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Ethics Lectures UPSC

Social Contract Theories

January 5, 2020

Social contract, in political philosophy, an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each. In primeval times, according to the theory, individuals were born into an anarchic state of nature, which was happy or unhappy according to the particular version. They then, by exercising natural reason, formed a society […]

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Code of Conduct

January 1, 2020

Codes of Conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules that outline the social standards and rules and responsibilities of, or proper practices for, an individual, party or organization. It is defined that “Code of Conduct” is “principles, values, standards, or rules of behaviour that guide the decisions, procedures and systems of an […]

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Code of Ethics

January 1, 2020

Code of Ethics refers to a set of guidelines to bring about acceptable behaviours in members of a particular group, association or profession. Basically, it is guidelines of principles for experts to conduct business honestly. It defines the minimum requirements for conduct, and behavioural expectations instead of specific activities. Thus, the Code is built on […]

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Foundational values of the civil services

January 1, 2020

 As per the Second Administrative Reforms Commission, the foundational values of the service are Integrity Objectivity Impartiality Dedication to public service Compassion towards weaker sections. Also Read : Value conflict They are Foundational because:  Impartiality and non-partisanship: It decides on merit and is free from any partisan consideration. Further, a non-partisan civil service is also responsible […]

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What is Corporate Governance?

January 1, 2020

Context In light of Tata, Infosys, ICICI & PNB bank corporate governance episodes lately, the debate around transparency, role of Independent Directors, promoters etc among others got wide attention to further enhance corporate governance in India. What is Corporate Governance? Corporate Governance deals with how a corporate is governed.Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices and processes […]

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Value conflict

January 1, 2020

Value Conflicts A value conflict occurs when individuals or groups of people hold strong personal beliefs that are in disagreement within themselves or in disagreement with the institution’s/ organization’s values. These may include religious differences, cultural differences or differences in upbringing. Values-based conflicts are particularly pervasive in public policy. Indeed, nearly all public (policy) controversies […]

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Emotional Intelligence

January 1, 2020

Intelligence Intelligence is a set of cognitive abilities which allow us to acquire knowledge, to learn and to solve problems. Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to assess and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote […]

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Attitude

January 1, 2020

Attitude: Definition and Elaboration Psychologists define attitude as a learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluations of people, issues, objects or events. Such evaluations are often favourable or unfavourable but they can also be uncertain at times. Thus we often speak of “mixed feelings” about an individual or an […]

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John Rawls Theory of Justice

January 1, 2020

John Rawls Contemporary thinkers generally try to understand the institution of morality. Unlike analytical philosophers, they avoid hair-splitting and logic-chopping discussions of moral terms or concepts. This recent approach explains the contemporary interest in John Rawls, whose treatise A Theory of Justice has strongly influenced recent moral philosophy. We will have occasion to mention John […]

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Action Part of theory | Normative ethics theories

January 1, 2020

Normative Ethics Theories There are three important normative ethics theories- Virtue Ethics Consequentialism (prominently utilitarianism) Deontological Ethics (prominently Kantianism) Virtue Ethics Virtue ethics focuses on the ‘character’ of the agent rather than on the formal rules for or the consequences of actions. Virtue ethics includes an account of the purpose of human life, or the […]

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PERSUASION

January 1, 2020

Defining Persuasion: Process aimed at changing a person’s or a group’s attitude or behavior toward some idea, object, event or other person(s), by using written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination of them. Persuasion is a form of influence. It is the way to get people to agree with […]

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Right to Information RTI

January 1, 2020

RTI- Right to Information Right to Information RTI is another empowering Act for the citizens. It gives access to the information about public offices to the common man and hence can make every citizen, a potential whistle-blower. This landmark legislation attempts to bring the following changes in the government-citizen relationship: From a culture of secrecy […]

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WHISTLE BLOWING

January 1, 2020

Whistle Blowing Who is a whistle blower? | whistle blowing A whistleblower is a person who comes forward and shares his/her knowledge on any wrongdoing which he/she thinks is happening in the whole organisation or in a specific department. A whistleblower could be an employee, contractor, or a supplier who becomes aware of any illegal […]

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Sexual Harassment at Work Place

January 1, 2020

Sexual Harassment at Work Place Sexual Harassment is said to take place When one person subjects another person to an unwelcome act of physical intimacy; Contact such as grabbing, brushing, touching, pinching, eve teasing, etc. Makes an unwelcome demand or request directly or by implication for sexual favors from another person. Shows a person any […]

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WORK CULTURE

January 1, 2020

What is work culture? Work culture is a concept which deals in the study of: Beliefs, thought processes, attitudes of the employees. Ideologies and principles of the organization. It is the work culture which decides the way employees interact with each other and how an organization functions. An organization is formed to achieve certain goals […]

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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

January 1, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby  companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business  operations and interactions with their stakeholders. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is generally  understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance  of economic, environmental and social imperatives (“Triple-Bottom-Line-  Approach” as recommended by […]

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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

Corporate Governance Corporate governance refers to the set of systems, principles and processes by which a company is governed. Corporate governance provide the guidelines as to how the company can be directed or controlled such that it can fulfil its goals and objectives in a manner that adds to the value of the company and […]

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Ethical Dilemma

January 1, 2020

Ethical Dilemma What is an Ethical Dilemma? An Ethical Dilemma is a situation in which a person has to make a difficult choice from amongst two courses of action, each of which means compromising a moral principle. Eg. a soldier confronted by an unarmed enemy is being ordered by his senior to shoot and kill. […]

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E-GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

Defining e-Governance: According to international organization, UNESCO, “Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs, including citizens’ articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations.” “E-Governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via the electronic medium in order […]

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Grievance Redressal

January 1, 2020

Explain the Concept of Grievance Redressal and Grievance Redressal Mechanism. Grievances are expressions of resentment against specific acts of omission or commission that are wrong or perceived as wrong, and requiring corrective action to be taken. In other words, if a grievance Redressal is received, it needs to be redressed. For the present purpose, grievances […]

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CITIZEN’S CHARTER

January 1, 2020

A short note on Concept and Origin of Citizen’s Charter: It has been recognised world over that good governance is essential for sustainable development, both economic and social. The three essential aspects emphasised in good governance are transparency, accountability and responsiveness of the administration. Citizens’ Charters initiative is a response to the quest for solving […]

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CORRUPTION IN INDIA

January 1, 2020

India more corrupt than China, better than Pak: Transparency International In the Corruption Perception Index for 2017, India was ranked at the 81st place with a score of 40. India has been ranked worse than China and Bhutan in terms of ‘corruption perception’, but fares better than its other neighbours including Pakistan and Bangladesh, as […]

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GOOD GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

What is Governance? In order to understand the concept of Good Governance, let’s first understand the concept of Governance: The concept of “governance” is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be […]

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BUREAUCRACY

January 1, 2020

What is Bureaucracy? What are its origins? The term or word bureaucracy has two parts-one is bureau which means an office transacting particular business or a government department. Crazy denotes a particular form of government. Hence bureaucracy implies a system of gov­ernment in which most of the decisions are taken by state officials rather than […]

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Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

January 1, 2020

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Maulana Abul Kalam Azad occupies a position of prominence in the galaxy of our patriots and heroes of our freedom struggle, who relentlessly fought to achieve freedom for our motherland and forced the British to leave India. He was a sagacious statesman and the tallest among nationalist Muslims, who disagreed and […]

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Aurobindo Ghosh

January 1, 2020

Aurobindo Ghosh Sri Aurobindo was renowned and important personality in the history of the Indian resurgence and Indian nationalism. Aurobindo had a versatile brilliance. Aurobindo Ghosh was a great poet, a thoughtful thinker, a distinguished metaphysician, a great prophet and a passionate patriot. Aurobindo Ghosh wrote effective texts that represented the crystallization of the new […]

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Dr APJ Abdul Kalam

January 1, 2020

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was a prominent Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. Renowned for his pivotal role in the nation’s civilian space programme and military missile development, he was known as the Missile Man of India. Dr APJ Abdul Kalam made significant contributions […]

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SWAMI VIVEKANANDA

January 1, 2020

Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda was born in 1863 in Calcutta in an affluent family. While studying in Calcutta University, he acquired deep interest and mastery in Western Philosophy and History. For some time, Swami Vivekananda was associated with Brahmo Movement. Since early years, he suffered spiritual crisis and had doubts about existence of God. Swami […]

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Mahatma Gandhi

January 1, 2020

MAHATMA GANDHI Thoughts of Gandhiji “Ahinsa is the highest duty. Even if we cannot practice it in full, we must try to understand its spirit and refrain as far as is humanly possible from violence.” “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” “Freedom is not worth […]

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Moral Thinkers

December 31, 2019

Buddha | Ethics moral thinkers Ethics moral thinkers :Buddhism is a set of moral guidelines and practices which, if followed, can bring people to the ultimate state of reality and peace. The Buddha described these morals after he reached enlightenment, or nirvana: the true understanding of the universe. Basic Buddhist principles of moral thought and […]

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Origin of Ethics -Divine command theory and Natural Law theory N1

December 23, 2019

Ethics lectures for UPSC | Ethics lecture series  Origin of Ethics -Divine command theory and Natural Law theory N1 Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action’s status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God. The theory asserts that what is moral is determined by what God commands, and that […]

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