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Modern History

List of Governors-General of India

August 20, 2021

List of Governors-General of India WARREN HASTINGS (1773-1785): Brought the Dual Government of Bengal to an end by the Regulating Act, 1773. In 1781, he founded the Calcutta Madrasa for promotion of Islamic studies. This was the first educational institute established by the Company’s government. Auctioned the right to collect land revenue to the highest […]

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LEADERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT

August 20, 2021

LEADERS OF INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT GOPAL GANESH AGARKAR (1856-1895) He was one of the founders of the Deccan Education Society and the Fergusson College, Pune and also became its Principal in 1892 till his death in 1895. He was the Editor of the English weekly the Mahratta and the Marathi weekly the Kesari. In 1888 […]

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THREE UPSURGES- WINTER OF 1945-46

August 20, 2021

THREE UPSURGES- WINTER OF 1945-46 The nationalist sentiment which reached a crescendo around the INA trials developed into violent confrontations with the authority in the winter of 1945-46. There were three major upsurges: November 21, 1945- in Calcutta over the INA trials. February 11, 1946- in Calcutta against the seven-year sentence to INA officer Rashid […]

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THE INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY -1942

August 19, 2021

THE INDIAN NATIONAL ARMY -1942 The idea of the Indian National Army (INA) was first conceived in Malaya by Mohan Singh, an Indian officer of the British Indian Army, when he decided not to join the retreating British Army and instead turned to the Japanese for help. THE FIRST PHASE:    The Japanese handed over […]

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CABINET MISSION 1946

August 19, 2021

CABINET MISSION 1946 Cabinet Mission was composed of three Cabinet Ministers of England Sir Pethick Lawrence, Secretary of State for India. Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. The mission arrived on March 24, 1946. The objective of this mission was to: Devise a machinery to […]

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ATTLEE’S STATEMENT: FEB 20 (1947)

August 19, 2021

ATTLEE’S STATEMENT: FEB 20 (1947) Main points outlined in British PM’s statement were: It was in the context of the enthusiasm generated by the INA trials and the deteriorating communal situations that on February 20, 1947, Clement Attlee made the historic announcement regarding the British Government’s “definite intention to take necessary steps to effect the […]

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INTEGRATION OF PRINCELY STATES

August 19, 2021

INTEGRATION OF PRINCELY STATES During 1946-47, there was an upsurge of state people’s movement demanding political rights and elective representation in CA. Nehru presided over All India State People’s conference sessions in Udaipur (1945) and Gwalior (Apr 1947). He declared that the states refusing to join CA would be treated as hostile. In July 1947, […]

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Indian Independence Act (1947)

August 19, 2021

Indian Independence Act (1947) On July 18, 1947, British Parliament ratified the Mountbatten plan for the “Independence of India Act-1947”. This act was implemented on August 15, 1947. SALIENT FEATURES: It provided for two dominion states: India and Pakistan The boundaries between the two dominion states were to be determined by a Boundary Commission which […]

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THE REACTIONS OF GANDHI AND AZAD ON MOUNTBATTEN PLAN

August 19, 2021

THE REACTIONS OF GANDHI AND AZAD ON MOUNTBATTEN PLAN Lord Mountbatten who replaced Lord Wavell as the Viceroy in March 1947, resolved to effect the transfer of power at the earliest opportunity, and worked out a compromise after prolonged discussions with the leaders of congress and the league. The 3 June Plan or the Mountbatten […]

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MOUNTBATTEN PLAN- 3rd JUNE 1947

August 19, 2021

MOUNTBATTEN PLAN- 3RD JUNE 1947 The freedom with partition formula was coming to be widely accepted well before Mountbatten came. One major innovation was immediate transfer of power on the basis of grant of dominion status thus obviating the need to wait for an agreement I the CA on a new political structure. The Plan […]

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THE AIMS OF LAUNCHING INDIVIDUAL SATYAGRAHAS

August 18, 2021

THE AIMS OF LAUNCHING INDIVIDUAL SATYAGRAHAS INDIVIDUAL SATYAGRAHAS The Government had taken the adamant position that no constitutional advance could be made till the Congress came to an agreement with the Muslim leaders. It issued ordinance after ordinance taking away the freedom of speech and that of the press and the right to organize associations. […]

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CWC MEETING AT WARDHA 1939

August 18, 2021

CWC MEETING AT WARDHA 1939 This was one of the crucial meeting where different opinions were voiced on the question of Indian support to British war efforts. STANDS TAKEN BY VARIOUS LEADERS Gandhi – Advocated unconditional support to allied powers as he made a clear distinction between democratic states of Western Europe and totalitarian Nazis. […]

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GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT- 1935

August 18, 2021

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT- 1935 In 1932, the 3rd RTC was held, again without congress participation. The decisions formulated into the Government of India Act 1935. All India federation comprising of British Indian Provinces, all Chief Commissioner’s Provinces and Indian States the proposed Federation never came up. The Central Government was carried up to 1946, […]

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THE STRATEGIC DEBATE 1934-1937

August 18, 2021

THE STRATEGIC DEBATE 1934-1937 Following the withdrawal of CDM, there was a two stage debate on the future course of action. What course should the national movement take in the near future (period of 1934-35) The course of action to be taken in 1937 over the question of office acceptance in the context of provincial […]

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GANDHI’S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UNTOUCHABILITY

August 18, 2021

GANDHI’S CAMPAIGN AGAINST UNTOUCHABILITY: Gandhi who regarded untouchability as a blot on Hinduism wanted to do away with it completely. He wrote in 1920 “… Without the removal of the taint [of untouchability], “Swaraj” is a meaningless term.” He even felt that the foreign domination of our country was the result of our exploitation of […]

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COMMUNAL AWARD AND POONA PACT

August 18, 2021

COMMUNAL AWARD AND POONA PACT The Communal Award was announced by the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald, in August 1932. This was yet another expression of British policy of divide and rule. The Muslims, Sikhs and Christians had already been recognized as minorities. The Communal Award declared the depressed classes also to be minorities and […]

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SECOND RTC AND SECOND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT

August 18, 2021

SECOND RTC AND SECOND CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT The Second Round Table Conference, which the Congress had agreed to attend under the Delhi Pact, was held in London in December 1931. Not much was expected from the conference because of the following reasons. The Right Wing in Britain led by Churchill strongly objected to the British […]

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KARACHI CONGRESS SESSION- 1931

August 17, 2021

KARACHI CONGRESS SESSION- 1931 In March 1931, a special session of the Congress on held at Karachi to endorse the Gandhi-Irwin or Delhi Pact. Six days before the session (which was held on March 29) Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru had been executed. Throughout Gandhi’s route to Karachi, he was greeted with black flag demonstrations […]

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Civil Disobedience Movement and Mass Participation

August 17, 2021

Civil Disobedience Movement and Mass Participation Women: Gandhi had specially asked women to play leading part in the movement. Soon, they became familiar sight, picketing outside liquor shops, opium dens and shops selling foreign goods. For Indian women, the movement was the most liberating experience and can truly be said to have marked their entry […]

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SPREAD OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT

August 17, 2021

SPREAD OF CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT: The Civil Disobedience Movement assumed various aspects and was carried with varying success in different Provinces.  The boycott of foreign cloth had become more effective. The business community in Bombay including the mill owners rendered enthusiastic support. The movement was of revolt and defiance of the British authority on the […]

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CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (CDM)

August 17, 2021

CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT (CDM) GANDHI’S ELEVEN DEMANDS To take forward the Lahore sessions’ priorities, Gandhi presented 11 demands to congress and gave an ultimatum till Jan 31, 1930 to accept or reject the demands. The demands were as follows: Reduce expenditure of Army and Civil services by 50% Introduce total prohibition Carry out reforms in […]

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LAHORE SESSION OF CONGRESS AND PURNA SWARAJ

August 17, 2021

LAHORE SESSION OF CONGRESS AND PURNA SWARAJ Even with 15 out of 18 Provincial Congress Committees voting against Nehru being the President of the session, Gandhi backed him and he was made the President of the session. Gandhi’s decision was reflected from the efforts that Nehru had put in to popularize the concept of Puma […]

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GANDHI-IRWIN PACT

August 17, 2021

GANDHI-IRWIN PACT On January 25, 1931 Gandhi and all other members of the CWC were released unconditionally. The CWC authorized Gandhi to initiate discussions with the viceroy. As a result of these discussions, a pact was signed between the viceroy, representing the British Indian Government, and Gandhi, representing the Indian people, in Delhi on February […]

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AUGUST OFFER 1940

August 16, 2021

AUGUST OFFER 1940 August Offer among many other offers was initiated by the government as a reply to the offer of cooperation made by the Congress towards the government. While it rejected the offer it made a compromise through August offer which could not appease the Indian leaders. August Offer came at a time when […]

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WAVELL PLAN

August 16, 2021

WAVELL PLAN Lord WaveLL, the Governor-General of India, with a view to resolving the deadlock in Indian politics set forth his plan which is famous in history as the ‘WaveII Plan (1945). THE MOST IMPORTANT POINTS IN THE WAVELL PLAN WERE AS FOLLOWS: Formation of an interim government before proceeding for the work of framing […]

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Spread of the Quit India Movement

August 16, 2021

Spread of the Quit India Movement GANDHI’S GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS TO DIFFERENT SECTIONS: These were spelt out at the Gowalia Tank meeting but not actually issued. They were directed at various sections of society: Government servants: Do not resign but declare your allegiance to the Congress. Soldiers: Do not leave the Army but do not fire […]

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1942 QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT

August 16, 2021

1942 QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT After Cripps’ departure, Gandhi framed a resolution calling for British withdrawal and a non-violent non-cooperation movement against any Japanese invasion. The CWC meeting at Wardha (July 14, 1942) accepted the idea of a struggle. THE REASONS WERE SEVERAL: The failure of the Cripps Mission to solve the constitutional deadlock exposed Britain’s […]

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WHY CRIPPS MISSION FAILED IN 1942 ?

August 16, 2021

WHY CRIPPS MISSION FAILED IN 1942 ? The Cripps Mission proposals failed to satisfy Indian nationalists and turned out to be made for US and Chinese consumption. Various parties and groups had objections to the proposals on different points. These were – OBJECTIONS OF CONGRESS The offer of dominion status instead of a provision for […]

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CRIPPS MISSION

August 16, 2021

CRIPPS MISSION In March 1942, a mission headed by Stafford Cripps was sent to India with constitutional proposals to seek Indian support for the war. Stafford Cripps was a left-wing Labourite, the leader of the House of Commons and a member of the British War Cabinet who had actively supported the Indian national movement. WHY […]

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Nehru Report 1928 – Major Recommendations

August 14, 2021

Nehru Report 1928 – Major Recommendations NEHRU REPORT Following the challenge posed by British, an All Parties Conference met in February 1928 and appointed a sub-committee under the chairmanship of Motilal Nehru to draft a constitution. This was the first major attempt by the Indians to draft a constitutional framework for the country. The committee […]

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ANTI SIMON COMMISSION UPSURGE

August 14, 2021

ANTI SIMON COMMISSION UPSURGE A seven member commission was instituted by the Conservative Government in 1927, popularly known as Simon Commission. The objective stated of the commission was to decide whether India was ready for further constitutional reforms. An additional motive of instituting the commission in 1927 was the backdrop of elections back in Britain […]

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EVOLUTION OF THE TWO-NATION THEORY

August 14, 2021

EVOLUTION OF THE TWO-NATION THEORY 1887: There was a frontal attack on the Congress by Dufferin, the viceroy, and Colvin, the Lt. Governor of the United Provinces. Syed Ahmed Khan and Raja Shiv Prasad of Bhinga were propped up as an anti-Congress front by the Government. Syed Ahmed Khan appealed to the educated Muslims to […]

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REASONS FOR GROWTH OF COMMUNALISM IN INDIA 

August 14, 2021

REASONS FOR GROWTH OF COMMUNALISM IN INDIA  Communalism was rooted in modern economic, political and social institutions where new identities were emerging in a haphazard manner even as the old, pre-­modern identities had not diminished. A clash of this fundamental dichotomy gave rise to a communal ideology. Socio-economic reasons: The professional classes and the bourgeoisie […]

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CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF INDIAN COMMUNALISM

August 14, 2021

CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES OF INDIAN COMMUNALISM Communalism is basically an ideology which evolved through three broad stages in India: Communal Nationalism: The notion that since a group or a section of people belong to a particular religious community. Their secular interests are the same, i.e., even those matters which have got nothing to do with religion […]

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Revolutionary Terrorism During the 1920s

August 14, 2021

Revolutionary Terrorism During the 1920s IDEOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISTS A real breakthrough was achieved by Bhagat Singh and his comrades in terms of revolutionary ideology, forms of revolutionary struggle and its aim. The transformation started in mid 1920s. The founding council of HRA decided to preach revolutionary and communist principles. HRA manifesto from […]

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Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA)

August 14, 2021

Hindustan Socialist Republican Association (HSRA) THE H.S.R.A. HAD A THREE-FOLD OBJECTIVE To rouse the consciousness of people of India to the futility of the Gandhian methods of non-violence; To demonstrate the need and desirability of Direct Action and Revolution to achieve complete independence. To substitute British imperialism in India by a federated republic of the […]

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The Revival and Repression of Revolutionary Terrorism

August 14, 2021

The Revival and Repression of Revolutionary Terrorism The revolutionaries faced repression during the World War-I. They were released on good will basis by the Government for the Montford reforms to take proper shape in the country. These revolutionaries when released were attracted by the Non-Cooperation Movement and they participated with full strength. But due to […]

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EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCES DURING THE 1920s

August 14, 2021

 EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCES DURING THE 1920s Activism of Indian youth Across India, student conferences were held and effort was put in to show the strength of the youth in the freedom movement. In 1928, Nehru presided over All Bengal Students’ Conference marking the important role to be played in the freedom movement at […]

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MARXISM :EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCE DURING THE 1920s

August 13, 2021

MARXISM :EMERGENCE OF PARALLEL NEW FORCE DURING THE 1920s 1920s saw emergence of the most political awareness till date. On one hand the Gandhian satyagraha had given the general public a direction to reflect their discontent. On the other hand, this era presented with different retaliation mechanisms derving their origins from: international developments, recent atrocities […]

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Comparison between Swarajists and No-Changers

August 13, 2021

Comparison between Swarajists and No-Changers ACHIEVEMENTS OF SWARAJISTS With coalition partners, they out-voted the Government several times, even on matters relating to budgetary grants, and passed adjournment motions. They agitated through powerful speeches on self- government, civil liberties and industrialisation. Vithalbhai Patel was elected speaker of Central Legislative Assembly in 1925. A noteworthy achievement was […]

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THE SWARAJIST MANIFESTO FOR ELECTIONS IN 1923

August 13, 2021

THE SWARAJIST MANIFESTO FOR ELECTIONS IN 1923 Released in October 1923, the manifesto took a strong anti-imperialist line. It said: The guiding motive of the British in governing India is to secure selfish interests of their own country; The so-called reforms are only a blind to further the said interests under the pretence of granting […]

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SWARAJISTS AND NO- CHANGERS

August 13, 2021

SWARAJISTS AND NO- CHANGERS After Gandhi’s arrest (March 1922), there was disintegration, disorganisation and demoralisation among nationalist ranks. A debate started among Congressmen on what to do during the transition period, i.e., the passive phase of the movement. One section led by C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru and Ajmal Khan wanted an end to the boycott […]

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CHAURI CHAURA INCIDENT

August 13, 2021

CHAURI CHAURA INCIDENT A small sleepy village named Chauri-Chaura (Gorakhpur district, UP) has found a place in history books due to an incident of violence on February 5, 1922 which was to prompt Gandhi to withdraw the movement. The police here had beaten up the leader of a group of volunteers campaigning against liquor sales […]

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MUSLIM LEAGUE SUPPORT TO CONGRESS IN 1920

August 13, 2021

MUSLIM LEAGUE SUPPORT TO CONGRESS IN 1920 The Muslim League also decided to give full support to the Congress and its agitation on political questions. February 1920: In early 1920, a joint Hindu-Muslim deputation was sent to the viceroy to seek redress of grievances on the issue of Khilafat, but the mission proved abortive. In […]

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THE KHILAFAT ISSUE AND CONGRESS’ STAND ON KHILAFAT

August 13, 2021

THE KHILAFAT ISSUE AND CONGRESS’ STAND ON KHILAFAT THE KHILAFAT ISSUE The Khilafat issue paved the way for the consolidation of the emergence of a radical nationalist trend among the younger generation of Muslims and the section of traditional Muslim scholars who were becoming increasingly critical of the British rule. This time, they were angered […]

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KHILAFAT AND NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT

August 13, 2021

KHILAFAT AND NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT During 1919-22, the British were opposed through two mass movements- the Khilafat and Non-Cooperation. Though the two movements emerged from separate issues, they adopted a common programme of action- that of nonviolent non­cooperation. The Khilafat issue was not directly linked to Indian politics but it provided the immediate background to the […]

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Satyagraha Against Rowlatt Act

August 12, 2021

Satyagraha Against Rowlatt Act Post World War—I, as Indians were expecting certain constitutional concessions, the Government came out with repressive Rowlatt Act which the nationalists took as an insult. Gandhi called for a nationwide protest in Feb 1919. But soon, having see the constitutional protest fail, Gandhi organized a Satyagraha Sabha and roped in younger […]

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Gandhi’s Learning’s in South Africa

August 12, 2021

Gandhi’s Learning’s in South Africa Learning’s: Gandhi realized that masses have the immense capacity to participate and sacrifice for a cause that moved them He was able unite people from all religions; Men & women under his leadership He realized that sometimes leaders have to take unpopular decisions against the wish of their supporters He […]

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Experiments of Gandhi in South Africa & Ideology

August 12, 2021

 Experiments of Gandhi in South Africa & Ideology Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2′d Oct 1869 in Kathiawar in Gujarat. His father was a Diwan of the state. Having studied law from London, he had gone to South Africa in relation of case on behalf of his client, Dada Abdullah. In South Africa, he […]

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INTRODUCTION TO DYARCHY

August 12, 2021

INTRODUCTION TO DYARCHY Executive: Dyarchy i.e. rule of two- executive councilors and popular ministers was introduced. The governor was to be the executive head in the province. Subjects were divided into two lists: “reserved” which included subjects such as law and order, finance, land revenue, irrigation, etc., and “transferred” subjects such as education, health, local […]

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Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916

August 12, 2021

Lucknow Session of the Indian National Congress -1916 The landmark Lucknow session of INC, presided by Ambika Charan Majumdar, witnessed two big events – REUNION OF EXTREMISTS AND MODERATES Extremists were readmitted back to the fold of Congress. This was facilitated by many factors such as — The split was detrimental to both the extremists […]

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HOME RULE MOVEMENT AND ITS FALLOUT

August 12, 2021

HOME RULE MOVEMENT AND ITS FALLOUT REASONS FOR DOWNFALL OF THE MOVEMENT IN 1919 There was a lack of effective organisation. Communal riots were witnessed during 1917-18. The Moderates who had joined the Congress after Besant’s arrest were pacified by talk of reforms (contained in Montagu’s statement of August 1917 which held self- government as […]

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FACTORS LEADING TO THE HOME RULE MOVEMENT

August 12, 2021

FACTORS LEADING TO THE HOME RULE MOVEMENT THE HOME RULE MOVEMENT The Home Rule Movement was the Indian response to the First World War in a less charged but a more effective way than the response of Indians living abroad which took the form of the romantic Ghadr adventure. The Indian Home Rule Leagues were […]

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NORTH AMERICA – THE GHADAR MOVEMENT

August 12, 2021

NORTH AMERICA – THE GHADAR MOVEMENT Large-scale Indian immigration to the Pacific coast of North America took place in the 20th century, especially from Punjab, which faced an economic depression. The Canadian government met this influx with legislation aimed at limiting the entry of South Asians into Canada and at restricting the political rights of […]

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REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES JUST BEFORE FIRST WORLD WAR

August 12, 2021

REVOLUTIONARY ACTIVITIES JUST BEFORE FIRST WORLD WAR Alipore bomb conspiracy case Several leaders of the Jugantar party including Aurobindo Ghosh were arrested in connection with bomb-making activities in Kolkata. Several of the activists were deported to the Andaman Cellular Jail. Howrah gang case Most of the eminent Jugantar leaders including Bagha Jatin alias Jatindra Nath […]

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CAUSES OF FAILURE OF SWADESHI MOVEMENT

August 11, 2021

CAUSES OF FAILURE OF SWADESHI MOVEMENT The most active phase of Swadeshi movement was over by 1908. This happened because of many reasons like — The British government cracked down on the revolutionaries. This severe repression made the movement slow down from public sphere. There was a lack of formal party structure and an essential […]

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WHAT WAS SWADESHI MOVEMENT?

August 11, 2021

WHAT WAS SWADESHI MOVEMENT? During 1900s, there was ongoing awakening in society and rise of nationalism which was centred in Bengal. To weaken the nerve centre, Bengal, the government decided to partition Bengal in 1903. However, the official reason for partition of Bengal was that with 78 million people, Bengal was too big to administer. […]

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THE  SURAT SPLIT

August 11, 2021

THE  SURAT SPLIT At the Surat Session in 1907, congress leaders split into two groups – moderates and extremists. Rift between these two sections became apparent at the Banaras Session (1905) when some nationalist led by Tilak denounced the method of the moderates and suggested passive resistance. They also advocated boycott of British goods and […]

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THE RISE OF REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISM

August 11, 2021

RISE OF REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISM Revolutionary terrorism was an outcome of the growth of militant nationalism in India. When Swadeshi and Boycott movement failed to fulfil their aim, many activist organizations came to existence. The mass, especially the younger generation, became impatient after decline of the Swadeshi and Boycott movements. To channelize their energy, they looked […]

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What were the basic features of Morley Minto Reforms ?

August 11, 2021

What were the basic features of Morley Minto Reforms ? RUN UP TO THE REFORMS With the passage of time and with the rising wave of nationalism, other communities like muslims and Sikhs were becoming politically active. In October 1906, a group of muslim elites known as Shimla deputation, led by Agha Khan, met Lord […]

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CORN WALLIS CODE 1793

August 10, 2021

CORN  WALLIS CODE 1793 The Cornwallis code comprised following points — Separation of revenue and justice administration. European subjects were brought under jurisdiction. Government servants were made accountable to civil courts for actions done in their official capacity. The principle of rule of law was emphasized and imposed. He organized a regular police force as […]

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THE ANGLO-MYSORE AND ANGLO-MARATHA WARS

August 10, 2021

THE ANGLO-MYSORE AND ANGLO-MARATHA WARS The British wanted to connect their territories of Bengal with that of Madras. In between lay northern Circars which was held by the French who got it as reward for installing Salabat Jung as the Nizam of Hyderabad . However, the French were ousted with the British military support in […]

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THE DUAL ADMINISTRATION OF BENGAL

August 10, 2021

THE DUAL ADMINISTRATION OF BENGAL After the decisive win of English East India Company in Battle of Buxar in 1764, the Company became Diwan of Bengal. Then onwards, it directly collected the revenue as well as nominated a deputy Subandar who was responsible for the Nizamat (police and judicial powers). Mir Jafar was dead by […]

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THE BATTLE OF BUXAR – 1764

August 10, 2021

THE BATTLE OF BUXAR – 1764 The combined army of Mughal Emperor – Shah Alam II, Nawab of Awadh – Shuja-ud-daula and Nawab of Bengal – Mir Qasim faced the British East India Company in a town known as Buxar on the banks of Ganges, on 23rd October, 1764 about 130 km west of Patna. […]

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THE FIASCO OF ROYAL FARMAN (OF 1717)

August 10, 2021

THE FIASCO OF ROYAL FARMAN (OF 1717) The English did not appreciate the Nawab’s effort to check Farman of 1717. They wanted their goods – whether for internal sale or external export – to be duty free. However, Indian merchants paid duties on their trade. This was hurting the very Indian trading interests on Indian […]

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THE ROYAL FARMAN OF 1717

August 10, 2021

THE ROYAL FARMAN OF 1717 The Company was not able to secure itself during the times of Aurangzeb. They had suffered a defeat in 1686 and strived to regain the lost ground. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Empire went into chaos as there was quick succession of many ineffective rulers who were mere puppets […]

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What was the plan of the White and the Red Treaty ?

August 10, 2021

 White and the Red Treaty Robert Clive suggested that two treaties be drawn – one on white paper with no reference to Omichand and another on red paper with conditions as per Omichand’s desire. The Red treaty was prepared to deceive Omichand. The Select Committee of British East India Company’s servants, who were legally empowered […]

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THE DUTCH – Before coming of East India Company

August 10, 2021

THE DUTCH – Before coming of East India Company The Dutch were facing problems in countering the hegemony of the Portuguese and therefore they formed a chartered Dutch East India Company (the acronym VOC in Dutch) in 1602. It is often considered to be the first Multinational Company in the world. It also issued stocks […]

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THE PORTUGUESE AND TRIANGULAR TRADE

August 10, 2021

 THE PORTUGUESE AND TRIANGULAR TRADE TRIANGULAR TRADE Slave ships carried manufactured goods from Europe to Africa. They exchanged these goods for Negroes and carried them across the Atlantic Ocean.                 They exchanged these slaves for raw materials from plantations and mines in the colonies and sold it to European […]

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The Asia-Europe trade before Coming of the East India Company

August 9, 2021

The Asia-Europe trade before Coming of the East India Company THE ASIA-EUROPE TRADE It was since the Greek times that Asia and Europe had engaged in trade via both sea and land links. It was through the land routes that the commodities changed many hands till they reached either Asia or Europe.        […]

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ARYA SAMAJ

August 7, 2021

ARYA SAMAJ The Arya Samaj was revivalist to an extent but it also tried to introduce reforms in the Hinduism as it was practiced then. Some of the contributions of the Arya Samaj were:  It launched an attack on untouchability, caste rigidities, idolatory, polytheism, superstition, practice of shraaddhs, animal sacrifices. It increased the minimum marriageable […]

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RAJA RAMMOHAN ROY

August 7, 2021

RAJA RAMMOHAN ROY Raja Rammohan Roy was deeply influenced by western thought and Christianity which led him to reform Hinduism. He believed in rationalistic and modern approach to religion and therefore declared that Vedanta is based on reason and even if situation demands a departure from scriptures it would be justified to do so. He […]

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IDEOLOGICAL BASE OF THE REFORMERS(1857-1905)

August 7, 2021

IDEOLOGICAL BASE OF THE REFORMERS(1857-1905)  There was also an ideological shift in the enlightened section of Indian society. These people were focused on Rationalism, Universalism and Humanistic thought. Raja Rammohun Roy stressed on universalism and humanism as guiding principles to follow any religion. He made demonstrability as the sole criteria to accept any truth. Rationalism […]

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WHAT IS DIVIDE AND RULE POLICY?

August 7, 2021

DIVIDE AND RULE POLICY The British started to feel threat from the rising profile of congress and therefore started pondering over propping up an effective opposition. It was considered to wean away Muslims from the nationalistic wave started by the congress. Mount Stuart Elphinstone advised the British government on this matter. It was to follow […]

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LIMITATIONS OF MODERATES

August 7, 2021

LIMITATIONS OF MODERATES Moderates were the pioneers of political activism in their time. They did work in the spirit of creating popular opinion against British and thus inculcating nationalism in the diverse Indian population. There created a political base for later mass movements. However, despite their ambitious efforts moderates had certain limitations. These limitations were […]

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WHO WERE THE MODERATES ?

August 7, 2021

THE MODERATES The early leaders like dadabhai Naoroji, Pherozeshah Mehta, Surendranath Banerjea, Womesh Chandra Bonnerjee, Dinshaw E. Wacha, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, P. Ananda Charlu etc were adherents of moderate ways of politics. They were loyal to British and felt that their presence was helping India to modernise. However, they also believed that British were unaware […]

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INDIAN COUNCILS ACT 1892

August 7, 2021

INDIAN COUNCILS ACT 1892 The salient features of this Act were — The number of additional members in Imperial Legislative Councils and the Provincial Legislative Councils was raised. Now the governor-general could have 10 — 16 non-official members in Imperial Legislative Council (previously there were 6 — 10 non-official members as introduced by Councils Act […]

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CAMPAIGNS BEFORE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS FORMED

August 7, 2021

CAMPAIGNS BEFORE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS FORMED There were numerous political campaigns led by associations formed to present local aspirations and grievances. These campaigns were a not organised in a pan-India scale due to lack of an association with all-India character. However, a few prominent political campaigns are – Against Lytton’s policies – For imposition […]

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THE BIRTH OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS

August 7, 2021

THE BIRTH OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS The First session of congress which was held in Dec, 1885 in Bombay was preceded by two sessions of Indian National Conference in 1883 and 1885. These two sessions were organised by Surendranath Banerjea and Ananda Mohan Bose. It drew leaders from all the presidencies and served as a […]

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WHAT WAS SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE SYSTEM?

August 6, 2021

SUBSIDIARY ALLIANCE SYSTEM By the late 18th century, the power of the Maratha Empire had weakened in the Indian subcontinent, and India was left with a great number of states, most of them small and weak. Many rulers accepted the offer of protection by Lord Wellesley, as it gave them security against attack by their […]

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ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL 1784

August 6, 2021

ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL 1784 The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones in January 1784 to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. A circular-letter was sent by Jones to a selected number of British residents of Calcutta with a view to establish a society for the Asiatic studies. The Memorandum of […]

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PITT’S INDIA ACT OF 1784

August 6, 2021

PITT’S INDIA ACT OF 1784 and ROHILLA WAR OF 1774 PITT’S INDIA ACT OF 1784 This Act was intended to address the shortcomings of Regulating Act of 1773 by making the East India Company accountable to the British Parliament. As per the Act — A governing Board was constituted with six members, two of whom […]

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REGULATING ACT OF 1773

August 6, 2021

REGULATING ACT OF 1773 This was passed by the British Parliament to reform the administration of East India Company which had become unruly and chaotic. The system of dual administration in Bengal was not favoured to continue anymore. The Company was reeling under financial distress. Since 1768 they were unable to pay £ 400,000 per […]

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Features of Ranjit Singh’s Rule

August 6, 2021

Features of Ranjit Singh’s Rule 1765-1800 Between 1765 and 1800, Sikhs acquired Punjab and Jammu. They were organized into 12 Misls (confederacies). These Misls supported each other in every way. During this time, one of the Misls, Sukerchakia, rose to prominence. Its chief was Ranjit Singh, a strong & courageous soldier, efficient administrator and a […]

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Salient and Negative features of Nawabs’ Rule

August 6, 2021

Salient and Negative features of Nawabs’ Rule Salient features of the Nawabs’ rule included: Bengal under the Nawabs had experienced peace and an orderly administration and trade and industry were also promoted. Jagir lands were transferred into Khalisah lands and fresh revenue settlements were carried out. Hindus and Muslims were given equal opportunities for employment. […]

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