The Company Rule (1773–1858) in India

August 21, 2021

The Company Rule (1773–1858) in India Regulating Act of 1773 This act was of great constitutional importance as: it was the first step taken by the British Government to control and regulate the affairs of the East India Company in India; it recognised, for the first time, the political and administrative functions of the Company; […]

Read More

Salient Features of the Constitution

August 21, 2021

Salient Features of the Constitution Introduction The Indian Constitution is unique in its contents and spirit. Though borrowed from almost every Constitution of the world, the Constitution of India has several salient features that distinguish it from the Constitutions of the other countries. It should be noted at the outset that a number of original […]

Read More

Criticism Of The Constitution

August 20, 2021

CRITICISM OF THE CONSTITUTION The Constitution of India, as framed and adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India, has been criticized on the following grounds: A Borrowed Constitution The critics opined that the Indian Constitution contains nothing new and original. They described it as a ‘borrowed Constitution’ or a ‘bag of borrowings’ or a ‘hotch-potch […]

Read More

Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights (Article 13)

August 20, 2021

Laws Inconsistent with Fundamental Rights (Article 13) Introduction Article 13 declares that all laws that are inconsistent with or in derogation of any of the fundamental rights shall be void. In other words, it expressly provides for the doctrine of judicial review. This power has been conferred on the Supreme Court (Article 32) and the […]

Read More

The Crown Rule (1858–1947)

August 20, 2021

The Crown Rule (1858–1947) Government of India Act of 1858 This significant Act was enacted in the wake of the Revolt of 1857–also known as the First War of Independence or the ‘sepoy mutiny’. The act known as the Act for the Good Government of India, abolished the East India Company, and transferred the powers […]

Read More

Government of India Act of 1919

August 20, 2021

Government of India Act of 1919 Introduction On August 20, 1917, the British Government declared, for the first time, that its objective was the gradual introduction of responsible Government in India. The Government of India Act of 1919 was thus enacted, which came into force in 1921. This Act is also known as Montagu- Chelmsford […]

Read More

Government of India Act of 1935

August 20, 2021

Government of India Act of 1935 Introduction The Act marked a second milestone towards a completely responsible government in India. It was a lengthy and detailed document having 321 Sections and 10 Schedules. Background There was a growing demand for constitutional reforms in India by Indian leaders. India’s support to Britain in the First World War also […]

Read More

Indian Independence Act of 1947

August 19, 2021

Indian Independence Act of 1947 Introduction On February 20, 1947, the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee declared that the British rule in India would end by June 30,1948; after which the power would be transferred to responsible Indian hands. This announcement was followed by the agitation by the Muslim League demanding partition of the country. […]

Read More

Indian Councils Act of 1892

August 19, 2021

Indian Councils Act of 1892 Introduction Indian Councils Act 1892 was passed by the British Parliament to increase in the size of the legislative councils. This act marks the beginning of representative form of Government in India. Background The Indian National Congress (INC) was formed in 1885. There was a growing feeling of nationalism and […]

Read More

Indian Councils Act of 1861

August 19, 2021

Indian Councils Act of 1861 Introduction After the great revolt of 1857, the British Government felt the necessity of seeking the cooperation of the Indians in the administration of their country. In pursuance of this policy of association, three acts were enacted by the British Parliament in 1861, 1892 and 1909. The Indian Councils Act […]

Read More

Government of India Act of 1858

August 19, 2021

Government of India Act of 1858 Introduction This significant Act was enacted in the wake of the Revolt of 1857–also known as the First War of Independence or the ‘sepoy mutiny’. The act known as the Act for the Good Government of India, abolished the East India Company, and transferred the powers of Government, territories […]

Read More

Indian Councils Act of 1909

August 19, 2021

Indian Councils Act of 1909 Introduction This Act is also known as Morley-Minto Reforms (Lord Morley was the then Secretary of State for India and Lord Minto was the then Viceroy of India). The Indian Councils Act 1909 was an act of the British Parliament that introduced a few reforms in the legislative councils and […]

Read More

Charter Act of 1813

August 18, 2021

Charter Act of 1813 Introduction The Charter Act of 1813 passed by the British Parliament renewed the East India Company’s charter for another 20 years. This is also called the East India Company Act, 1813. This act is important in that it defined for the first time the constitutional position of British Indian territories. Background […]

Read More

Charter Act of 1833

August 18, 2021

Charter Act of 1833 Introduction The Charter Act of 1833 was passed in the British Parliament which renewed the East India Company’s charter for another 20 years. This was also called the Government of India Act 1833 or the Saint Helena Act 1833. This Act was the final step towards centralisation in British India. Features […]

Read More

The Regulating Act Of 1773

August 16, 2021

The Regulating Act Of 1773 Introduction The regulating Act of 1773 was passed by the British Parliament to control the territories of the East India Company majorly in Bengal. This act was passed due to the misgovernment by the British East India government that introduced a situation of bankruptcy and the government had to interfere […]

Read More

Pitt’s India Act of 1784

August 16, 2021

Pitt’s India Act of 1784 Introduction The Pitt’s India Act, 1784 also called the East India Company Act, 1784 was passed by the British Parliament to correct the defects of the Regulating Act of 1773. This act resulted in dual control of British possessions in India by the British government and the Company with the […]

Read More

Amending Act of 1781

August 16, 2021

Amending Act of 1781 Introduction The Enactment of the Regulating Act of 1773 and the Act of Settlement were two major enactments in the Indian Legal History. The Regulating Act of 1773 was the first Act to bring in major changes in the administration and justice. Then, late on, the Act of Settlement in the […]

Read More

Doctrine of Severability

April 24, 2021

Doctrine of Severability What is Doctrine of Severability? The doctrine of severability means that a law is void only “to the extent of the inconsistency or contravention” with the relevant Fundamental Right according to Article 13 of the Indian Constitution. According to the doctrine of severability, if there is any offending part in the statute […]

Read More

Article 35A & Article 370

March 24, 2021

Article 35A & Article 370 Why in news? The Supreme Court is hearing petitions challenging the validity of Art 35A. The provisions need an understanding in the context of the solemn promises at the heart of the Indian federation. What is Art 35A? Art 35A was inserted as part of the amendments made through a […]

Read More

Lily Thomas and Union Of India (2013)

March 23, 2021

Lily Thomas and Union Of India (2013) Lily Thomas case (2013) Lily Thomas and an NGO Lok Prahari challenged the Sec 8(4) of the Representation of People Act, 1951 as ultra vires to the constitution. The idea of the PIL was to stop the entry of the convicted individuals in the legislative houses. The court […]

Read More

National Legal Services Authority and Union of India (2014)

March 23, 2021

National Legal Services Authority and Union of India (2014)  Introduction This case was filed by the National Legal Services Authority of India (NALSA) to legally recognize persons who fall outside the male/female gender binary, including persons who identify as “third gender”. Background The transgender community face a lot of humiliation and disgrace in the present […]

Read More

CJI’s office comes under ambit of RTI Act:SC

March 23, 2021

CJI’s office comes under ambit of RTI Act:SC Introduction The office of the Chief Justice of India is a public authority and falls under the ambit of Right to Information Act, the Supreme Court ruled. The five-judge bench of CJI Ranjan Gogoi, Justices N V Ramana, D Y Chandrachud, Deepak Gupta and Sanjiv Khanna passed […]

Read More

Jarnail Singh and ors. vs Lachhmi Narain Gupta and ors.

March 23, 2021

Jarnail Singh and ors. vs Lachhmi Narain Gupta and ors. Introduction Reservation has always been a contentious issue in Indian polity. After the Poona Pact, Dr. B R Ambedkar gave up the demand of the Dalit community for separate electoral colleges.It was agreed that the castes described by the British as “depressed classes” would be […]

Read More

Bachan Singh vs State of Punjab Case 1980

March 23, 2021

What is Bachan Singh vs State of Punjab Case 1980?  The Constitution Bench judgment of Supreme Court of India in Bachan Singh vs. State of Punjab (1980) (2 SCC 684) made it very clear that Capital punishment in India can be given only in rarest of rare cases. This judgement was in line with the previous verdicts in Jagmohan Singh vs. […]

Read More

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India (2017)

March 23, 2021

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India (2017) Introduction On 24th August 2017, a nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India passed a historic judgment affirming the constitutional right to privacy. It declared privacy to be an integral component of Part III of the Constitution of India, which lays down […]

Read More

Indra Sawhney and Union of India (1992)

March 23, 2021

Indra Sawhney and Union of India (1992) Introduction When our own Constitution was framed the framer of the constitution made a special provision with intention to provide equal opportunity in the public employment to all the citizens within INDIA. The same was inserted in the Art. 16 of the Indian Constitution. But considering the backward […]

Read More

Waman Rao Case (1981)

March 23, 2021

Waman Rao Case (1981) Background There was an Act called Maharashtra Agricultural Lands (Ceiling on Holdings) Act 1962, hereinafter referred as the Act, imposed a ceiling on agricultural lands. Thereafter the ceiling was revised from time to time and certain other amendments were brought into operation. The validity of these Acts were challenged before the […]

Read More

Minerva Mills case (1980)

March 23, 2021

Minerva Mills case (1980) Introduction Minerva Mills Ltd. vs Union of India is one of the most important judgments which guarded the ‘basic structure’ of the Constitution form being amended by parliament. The constitutionality of sections 4 and 55 of the 42nd Amendment Act, 1986 gave the parliament ‘unlimited powers’ to amend the constitution and hence […]

Read More

Maneka Gandhi case (1978)

March 23, 2021

Maneka Gandhi case (1978) Introduction This case is a landmark judgement which played the most significant role towards the transformation of the judicial view on Article 21 of the Constitution of India so as to imply many more fundamental rights from article 21. This case is always read and linked with A.K. Gopalan v. State […]

Read More

Indira Nehru Gandhi vs Raj Narain case (1975)

March 23, 2021

Indira Nehru Gandhi vs Raj Narain case (1975) Introduction This is a case regarding Election Disputes involving the Prime Minister and Purpose of 39th Amendment of the Constitution. Judges Involved In The Case Ray Khanna Beg KK Mathew Facts Of The Case | Indira Nehru Gandhi vs Raj Narain case (1975) In this case, an […]

Read More

Kesavananda Bharati Case

March 23, 2021

Kesavananda Bharati Case What is Kesavananda Bharati Case? The Kesavananda Bharati judgement is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of India that outlined the basic structure doctrine of the Constitution. Justice Hans Raj Khanna asserted through this doctrine that the constitution possesses a basic structure of constitutional principles and values. The Court partially cemented the prior precedent Golaknath v. State of Punjab, which held that constitutional amendments pursuant to Article […]

Read More

Shankari Prasad Case (1951)

March 23, 2021

Shankari Prasad Case (1951) Introduction Fundamental rights, the basic human rights are enforceable. These fundamental rights are protected by the court of law by issuing writs. Though under Article 352 and 356, the fundamental rights or some parts of them can be suspended during emergency yet they can be amended by Parliament. The constitutional validity […]

Read More

A.K. Gopalan vs State of Madras (1950)

March 23, 2021

A.K. Gopalan vs State of Madras (1950) About AK Gopalan K. Gopalan was a communist leader who was detained in the Madras Jail under Preventive Detention Act,1950 and challenged his detention by stating that his civil liberty was being hampered as he had the right to equality of law.  A.K. Gopalan vs State of Madras […]

Read More

State Human Rights Commission

March 23, 2021

State Human Rights Commission Introduction The Protection of Human Rights Act of 1993 provides for the creation of not only the National Human Rights Commission but also a State Human Rights Commission at the state level. Accordingly, twenty six states have constituted the State Human Rights Commissions through Official Gazette Notifications. A State Human Rights […]

Read More

Urban Government

March 23, 2021

Urban Government Introduction Urban Local government implies the governance of an urban area by the people through their elected representatives. 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 provided constitutional status to local urban bodies. 74th Amendment Act, 1992 This Amendment Act has inserted a new Part IX an into the Constitution which deals with the administration of […]

Read More

Delimitation Commission

March 23, 2021

Delimitation Commission Introduction Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body. In India, such Delimitation Commissions have been constituted 4 times – In 1952 under the Delimitation Commission Act, 1952, In 1963 under Delimitation Commission Act, 1962, In […]

Read More

Supreme Court’s Doctrine of Essentiality

March 22, 2021

Supreme Court’s Doctrine of Essentiality Introduction The Supreme Court has decided to refer the Sabarimala temple case to a larger 7-judge Bench. This reopens not only the debate on allowing women of menstruating age into the Ayyappa temple but the larger issue of whether any religion can bar women from entering places of worship. What […]

Read More

Second Judges Case (1993)

March 22, 2021

Second Judges Case (1993) Introduction A Bench of the Supreme Court, led by CJI Ranjan Gogoi, has dismissed a bunch of petitions seeking a review of the court’s judgment in the Second Judges Case in 1993, which led to the Collegium system of appointment of judges. What is Collegium System? The Collegium of judges is […]

Read More

SC Judgement on Section 377 (2018)

March 22, 2021

SC Judgement on Section 377 (2018) What is Section 377? Section 377 refers to ‘unnatural offences’ and says whoever voluntarily has carnal intercourse against the order of nature with any man, woman or animal, shall be punished with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to 10 […]

Read More

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India (2017)

March 22, 2021

Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India (2017) Introduction On 24th August 2017, a nine-judge bench of the Supreme Court in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India passed a historic judgment affirming the constitutional right to privacy. It declared privacy to be an integral component of Part III of the Constitution of India, which lays down […]

Read More

Triple Talaq Judgement (2016)

March 22, 2021

Triple Talaq Judgement (2016) Introduction Shayara Bano, a 35-year-old woman, challenged the practice in 2016, a year after her husband of 15 years divorced her via triple talaq. Petitions of four other Muslim women – Afreen Rehman, Gulshan Parveen, Ishrat Jahan and Atiya Sabri – were tagged with Bano’s plea. Some Muslim groups see the […]

Read More

Nirbhaya Case (2014)

March 22, 2021

Nirbhaya Case (2014) Introduction On December 11,2012, a 23-year-old medic student was brutally gang- raped on a moving bus in India’s capital New Delhi by 5 men. After the horrific assault she was thrown out of the bus at an isolated place. She succumbed to her injuries on December 29, 2012, at a hospital in […]

Read More

Aruna Shanbaug Case (2011)

March 22, 2021

Aruna Shanbaug Case (2011) Introduction The Supreme Court on March 9 ruled that individuals had a right to die with dignity, allowing passive euthanasia with guidelines. The need to change euthanasia laws was triggered by the famous Aruna Shanbaug case. The top court in 2011 had recognised passive euthanasia in Aruna Shanbaug case by which […]

Read More

Pedophilia case (2011)

March 22, 2021

Pedophilia case (2011) Introduction The conviction of two British nationals, Duncan Grant and Allan Waters, for sexually abusing minor boys has underlined the need for a stringent law against sexual exploitation of children. Activists say that the provisions of Indian Penal Code are not stringent enough to book someone for sexually exploiting children. What is […]

Read More

I.R Coelho and State of Tamil Nadu 2007

March 22, 2021

I.R Coelho and State of Tamil Nadu 2007 Introduction IR Coelho v. State of Tamil Nadu case is one of the landmark judgement for the interpretation of the doctrine of basic structure decided by a nine-judge bench, with regard to conflict of power between the Parliament and Supreme Court. The politico-legal controversy continuing from decades […]

Read More

Samatha vs State of Andhra Pradesh (1997)

March 22, 2021

Samatha vs State of Andhra Pradesh (1997) Introduction Supreme Court decision regarding the leasing of tribal lands for mining and industrial purposes to non-tribal persons. Social action group appealed a high court ruling for the State of Andhra Pradesh on behalf of the affected tribal persons and argued that the leasing of tribal lands for […]

Read More

Vishaka vs State of Rajasthan (1997)

March 22, 2021

Vishaka vs State of Rajasthan (1997) Introduction Vishaka & others. v/s state of Rajasthan is a case which deals with the evil of Sexual Harassment of a women at her workplace. It is a landmark judgment case in the history of sexual harassment which as being decide by Supreme Court. Sexual Harassment means an uninvited/unwelcome […]

Read More

SR BOMMAI CASE

March 22, 2021

SR BOMMAI CASE Background In 1985, the Janata Party won the Assembly elections in Karnataka and formed the government under Chief Minister Ramakrishna Hegde. Hegde was replaced by SR Bommai, also of the Janata Party, in 1988. In September 1988, a legislator from the Janata Dal defected from the party, and presented a letter to Governor […]

Read More

Indra Sawhney and Union of India (1992)

March 22, 2021

Indra Sawhney and Union of India (1992) Introduction When our own Constitution was framed the framer of the constitution made a special provision with intention to provide equal opportunity in the public employment to all the citizens within INDIA. The same was inserted in the Art. 16 of the Indian Constitution. But considering the backward […]

Read More

MC Mehta and Union Of India (1986)

March 22, 2021

MC Mehta and Union Of India (1986) Introduction C. Mehta v. Union of India originated in the aftermath of oleum gas leak from Shriram Food and Fertilisers Ltd. complex at Delhi. This gas leak occurred soon after the infamous Bhopal gas leak and created a lot of panic in Delhi. One person died in the incident and few […]

Read More

Shah Bano Begum case (1985)

March 22, 2021

Shah Bano Begum case (1985) Introduction Ahmad Khan V/S Shah Bano Begum is a landmark lawsuit which has dealt with the problem of “Triple Talaq Verdict”. This case is normally mentioned as “Shah Bano Case”. It is considered to be a very debatable and problematic legal contest in India. This lawsuit has substantiated to be […]

Read More

Political Culture In India

March 17, 2021

Political Culture In India What Is Culture? Culture is regarded as a complex phenomenon which includes knowledge, art, belief, morals, law, custom and other capabilities acquired by man as a member of society. Culture may be said to have composed of two parts, i.e.,  material culture and non-material culture. Material culture includes all the material […]

Read More

Police Reforms In India

March 17, 2021

Police Reforms In India Introduction Under the Indian Constitution, policing is a state power, which means that state governments have the responsibility to provide their communities with a police service (the national government has the responsibility for policing in union territories). Most state governments have a police law that adopts or reflects the basic ideas […]

Read More

Criminalisation Of Politics

March 16, 2021

Criminalisation Of Politics Why in news? The Supreme Court (SC) has ordered political parties to publish the entire criminal history of their candidates for Assembly and Lok Sabha elections along with the reasons that forced them to field suspected criminals. The order was a reply to the contempt petition about the general disregard shown by political parties to […]

Read More

Private Member Bill for Two-Child Policy Norm

March 16, 2021

Private Member Bill for Two-Child Policy Norm Why in News Recently, a Private Member’s Constitution Amendment Bill has been introduced in the Rajya Sabha proposing incentives in taxation, education and employment for people who limit their family size to two children. The Bill is likely to be discussed when Parliament meets for the second half of the Budget […]

Read More

Mandal Commission and OBC Reservation in India

March 13, 2021

Mandal Commission and OBC Reservation in India Introduction The age-old caste system of India is responsible for the origination of the reservation system in the country. In simple terms, it is about facilitating access to seats in the government jobs, educational institutions, and even legislatures to certain sections of the population. These sections have faced historical injustice due to their […]

Read More

Lok Adalat And Revitalising Rural Area

March 13, 2021

Lok Adalat And Revitalising Rural Area What Is A Lok Adalat? The concept of Lok Adalat (People’s Court) is an innovative Indian contribution to the world jurisprudence. The introduction of Lok Adalats added a new chapter to the justice dispensation system of this country and succeeded in providing a supplementary forum to the victims for […]

Read More

Autonomous District Councils

March 12, 2021

Autonomous District Councils What are Autonomous District Council? As per the Sixth Schedule, the four states viz. Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura and Mizoram contain the Tribal Areas which are technically different from the Scheduled Areas. Though these areas fall within the executive authority of the state, provision has been made for the creation of the District Councils and regional councils for the exercise […]

Read More

Quit India Movement

March 11, 2021

Quit India Movement Introduction It was in 1942 when the world was going through the havoc caused by World War II. India too was facing the heat and after the Cripps Mission had failed, and on 8 August 1942, Mahatma Gandhi made a Do or Die call through the Quit India movement. Mumbai’s Gowalia Tank Maidan also […]

Read More

Public Service Act

March 11, 2021

Public Service Act Why in news? Delhi Government recently approved its ‘doorstep delivery’ of public services programme, by Anil Baijal, the Lieutenant governor. Now Delhiites can get  important government  documents like driving licences, caste certificates, new water connections delivered to their doorsteps by dialling 1076.  The government will roll out a scheme soon. The scheme aims to deliver 40 […]

Read More

The Office Of Chief Minister And Council Of Ministers

March 4, 2021

Introduction | The Office Of Chief Minister And Council Of Ministers As a real executive authority, the Chief Minister is called the head of the government. He is assisted by his council of ministers who are a part of state executive along with Governor and Advocate-General of State. Similar to Prime Minister who is the […]

Read More

THE OFFICE OF GOVERNOR | INDIAN POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | THE OFFICE OF GOVERNOR | POLITY  The state executive is made up by Governor, Chief Minister, Council of Ministers and Advocate-General of State. Governor, as President, heads the state government. Article 153-167 in the Indian Constitution deal with the provisions related to the state governments of the country. Governor is a titular head […]

Read More

Parliament Part 11- Parliamentary Privileges and Sovereignty of Parliament

March 4, 2021

What are Parliamentary privileges? | Parliament Part 11- Parliamentary Privileges and Sovereignty of Parliament Parliamentary privileges are certain rights and immunities enjoyed by members of Parliament, individually and collectively, so that they can “effectively discharge their functions”. Parliamentary privileges are defined in Article 105 of the Indian Constitution and those of State legislatures in Article 194. When any of these rights and […]

Read More

Parliament Part 10- Ineffectiveness of Parliamentary Control and Position of Rajya Sabha

March 4, 2021

Ineffectiveness of Parliamentary Control The parliamentary control over government and administration in India is more theoretical than practical. In reality, the control is not as effective as it ought to be. The following factors are responsible for this: The Parliament has neither time nor expertise to control the administration which has grown in volume as […]

Read More

Parliament Part 9- Multifunctional Role of Parliament

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Parliament Part 9- Multifunctional Role of Parliament In the ‘Indian politico-administrative system’, the Parliament occupies a central position and has a multifunctional role. It enjoys extensive powers and performs a variety of functions towards the fulfilment of its constitutionally expected role. Its powers and functions can be classified under the following heads: Legislative […]

Read More

Parliament Part 8- Budget in Parliament | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Parliament Part 8- Budget in Parliament According to Article 77 (3), the Union Finance Minister has been made responsible by the President to prepare the budget also called as the annual financial statement and pilot it through the parliament. Budget embodies the estimated receipts and expenditure of the Government of India for one […]

Read More

Parliament Part 7- Legislative Procedures and Joint Sitting Of Two Houses

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Parliament Part 7- Legislative Procedures and Joint Sitting Of Two Houses The legislative procedure is identical in both the Houses of Parliament. Every bill has to pass through the same stages in each House. A bill is a proposal for legislation and it becomes an act or law when duly enacted. Bills introduced […]

Read More

Parliament Part 6- Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings

March 4, 2021

Question Hour | Parliament Part 6- Devices of Parliamentary Proceedings The first hour of every parliamentary sitting is slotted for this. During this time, the members ask questions and the ministers usually give answers. The questions are of three kinds, namely, starred, unstarred and short notice. A starred question (distinguished by an asterisk) requires an […]

Read More

Parliament Part 5- Sessions of Parliament|POLITY

March 4, 2021

Sessions of Parliament | Parliament Part 5- Sessions of Parliament A session of the Indian Parliament is the period during which a House meets almost every day uninterruptedly to manage the business. There are typically three sessions in a year. A session contains many meetings. The process of calling all members of the Parliament to meet […]

Read More

Parliament Part 4- Presiding Officers and Leaders in Parliament

March 4, 2021

Presiding Officers Of Parliament | Parliament Part 4- Presiding Officers and Leaders in Parliament Each House of Parliament has its own presiding officer. There is a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker for the Lok Sabha and a Chairman and a Deputy Chairman for the Rajya Sabha. A panel of chairpersons for the Lok Sabha and […]

Read More

Parliament Part 3- Duration of Two Houses and Membership of Parliament

March 4, 2021

Duration of Rajya Sabha | Parliament Part 3- Duration of Two Houses and Membership of Parliament The Rajya Sabha (first constituted in 1952) is a continuing chamber, that is, it is a permanent body and not subject to dissolution. However, one-third of its members retire every second year. Their seats are filled up by fresh […]

Read More

Parliament Part 2- System of Elections to Lok Sabha

March 4, 2021

Lok Sabha Elections | Parliament Part 2- System of Elections to Lok Sabha The members of Parliament (MPs) are elected/appointed from states, union territories or are appointed from a field of particular expertise. The elections to Lok Sabha occur every 5 years in the name of general elections. The Indian Constitution has adopted universal adult franchise as […]

Read More

Parliament Part 1- Organization And Composition Of Two Houses

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Parliament Part 1- Organization And Composition Of Two Houses The Parliament is the legislative organ of the Union government. It occupies a pre-eminent and central position in the Indian democratic political system due to adoption of the parliamentary form of government, also known as ‘Westminster’ model of government. Articles 79 to 122 in […]

Read More

The office of Prime Minister and Council of Ministers

March 4, 2021

Introduction | The office of Prime Minister and Council of Ministers In the scheme of parliamentary system of government provided by the constitution, the President is the nominal executive authority (de jure executive) and Prime Minister is the real executive authority (de facto executive). In other words, president is the head of the State while […]

Read More

THE OFFICE OF VICE-PRESIDENT | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | THE OFFICE OF VICE-PRESIDENT | POLITY  The Vice-President occupies the second highest office in the country. He is accorded a rank next to the President in the official warrant of precedence. This office is modelled on the lines of the American Vice-President. Article 63 of the Indian Constitution mentions the post of Vice-President. […]

Read More

THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | THE OFFICE OF PRESIDENT | POLITY Indian President is the head of the state and he is also called the first citizen of India. He is a part of Union Executive, provisions of which are dealt with Article 52-78 including articles related to President (Article 52-62.) Under these articles, information on how a […]

Read More

Official Language In Indian Constitution | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Official Language In Indian Constitution Part XVII of the Constitution deals with the official language in Articles 343 to 351. Its provisions are divided into four heads–Language of the Union, Regional languages, Language of the judiciary and texts of laws and Special directives. Official Language of the Union The official language of the […]

Read More

CO-OPERATIVES SOCIETIES | POLITY

March 4, 2021

What are Co-operative Societies? | CO-OPERATIVES SOCIETIES | POLITY A co-operative society is a type of volunteer association. Article 19 states that the Right to form co-operative societies is a fundamental right and Article 43-B provides for the promotion of co-operative societies (DPSP). The main purpose of co-operative societies is to provide service to its […]

Read More

Pre-Constitutional Developments in India | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Pre-Constitutional Developments in India Constitutional Development of India is a detailed analysis of how the Constitution of India has evolved from the past to the current. The period of historical British Constitutional experiments in India can be divided into two phases: Phase 1- Constitutional experiment during the rule of the East India Company (1773-1857) […]

Read More

National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution

March 4, 2021

Introduction | National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution The National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC) was set up by a resolution of the Government of India in 2000. The 11-member Commission was headed by M.N. Venkatachaliah, the former Chief Justice of India. It submitted its report in 2002. […]

Read More

National Human Rights Commission | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Establishment of the commission | National Human Rights Commission | POLITY  The National Human Rights Commission is a statutory body established in 1993 under the legislation the Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993. The Act was amended in 2006. The commission is the watchdog of human rights in the country i.e. the rights relating to […]

Read More

NITI AAYOG | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | NITI AAYOG | POLITY  The centre-to-state one-way flow of policy, that was the hallmark of the Planning Commission era, is now sought to be replaced by a genuine and continuing partnership of states. Better inter-ministry coordination. NITI Aayog = more a “think tank” than a finance distributing agency. With NITI Aayog, there will […]

Read More

Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) | POLITY  The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) is the main agency for preventing corruption in the Central government. It was established in 1964 by an executive resolution of the Central government. Its establishment was recommended by the Santhanam Committee on Prevention of Corruption (1962–64). Thus, originally the CVC was […]

Read More

Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) | POLITY

March 4, 2021

What is CBI? | Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) is the premier investigating police agency in India. Its job is to ensure a fair and an impartial probe. But, in October 2018, two of the top officials of the agency have been reported to be involved in a major feud. This has led the […]

Read More

URBAN GOVERNMENT | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | URBAN GOVERNMENT | POLITY  Urban Local government implies the governance of an urban area by the people through their elected representatives. 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 provided constitutional status to local urban bodies. 74th Amendment Act, 1992 This Amendment Act has inserted a new Part IX an into the Constitution which deals with […]

Read More

DELIMITATION COMMISSION | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | DELIMITATION COMMISSION | POLITY  Delimitation literally means the act or process of fixing limits or boundaries of territorial constituencies in a country or a province having a legislative body. In India, such Delimitation Commissions have been constituted 4 times – In 1952 under the Delimitation Commission Act, 1952, In 1963 under Delimitation Commission […]

Read More

National Commission for STs | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction  | NATIONAL COMMISSION for STs | POLITY  Like the National Commission for Schedules Castes (SCs), the National Commission for Scheduled Tribes (STs) is also a constitutional body in the sense that it is directly established by Article 338-A of the Constitution Functions Of The Commission The functions of the Commission are: To investigate and […]

Read More

National Commission for SCs | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | NATIONAL COMMISSION for SCs | POLITY  The National Commission for Scheduled Castes (SCs) is a constitutional body in the sense that it is directly established by Article 338 of the Constitution. On the other hand, the other national commissions like the National Commission for Women (1992), the National Commission for Minorities (1993), the […]

Read More

FINANCE COMMISSION | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | FINANCE COMMISSION | POLITY Finance Commission is a constitutional body for the purpose of allocation of certain revenue resources between the Union and the State Governments. It was established under Article 280 of the Indian Constitution by the Indian President. It was created to define the financial relations between the Centre and the […]

Read More

State Public Service Commission (SPSC) | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | State Public Service Commission (SPSC) Parallel to the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) at the Centre, there is a State Public Service Commission (SPSC) in a state. The same set of Articles (i.e., 315 to 323 in Part XIV) of the Constitution also deal with the composition, appointment and removal of members, power […]

Read More

Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) is the central recruiting agency in India. It is an independent constitutional body in the sense that it has been directly created by the Constitution. Articles 315 to 323 in Part XIV of the Constitution contain elaborate provisions regarding the composition, appointment […]

Read More

Election Commission Of India (ECI) | POLITY

March 4, 2021

About ECI – Election Commission of India The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India. The body administers elections to the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state Legislative Assemblies in India, and the offices of the President and Vice President in the country. The Election Commission operates […]

Read More

Scheduled and Tribal Areas in India | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Scheduled and Tribal Areas in India Article 244 in Part X of the Constitution envisages a special system of administration for certain areas designated as ‘scheduled areas’ and ‘tribal areas’. The Fifth Schedule of the Constitution deals with the administration and control of scheduled areas and scheduled tribes in any state except the […]

Read More

UNION TERRITORIES | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | UNION TERRITORIES | POLITY Under Article 1 of the Constitution, the territory of India comprises three categories of territories: territories of the states; union territories; and territories that may be acquired by the Government of India at any time. At present, there are twenty-nine states, seven union territories and no acquired territories. The […]

Read More

Concept of federalism part 3- Cooperative and Competitive Federalism | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Concept of federalism part 3- Cooperative and Competitive Federalism Federalism is derived from the Latin world foedus, which means agreement. In fact federation is an agreement between two types of governments sharing power and controlling their respective spheres. Thus a federation is a system of national and local governments, combined under a common […]

Read More

Concept of federalism part 2- Centre State Relations

March 4, 2021

Centre State Relations | Concept of federalism part 2- Centre State Relations  The Constitution of India provides a dual polity with a clear division of powers between the Union and the States, each being supreme within the sphere allotted to it. The Indian federation is not the result of an agreement between independent units, and the units […]

Read More

Concept of federalism part 1- Federalism And Parliamentary Form Of Government

March 4, 2021

Federalism |Concept of federalism part 1- Federalism And Parliamentary Form Of Government Federalism is a system of government in which powers have been divided between the centre and its constituent parts such as states or provinces. It is an institutional mechanism to accommodate two sets of politics, one at the centre or national level and […]

Read More

Judiciary part 5- Municipalities | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | JUDICIARY PART 5 – MUNICIPALITIES The term ‘Urban Local Government’ in India signifies the governance of an urban area by the people through their elected representatives. The jurisdiction of an urban local government is limited to a specific urban area which is demarcated for this purpose by the state government. There are eight […]

Read More

Judiciary part 4- Panchayati Raj | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | JUDICIARY PART 4 – PANCHAYATI RAJ | POLITY  A three-tier structure of the Indian administration for rural development is called Panchayati Raj. The aim of Panchayati Raj is to develop local self-governments in districts, zones, and villages. It was constitutionalised through the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992. There were a number of […]

Read More

Judiciary part 3- High Court, Tribunals and Subordinate Courts | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | Judiciary part 3- High Court, Tribunals and Subordinate Courts The highest judicial court in a state is the High Court. It is termed as the second-highest in the country after Supreme Court of India. Currently, India has 25 High Courts established in different states of the country. Indian High court act, 1861 High […]

Read More

Judiciary part 2- Judicial review, Judicial Activism and PIL

March 4, 2021

Judicial review | Judiciary part 2- Judicial review, Judicial Activism and PIL Judicial review is the power of the judiciary to examine the constitutionality of legislative enactments and executive orders of both the Central and State governments. On examination, if they are found to be violative of the Constitution (ultra vires), they can be declared […]

Read More

Judiciary part 1- Supreme Court | POLITY

March 4, 2021

Introduction | JUDICIARY PART 1- SUPREME COURT  Judiciary is an independent body that protects and ensures the ‘rule of law.’ Any other organs of the government including the executive and legislature must not restrain the functioning of the judiciary. The judicial system in India is in the form of an integrated judiciary, which consists of […]

Read More

Fundamental Rights Part 1 And Concept Of State And Judicial Review

March 3, 2021

What are Fundamental Rights? | Fundamental Rights Part 1 And Concept Of State And Judicial Review Fundamental rights are the basic human rights enshrined in the Constitution of India which are guaranteed to all citizens. They are applied without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender, etc. Significantly, fundamental rights are enforceable by the courts, […]

Read More

CITIZENSHIP | Polity

March 3, 2021

Introduction | CITIZENSHIP | POLITY   The population of a State is divided into two classes – citizens and aliens. While citizens enjoy full civil and political Citizenship rights, aliens do not enjoy all of them. Citizens are members of the political community to which they belong. They are the people who compose the State. The question of […]

Read More

Different Types Of Majority Required For Amending The Constitution

March 3, 2021

Different Types Of Majority Required For Amending The Constitution There are Four type of majorities mentioned in Constitution of India Simple/Functional Majority  more than 50% of members present and voting. Usage– Confidence Motion No Confidence motion vote of thanks to the President of India Censure motion Adjournment motion etc. For Ordinary Money and Finance bills […]

Read More

THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORIES | Polity

March 3, 2021

Introduction | THE UNION AND ITS TERRITORIES  Articles 1 to 4 under Part — I of the Constitution deal with the Union and its territory. Article 1- Name and territory of the Union Article 2- Admission or establishment of new States Article 3 – Formation    of    new    States    and    alteration    of   areas, boundaries or names […]

Read More

The Preamble to the Indian Constitution | Polity

March 3, 2021

Preamble | The Preamble to the Indian Constitution  WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them […]

Read More

The Fact Class On The Structure Of Indian Constitution

March 3, 2021

Introduction | The Fact Class On The Structure Of Indian Constitution The constitution of India is considered as the supreme law of our country that frame the outline of fundamental political principles, establishing the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government establishments. It also sets the fundamental rights, directive principles, and duties of a citizen. […]

Read More

Evolution Of The Indian Constitution | POLITY

March 3, 2021

Introduction | Evolution Of The Indian Constitution Before 1947, India was divided into two main entities – The British India which consisted of 11 provinces and the Princely states ruled by Indian princes under subsidiary alliance policy. The two entities merged together to form the Indian Union, but many of the legacy systems in British […]

Read More

Introduction To Polity And Concept Of State | Polity

March 3, 2021

Introduction | Introduction To Polity And Concept Of State Indian Polity is a discipline that includes a wide range of topics such as the development of the Constitution, Citizenship, Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles, the Executive, the President, the Prime Minister & Council of Ministers, Judiciary, State Governments, Local Government, Election system, and many more. Indian […]

Read More

MAKING OF THE CONSTITUTION

November 18, 2019

Constitution is the fundamental and supreme law of a country, which describes the method of formation of Government, nature of Government, its powers and responsibilities. Our Constitution also describes who citizens are, and what are their rights and duties. SOURCES OF OUR CONSTITUTION Government of India Act, 1935, is considered as the base of the […]

Read More

Parliamentary form of government in India

November 18, 2019

Parliamentary System in India The democratic system of government can be divided into the parliamentary and the presidential system based on the relationship between the executive and the legislature. In a parliamentary system, executive is a part of legislature, which implements the law and plays an active role in framing it as well. In a […]

Read More

INDIAN JUDICIARY

February 7, 2018

Introduction Judiciary is an independent body that protects and ensures the ‘rule of law.’ Any other organs of the government including the executive and legislature must not restrain the functioning of the judiciary. The judicial system in India is in the form of an integrated judiciary, which consists of a Supreme Court for the whole […]

Read More

LOCAL GOVERNMENT

February 7, 2018

Introduction Local government is the government of the village and district level. It is the government closest to the common people that involves in day-to-day life and attempt to resolve problems of ordinary citizens. Democracy is in fact about meaningful participation and also about accountability. Hence, strong and vibrant local governments ensure both active participation […]

Read More

UNION LEGISLATURE

February 7, 2018

Introduction The Union Legislature of India is not only the lawmaking body, but the center of all democratic political process. The Parliament is the central legislature and the legislature of the state is known as ‘State Legislature.’ The Parliament of India is bicameral (i.e. consists of two houses) namely Rajya Sabha (the Council of States) […]

Read More

UNION EXECUTIVE

February 7, 2018

Introduction The organ of a government that primarily looks after the function of implementation and administration is known the Executive. The Executive is the branch of Government accountable for the implementation of laws and policies legislated by the legislature. In the Parliamentary form of executive, the Prime Minister is the head of the government and […]

Read More

FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES

February 7, 2018

Under Part IV ‘A’, Article 51A of the Indian Constitution describes the following “Fundamental Duties” (i.e. the duty of every citizen of India). To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem; To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom; […]

Read More

FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS | Indian polity

February 7, 2018

Introduction The Constitution of India listed the rights to the citizens of India that would be specially protected and known as the ‘Fundamental Rights.’ ‘Fundamental’ means the Constitution has separately listed and made special provisions for the protection of ‘Fundamental Rights.’ Fundamental Rights are different from other rights (i.e. ordinary legal rights) available to the […]

Read More

CITIZENSHIP | Indian Constitution

February 7, 2018

  Articles 5 to 11 under Part II of the Constitution describe the citizenship. Article 5 states that at the commencement of this Constitution, every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and – who was born in the territory of India; or either of whose parents was born in the territory […]

Read More

UNION & ITS TERRITORY

February 7, 2018

Articles 1 to 4 under Part I of the Constitution describe the Union and its Territory. Article 1 (1) states that India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States. Article 1 (2) states that the States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule. Article 1 (3) states that […]

Read More

HOW THE CONSTITUTION WORKS

February 7, 2018

Introduction A constitution is a set of fundamental principles according to which a state is constituted or governed. The Constitution specifies the basic allocation of power in a State and decides who gets to decide what the laws will be. The Constitution first defines how a Parliament will be organized and empowers the Parliament to […]

Read More

SOURCES of Indian Constitution

February 7, 2018

SOURCES OF CONSTITUTION   Introduction The Indian Constitution has been formed after ransacking all the major constitutions of the world; however, at the same time, the framers have also considered the following factors: Historical perspective of India; Geographical diversity of India; and Cultural and traditional characteristics of India. Major Sources The following table illustrates the […]

Read More

CONSTITUTION VALUES

February 7, 2018

GUIDING VALUES OF THE CONSTITUTION Introduction India is a Republic Nation and the President of India is the head of the nation. He/she is elected every five years. The provisions are written in the Constitution to guarantee Justice for all. No one can be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion, and gender. Social inequalities […]

Read More

CONSTITUTIONAL FEATURES

February 7, 2018

CONSTITUTIONAL FEATURES Key Features of Indian Constitution Following are the important features of the Indian Constitution: Indian Constitution is a ‘written’ Indian Constitution is ‘flexible’ (it can be amended), but it is also ‘rigid’ (as some part, i.e., its ‘basic structure’ cannot be amended). Indian Constitution is ‘Unitary’ (as Center has more power), but it […]

Read More

CONSTITUTION FORMATION OF INDIA EXPLAINED

February 7, 2018

CONSTITUTION FORMATION Historical Background In 1928, Motilal Nehru and eight other Congress leaders drafted a constitution for India. In 1931, Indian National Congress in its session at Karachi passed a resolution on how the constitution of independent India should look like. Both these two documents have included the right of universal adult franchise, right to […]

Read More

Constitution of India

February 7, 2018

INTRODUCTION TO CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The constitution of a country is a document that comprises a set of written rules accepted by everyone living together in that country. The Constitution of a country is the supreme law of the land and it determines the relationship among people living in that country and also regulates the […]

Read More

Topics

close-link

Send this to a friend