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Medieval History

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman

May 22, 2021

Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Why in news? Recently, Bangladesh postponed the celebration of the birth anniversary of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman (1920-1975) on 17 March due to the global coronavirus outbreak. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was the founding leader of Bangladesh and the country’s first Prime Minister. He is referred to as Sheikh Mujib or simply Mujib, the title […]

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Role Of Women In India’s Independence Movement

May 3, 2021

Role Of Women In India’s Independence Movement Introduction India needs to dearly hold sacred its independence. For generations the cloak of the British Rule that had grappled, sometimes with force, sometimes with injustice the very essence of freedom that is the basic right of every individual citizen, was thrown over after many attempts. And hence the […]

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THE JAGIR SYSTEM

April 16, 2021

The Jagir System Jagir was a unit of land, whose revenues were assigned to a Mansabdar in lieu of his salary. The Jagirs assigned in lieu of salary were known as tankhwah Jagirs. Besides, there were the watan Jagirs (hereditary possessions) of the autonomous chiefs, who, if in Mughal service, were also granted the former […]

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Shivaji’s Administration

April 16, 2021

Shivaji’s Administration Central Administration: Shivaji was helped by the ashtapradhan (eight ministers) which was unlike a council of ministers, for there was no collective responsibility, each minister was directly responsible to Shivaji. The ashtapradhan included: Peshwa: concerned with finance and general administration. Later he became Prime Minister and assumed great importance. Sar-i-Naubat (Senapati): He was […]

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The Marathas: Shivaji And His Successors

April 16, 2021

The Marathas: Shivaji And His Successors Shivaji (1627-80): Shivaji was born at Shivner to Shahji Bhosle and Jijabai. He inherited the Jagir of Poona from his father in 1637. After the death of his guardian, Dadaji Kondadeo, in 1647, he assumed full charge of his Jagir. Before that, at the age of 18, he conquered […]

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Mughals Organisation of Trade and Commerce

April 15, 2021

Mughals Organisation of Trade and Commerce Indian trading classes, specializing in long distance, inter-regional trade were called seth, bohra or modi while the Indian trading classes specializing in local, retail trade were called beoparis or There was a special class of traders called the ‘banjaras’ who specialised in carrying bulk goods. They used to move […]

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The Later Mughals

April 15, 2021

The Later Mughals With Aurangzeb death in 1707, there was a war of succession among his three sons, Muazzam, Azam and Kambaksh. Muazzam killed Azam in 1707. Muazzam later killed Kambaksh at Hyderabad. Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12): Prince Muazzam ascended the throne styled as Bahadur Shah I. He followed a liberal policy towards people of […]

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Mughal Architecture and Culture

April 15, 2021

Mughal Architecture and Culture Mughal period can be called a second classical age following the Gupta age in northern India. The culture developed during the period was of a truly national culture. Architecture Babur: He was very fond of gardens. He built Arambagh at Agra and Kabulibagh in Panipat. On his orders, Abdul Baqi built […]

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Social Conditions In the Mughal Period

April 15, 2021

Social Conditions In the Mughal Period Foreign travelers have emphasized on the wealth and prosperity of India and the ostentatious life-style of the ruling classes on the one hand and the grinding poverty of the ordinary people — the peasants, the artisans and the labourers. Ordinary people lived in mud houses with hardly any furniture […]

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Revenue Administration of the Mughals

April 15, 2021

Revenue Administration of the Mughals Sher Shah’s system continued to be the basis with some modifications to meet the growing need for Jagirs upto Akbar’s 8th regnal year. A series of experiments were made till Akbar’s 24th regnal year, after which the land revenue administration was stabilized. It can be examined under several heads. Land […]

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Mughal Administrative System

April 15, 2021

Mughal Administrative System Political Ideals: The Mughal theory of kingship was given a new dimension by Abul Fazl. According to him, the institution of kingship, rather than the individual who held the office, was endowed with farr-i-izadi (divine effulgence). His Padshah or Shahanshah (king of kings) was a unique personality and was the vice-regent of […]

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Rajput Policy of the Mughals

April 15, 2021

Rajput Policy of the Mughals Babur: Babur arrived in India at Rana Sanga’s invitation. His desire to stay back in India after the 1st battle of Panipat brought him in conflict with Rana Sanga of Mewar whom he defeated in the battle of Khanwa in 1527. Babur then defeated Medini Rai of Chaderi in a […]

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The Coming of the Europeans : French & Danish

April 14, 2021

The Coming of the Europeans : French & Danish French            The French East India Company was formed by Colbert under state patronage in 1664 The first French factory was established at Surat by Francois Caron in 1668. Laster Maracara set up a factory at Masulipatam in 1669. A small village was acquired from the muslim […]

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The Coming of the Europeans : English   

April 14, 2021

The Coming of the Europeans : English    John Newberry was the first Englishman who came to India in the times of Akbar bearing a letter from the king of England. Ralph Fitch came to Akbar’s court bearing a letter from Queen Elizabeth. He lived in Agra and Fatehpur Sikri and wrote that Agra and Fatehpur […]

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Impact of Portuguese in Indian History

April 14, 2021

Impact of Portuguese in Indian History Portuguese The Portuguese established a royal monopoly over certain goods as horses, arms and ammunition and spices to the exclusion of rival nations in Europe and Asia and also private Portuguese traders. In 1570, Ali Adil Shah, the Sultan of Bijapur alongwith Nizam Shah of Ahmednagar and the Zamorin […]

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Who were PORTUGUESE ?

April 14, 2021

Who were PORTUGUESE ? Vasco da Gama in 1498 landed at Calicut aided by a Gujarati pilot Abdul Majid. The Arabs in Calicut were hostile to him, but the local ruler Zamorin welcomed him and allowed him to take pepper and drugs on board which resulted in Vasco da Gama getting 60 times the profit […]

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Factors behind the coming of the Europeans

April 14, 2021

Factors behind the coming of the Europeans: European economy was growing which rapidly reflected in the rise of towns and increase of trade and there was a steady demand for oriental goods. There was increase in supply of meat, led to increased demand for pepper and spices to make the market palatable. The Ottoman turks […]

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Literature in Vijaynagar Period (1336-1565)

April 14, 2021

Literature in Vijaynagar Period (1336-1565) The rulers patronized Sanskrit, Telugu, Tamil and Kannada. There began and climaxed the august age of Telugu literature. Telugu: Upto 1500 AD most of the books were written in the form of translations. Famous scholars were Srinatha, Pothana, Jakkama and Duggana, who translated Sanskrit and Prakrit works into telugu. During […]

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Societies in Vijaynagar Period (1336-1565)

April 14, 2021

Societies in Vijaynagar Period (1336-1565) The kings of Vijaynagar resolved to protect Varnashrama in South India. Brahmins: The position of Brahmins was high in the social hierarchy and they were respected, honoured and led a prosperous life.  Societies in Vijaynagar Period (1336-1565) They were appointed to government posts, even as commanders in the army. Rajulu: […]

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 Art and Architecture in Vijaynagar Period

April 14, 2021

 Art and Architecture in Vijaynagar Period Vijaynagar  Art Music: Vijaynagar period is known for origin of Carnatic music under Purandhar Das. Period known for origin of Rudraveena. Dance: Bharatanatyam was promoted Drama: Yakshagana was a popular dance drama closely associated with temples. Paintings: Themes of Ramayana and Mahabharata on temple walls. Sculpture; Largest number of […]

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 Administrative System during Vijaynagar Period

April 14, 2021

 Administrative System during Vijaynagar Period The Vijaynagar empire was founded on well established traditions and principles. King: He was a typical oriental despot with ultimate authority in civil, military and judicial matters, albeit he was a benevolent despot ruling according to Varnashrama.         Administrative System during Vijaynagar Period Central Administration: The Vijaynagar rulers […]

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Foreign Travellers Who Visited Vijaynagar Empire

April 14, 2021

Foreign Travellers Who Visited Vijaynagar Empire Ibn Battuta, the Moroccan traveler visited Vijaynagar empire during the times of Harihara I and recorded his observations in his book Kitab-ur-Rehla written in Arabic. Nicolo de Conti, the Itanlian visited Vijaynagar empire during the time of Dev Raya I. He observes that city of Vijaynagar had 90,000 men […]

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Vijaynagar Empire – Political Dynasties (1336-1565)

April 14, 2021

Vijaynagar Empire – Political Dynasties (1336-1565) Sangama Dynasty: Harihara and Bukka, two of the sons of Sangama founded the Vijayanagar empire in 1336, thus setting into motion the Sangama dynasty. Harihara I ruled upto 1356, then Bukka I succeeded him and ruled upto 1377. Then, Harihara II became the ruler and assumed the title ‘Maharajadhiraja’ […]

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Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries

April 14, 2021

Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries  Mohammad-bin-Tughluq’s reign saw the rebellion of Amiran-i-Sadah (the centarians) or the foreign nobles in the imperial service of Delhi, who were in the forefront to take up arms against the Sultan in Daultabad. One of them named Ismail Makh, also known as Hasan Gangu styled himself as […]

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Jaunpur: Sharqi dynasty in the 15th and 16th Centuries

April 14, 2021

Jaunpur: Sharqi dynasty in the 15th and 16th Centuries The attack by Timur Lane in 1398 on Delhi and the flight of the Tughluq king from his capital exposed the weakness of the Delhi Sultanate and emboldened a number of provincial governors and autonomous principlalities to declare their independence setting the background for the emergence […]

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Ganga  & Gajapati dynasty of Orissa

April 14, 2021

Ganga  & Gajapati dynasty of Orissa The attack by Timur Lane in 1398 on Delhi and the flight of the Tughluq king from his capital exposed the weakness of the Delhi Sultanate and emboldened a number of provincial governors and autonomous principlalities to declare their independence setting the background for the emergence of various provincial […]

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Provincial Kingdoms in the 15th &16th Centuries

April 13, 2021

Provincial Kingdoms in the 15th and 16th Centuries The attack by Timur Lane in 1398 on Delhi and the flight of the Tughluq king from his capital exposed the weakness of the Delhi Sultanate and emboldened a number of provincial governors and autonomous principlalities to declare their independence setting the background for the emergence of […]

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Bhakti Movement In Indian History

April 13, 2021

Bhakti Movement In Indian History Bhakti is devotional worship of God with the ultimate objective of attaining Mokhsa or Salvation. Bhakti saints belonged to two schools of thought called the Saguna and the Nirguna.  Saguna Saints: Believed in the personification of God and worshipped Lord Vishnu in the form of Ram or Krishna. Ramananda, Surdas, […]

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Sufis and their Significance in Indian History

April 13, 2021

Sufis and their Significance in Indian History Sufis The word ‘Sufi’ is derived from the Arabic word ‘safa’ which means ‘pure’. Sufis were saints who were pure in thought, word and deed. Among the early Sufis was a woman mystic called RABIA (8th Century AD). Mansur bin Hallaj (10th Century AD) laid emphasis on bond […]

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Individual Bhakti Saints in India

April 13, 2021

Individual Bhakti Saints in India Shankaracharya (788 – 822 AD): Born at Kaladi, Kerala. He emphasised the importance of Vedanta and propounded the concept of maya (illusion). He stressed on advaita philosophy according to which Brahma, the absolute soul, is the only reality. He argued that acquisition of knowledge (gnana-marga) is the way to overcome […]

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Merchants during The Delhi Sultanate Period

April 13, 2021

Merchants during The Delhi Sultanate Period Trade, Industry and Merchants With the consolidation of the Delhi Sultanate and the improvement of communication and the establishment of sound currency system based on the silver tanka and the copper dirham, there was a definite growth c r trade in the country marked by the growth of towns […]

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Indo -Islamic Architecture during Delhi Sultanate Period                            

April 13, 2021

Indo -Islamic Architecture during Delhi Sultanate Period                             The Turks being military adventurers did not bring any craftsmen or architectural experts with them to India, so they employed Indian architects, stone cutters and masons which synthesized and resulted in Indo-Islamic architecture, the main features of which are, Arch and dome method which dispensed with the need for […]

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Agrarian Policy of The Delhi Sultanate

April 12, 2021

Agrarian Policy of The Delhi Sultanate The whole land belonged to the state on the condition of protection but individual rights over land holdings also existed. The common cultivations were known as Karshak, hall, bataidar, ardhik, sirin etc. Initially, the pervious agrarian structure was allowed to continue in large measure. With the coming of Alauddin […]

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Administration of the Delhi Sultanate

April 12, 2021

Administration of the Delhi Sultanate The Delhi Sultanate gradually developed into a powerful and highly centralized state in which the Sultan became the most important personality vested with the ultimate political, legal and military authority. The Sultan was the highest administrative post, he was the supreme commander-in-chief of the military forces and also dispensed law […]

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The Lodhi Dynasty (1451 -15226)

April 12, 2021

The Lodhi Dynasty (1451 -15226) Bahlul Lodhi (1451-89): He was the founder of the Lodhi dynasty. He belonged to an afghan tribe, the ‘Ghilzai’s’. He put into practice the Afghan concept of Kingship, according to which king was but primus-inter-pares i.e. first among equals. This was the first afghan sultanate in India. He established his […]

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The Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 51)

April 12, 2021

The Sayyid Dynasty (1414 – 51) The Sayeed Dynasty ruled for about 37 years. There were four rulers. Neither politically nor culturally, the Sayeed dynasty made any worthwhile contribution to the medieval history of India. Khizr Khan (1414-21): Khizr Khan proclaimed independence in 1414 and assumed the title of Sultan. He called himself Raiyat-i-ala. The […]

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The Tughluq Dynasty : Feroz Shah Tughluq (1351 – 88)

April 12, 2021

The Tughluq Dynasty : Feroz Shah Tughluq (1351 – 88) Feroz Shah Tughluq (1351 – 88): He was born to a Hindu Rajput lady and so suffered from an inferiority complex and therefore, in order to establish his credibility as the sovereign of an Islamic state and leader of the faithful, he publicly demonstrated his […]

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Mohammed-bin-Tughluq (1325-51)

April 12, 2021

Mohammed-bin-Tughluq (1325-51): Mohammed-bin-Tughluq was known as a wonder of the age in which he lived. He was a scholar in Arabic and Persian and a calligraphist. He was a scholar in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, logic, philosophy and Islamic theology. He was an abstract thinker and an idealist and not a practical statesman. He was partly […]

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The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414)

April 12, 2021

The Tughluq Dynasty (1320 – 1414) Ghiyasuddin Tughluq (1320 – 25): He ascended the throne at Delhi in 1320. He was a competent and able ruler. He maintained the discipline of his army. He was the first Sultan to make a plan for the construction of canals. He followed the rule that peasants should not […]

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Alauddin Khalji (1296 – 1316)

April 12, 2021

Alauddin Khalji (1296 – 1316)  He consolidated his hold by giving harsh punishment to anyone who opposed him. He resorted to a wholesale massacre of the Mongols who had settled in Delhi during the time of Jalaluddin Khalji. He gave harsh punishments even to the wives and children of these rebels, a practice which according […]

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The Khalji Dynasty (1290 – 1320)

April 12, 2021

The Khalji Dynasty (1290 – 1320) Jalaluddin Khalji (1290 — 96): The rise of Jalaluddin Khalji is referred to as the ‘Khalji revolution’ as the Khaljis ended the monopoly over power held by the Turkish nobles. The Khaljis though, did not exclude the Turks from high offices. They also admitted the Indian muslims to the […]

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Slave Dynasty : Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-86)

April 12, 2021

Slave Dynasty : Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-86) Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-86): Balban is known for his theory of kingship. According to him, Sultan is the shadow of God on earth (Zill-e-allah). He borrowed court etiquettes from Iran and introduced the ceremonies of Sijda (prostration before the monarch’s feet) and Paibos (kissing the monarch’s feet) and Nauroz (nine […]

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The Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty (1206-90)

April 12, 2021

The Delhi Sultanate: Slave Dynasty (1206-90) Slave Dynasty (1206-90) Qutubuddin Aibak (1206 – 10): Muhammed Ghori was succeeded by Qutubuddin Aibak, a slave. He ruled mostly from Lahore. Yalduz, another slave of Muhammed Ghori who succeeded Ghori in Ghazni claimed to rule over Delhi as well. This was contested by Aibak who did not want […]

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Religion-Philosophy & Literature in Chola Period

April 12, 2021

Religion-Philosophy & Literature in Chola Period Cholas: Religion and Philosophy With the rise of devotional cults such as Shaivite and Vaishnavite cults from the 6th to 9th centuries A.D, Buddhism practically disappeared from tamil country, but Jainism managed to survive. The Chola rulers were patrons of Shaivism. Raja Raja I assumed the title of Shivapada […]

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Trade & Commerce in Chola Society

April 12, 2021

 Trade & Commerce in Chola Society Chola society  Four fold varna system was absent. Brahmins had many privileges and were exempted from taxation and had control over religious and economics power. Chola emperors linked themselves to solar and lunar dynasties and claimed Kshatriya status and called themselves as Brahmakshatriyas. Trading communities claimed Vaishya Status and […]

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Art & Architecture during Chola Empire

April 12, 2021

Art & Architecture during Chola Empire Chola Art Music: Cholas contributed to the growth of both vocal and instrumental music. Instruments such as Kudamula, Vina, Flute were used. Devadasis were expert musicians and singers. Dance: Bharatanatyam acquired its basic form under Chola patronage based on rules of Bharatamuni in Natyasastra, a book on dance. Drama: […]

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The Chola’s Administration

April 12, 2021

The Chola’s Administration King: King was the most important person in the Chola administration. All authority rested in his hands. He often went on tours in order to keep better touch with the administration. The king was aided and advised by a council of ministers who held office at the pleasure of the king. There […]

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THE CHOLA EMPIRE

April 12, 2021

 THE CHOLA EMPIRE The Cholas: The decline of the Pallavas in the 9th century created a political vacuum which was filled by the Cholas. Vijayalaya Chola (846 — 907 AD): He was a vassal of the Pallavas. He captured Tanjore from the Pandyas and made it the capital of the Cholas. Aditya I (871 — […]

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The Age of Conflict : Ghaznavids 

April 10, 2021

The Age of Conflict : Ghaznavids  Alaptgin: The Samanid Empire ruled by people of Iranian descent in areas of Trans-oxiana, Kharasan and parts of Iran had many Turkish slaves who acted as governors. One such Turkish slave who rose to the position of a Samanid governor was Alaptgin. He in course of time established an […]

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The Tripartite Struggle: 8th to 10th Centuries

April 10, 2021

The Tripartite Struggle: 8th to 10th Centuries Between 750 AD and 1000 AD, three empires dominated the political scene in India. These were the Palas who dominated eastern India till the middle of the 9th century; the Pratiharas who dominated the western part of India and the upper gangetic valley till the middle of the […]

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Early Medieval History : Rashtrakutas

April 10, 2021

Early Medieval History : Rashtrakutas Rashtrakutas The Rashtrakutas originally belonged to Lattalura, modern Latur of Maharashtra. They were of Kannada origin and Kannada was their mother tongue. Dantidurga: He was the founder of the Rashtrakutas. He fixed his capital at Manyakhet or Malkhed near modern Sholapur. He began his career as a feudatory of Chalukyas […]

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Religious Movements and Beliefs (800 -1200 AD)

April 10, 2021

Religious Movements and Beliefs (800 -1200 AD) The period is marked by a revival and expansion of Hinduism, and a continued decline of Buddhism and Jainism. Buddhism: Buddhism was gradually confined to eastern India. The Pala rulers were patrons of Buddhism and with their decline, Buddhism lost royal patronage. The rise of Mahayanism and it’s […]

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Architectural Features (800 — 1200 AD)

April 10, 2021

Architectural Features (800 — 1200 AD) Nagara Style: The fundamental characteristics of the Nagara style of temples, found all over north India are the cruciform ground plan and curvilinear tower (shikhara). They are found in the temples of Orissa, central India, western India, western India, and temples of Malwa and Khandesh. (i)         Orissa: Temples in […]

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