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GEOGRAPHY

EARTHQUAKE MANAGEMENT

June 12, 2021

EARTHQUAKE MANAGEMENT An earthquake is a phenomenon that occurs without warning and involves sudden shaking of the ground caused by two chunks of earth’s crust sliding past one another. It results from the release of accumulated stress of the moving lithospheric or crustal plates. Although earthquakes are short-lived, usually not lasting more than a minute, […]

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FARM MECHANISATION

May 12, 2021

FARM MECHANISATION Farm mechanization plays a critical role in increasing agricultural productivity. Mechanization also helps in improving utilization efficiency of other inputs ,safety and comfort of the agricultural worker, improvements in the quality and value addition of the produce. Farm mechanization in India stands at about 40- 45% with states such as UP, Haryana and […]

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Khola chilli gets GI tag

May 10, 2021

Khola chilli gets GI tag Why in news? The state government has obtained a Geographic Indication (GI) tag for the popular Khola chillies grown by the Canacona Farmers Association. The government now plans to pursue GI tags for Goa’s coconut vinegar, local rice varieties, mancurad mango, Harmal chillies, Mandoli bananas and other local produce. What is […]

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Ajodhya Hills Hydel Project

May 4, 2021

Ajodhya Hills Hydel Project Why in news?  Tribals opposed to a proposed hydel power project in the remote Ajodhya Hills in West Bengal have threatened to heighten their protests.  Background According to the Forest Rights Act, 2006 if a forest land has to be acquired, then at least 50% of the affected population dependent on […]

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Tropical Cyclone

May 1, 2021

Tropical Cyclone What Are Tropical Cyclones? Tropical cyclones are regarded as one of the most devastating natural calamities in the world. Tropical cyclones are violent storms that originate over oceans in tropical areas and move over to the coastal areas bringing about large scale destruction due to violent winds (squalls), very heavy rainfall (torrential rainfall) and storm surge. […]

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Population growth & Process of Population change in India

April 24, 2021

Population growth & Process of Population change in India Population is a dynamic phenomenon. The numbers, distribution and composition of the population are constantly changing. This is the influence of the interaction of the three processes, namely-births, deaths and migrations. Population Growth Growth of population refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of […]

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POPULATION OF INDIA : SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION

April 24, 2021

POPULATION OF INDIA : SIZE AND DISTRIBUTION India’s Population Size and Distribution by Numbers India’s population as on March 2001 stood at 1,028 million, which account for 16.7 per cent of the world’s population. These 1.02 billion people are unevenly distributed over our country’s vast area of 3.28 million square km, which accounts for 2.4 […]

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TYPES OF VEGETATION IN INDIA 

April 24, 2021

TYPES OF VEGETATION IN INDIA  Our country India is one of the twelve mega bio- diversity countries of the world.  With about 47,000 plant species India occupies tenth place in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. There are about 15,000 flowering plants in India which account for 6 per cent in the […]

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WILDLIFE OF INDIA

April 24, 2021

WILD LIFE OF INDIA Like its flora, India is also rich in its fauna.  It has approximately 90,000 of animal species. The country has about 2,000 species of birds. They constitute 13% of the world’s total. There are 2,546 species of fish, which account for nearly 12% of the world’s stock.  It also shares between […]

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DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL IN INDIA

April 24, 2021

DISTRIBUTION OF RAINFALL IN INDIA Parts of western coast and northeastern India receive over about 400 cm of rainfall annually. However, it is less than 60 cm in western Rajasthan and adjoining parts of Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab. Rainfall is equally low in the interior of the Deccan plateau, and east of the Sahyadris. A […]

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THE SEASONS OF INDIA

April 24, 2021

THE SEASONS OF INDIA The monsoon type of climate is characterised by a distinct seasonal pattern.  The weather conditions greatly change from one season to the other These changes are particularly noticeable in the interior parts of the country.  The coastal areas do not experience much variation in temperature though there is variation in rainfall […]

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FACTORS AFFECTING INDIA’S CLIMATE

April 24, 2021

FACTORS AFFECTING INDIA’S CLIMATE Latitude The Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of the country from the Rann of Kuchchh in the west to Mizoram in the east. Almost half of the country, lying south of the Tropic of Cancer, belongs to the tropical areas. All the remaining area, north of the Tropic, lies […]

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CLIMATE OF INDIA

April 24, 2021

CLIMATE OF INDIA Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time (more than thirty years). Weather refers to the state of the atmosphere over an area at any point of time. The elements of weather and climate are the same, i.e. temperature, […]

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INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION

April 24, 2021

INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION India is one of the ancient civilizations in the world. It has achieved multi-faceted socioeconomic progress during the last five decades. It has moved forward displaying remarkable progress in the field of agriculture, industry, technology and overall economic developments.          INDIA – SIZE AND LOCATION India has […]

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PHYSIOGRAPHY OF INDIA

March 25, 2021

PHYSIOGRAPHY OF INDIA INTRODUCTION Physiography deals with study of surface features i.e. reliefs and landforms of the Earth. Both endogenic and exogenic forces continuously operate to create and shape the present landforms. The Indian landmass can be divided into following broad physiographic units: Himalayas or northern mountains The Great Plains of north India Peninsular plateau […]

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THE CLIMATE OF INDIA

March 25, 2021

THE CLIMATE OF INDIA INTRODUCTION Climate of a country includes the study of temperature, rainfall, atmospheric pressure as well as the direction and velocity of winds over a long period of time. Weather is variation in above elements over a short period of time, say over a day or a week. These elements of climate […]

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DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND AGEING IN INDIA

March 25, 2021

DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND AGEING IN INDIA INTRODUCTION India accounting for nearly 18 percent of the world population has been experiencing slow but steady demographic transition since the second half of the last century. In recent years, however, the fertility transition in India has accelerated resulting in rapid changes in the age structure of the population. […]

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POPULATION IN INDIA

March 25, 2021

POPULATION IN INDIA FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION Physical Factors: The nature of terrain, soil, climate, availability of mineral resources; nearness to the sea and ports affect population distribution. Level lands with fertile soil having adequate rainfall support higher population. Socio-Economic Factors: Nature of economy such as well developed agricultural economy like. Punjab, Haryana, […]

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URBANISATION IN INDIA

March 25, 2021

URBANISATION IN INDIA INTRODUCTION The process of society’s transformation from a predominantly rural to a pre­dominantly urban population is known as ‘Urbanisation’. It includes two aspects — an increase in the number of people living in urban settlements and an increase in the percentage of the population engaged in non-agricultural activities living in such areas. […]

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TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION NETWORK

March 25, 2021

TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION NETWORK INTRODUCTION Transport network is established to facilitate movement of people and goods. The regions which have good connectivity have always flourished. An integrated and coordinated transport network forms the backbone of nation’s economy. It reduces social distances, political fragmentation and economic isolation. A sound regional planning and development will be ineffective […]

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MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES

March 25, 2021

MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES MINERAL RESOURCES India is fairly rich in minerals and has sufficiently large reserves of iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite and Mica. However baring few exceptions, the deposits of non­ferrous metals are limited. More than 90% of the mineral deposits of the country are located in the Chhota Nagpur Region. The valleys of […]

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ENERGY RESOURCES

March 25, 2021

ENERGY RESOURCES FUEL MINERALS COAL Depending on content of carbon coal is classified in descending order as Anthracite (80 to 95%), Bituminous (40-80%), Lignite (40-55%) and Peat (< 40%). The moisture content in them goes on progressively increasing with highest in peat. Anthracite has the best heating value and it is found in Jammu and […]

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AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES

March 25, 2021

AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES INTRODUCTION Agriculture means cultivation of land and rearing of animals. While 70% of total population still depends on agriculture and allied activities, 52% of the India’s workforce is still engaged in agriculture. It has accounted for 13.9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2011-12, with annual growth rate of 2.5% during […]

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NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS

March 25, 2021

NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS INTRODUCTION  A hazard is a dangerous condition or threat, natural or manmade, that can cause injury, loss of life or damage to property, livelihood or environment. Disaster on the other hand can be defined as Catastrophic situation in which normal patterns of life or ecosystems have been disrupted and extraordinary emergency […]

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Natural Vegetation

March 24, 2021

Natural Vegetation Introduction Before studying vegetation, let us note the difference between flora, vegetation and forest. Flora refers to plants of a particular region or period, listed as species and considered as a group. Vegetation on the other hand refers to the assemblage of plant species in a given environmental frame or ecological frame. Natural […]

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SOILS

March 24, 2021

SOILS Introduction Soil is the thin surface layer on the earth, comprising mineral particles formed by the breakdown of rocks, decayed organic materials, living organisms, water and air. Soil forming process is called pedogenesis. Soil is a very important natural resource. The rich, deep fertile soils of Ganga plain especially its delta and coastal plains […]

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Land And Water Resources

March 24, 2021

Land And Water Resources LAND RESOURCE Land is the basis for most biological and human activities on Earth. Agriculture, forestry, industries, transport, housing and other services use land as a natural and/or an economic resource. Land is also an integral part of ecosystems and indispensable for biodiversity and the carbon cycle. LAND CAN BE DIVIDED […]

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Drainage System And Water

March 24, 2021

Drainage System And Water Introduction The flow of water through well-defined channels is called as drainage. An integrated network of main river and its tributaries is called drainage system or river system. Generally, the area drained by a river or river system is called as its river basin or catchment area or watershed. Though there […]

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Location And Space Relations

March 24, 2021

Location And Space Relations India As A Geographical Unit India that is Bharat is a part of the Indian subcontinent which itself is a part of the larger Asian continent. The subcontinent is a well-defined geographical unit within which the political units of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka are included. India is […]

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Bhupathy’s Shield tail

March 24, 2021

Bhupathy’s Shield tail Why in news? A New species of snake has been found in Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu. Bhupathy’s Shield tail: Bhupathy’s shieldtail is currently found only in the Anaikatty Hills of Tamil Nadu’s Coimbatore district. Just 40 cm long and iridescent brown, Bhupathy’s shieldtail is the latest addition to the snake fauna […]

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Why did Pakistan give the Shaksgam Valley to China?

March 17, 2021

Why did Pakistan give the Shaksgam Valley to China? Introduction The Shaksgam Valley is part of the Gilgit- Baltistan region of Pakistan Occupied Kashmir (POK), and is a disputed territory claimed by India but controlled by pakistan. It was ceded to China by Pakistan in 1963 when both countries signed a boundary agreement to settle […]

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Rivers and their Tributaries

March 17, 2021

Rivers and their Tributaries Himalayan River systems Indus River System(1114 km Length in India) The Indus arises from the northern slopes of the Kailash range in Tibet near Lake Manasarovar. Ancient name of Indus is Sindhu It enters the Indian Territory in Jammu and Kashmir by forming a picturesque gorge. It has a large number of […]

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Inner-Line Permit (ILP) System

March 17, 2021

Inner-Line Permit (ILP) System Why in news? Tribal organisations in Meghalaya have been demanding the ILP system for restricting the entry of outsiders into the State. These demands have turned into violent protests across the state in the past few days. About Inner-Line Permit (ILP) System A concept drawn by colonial rulers, the Inner Line separated the […]

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Coastal Regulation Zones

March 12, 2021

Coastal Regulation Zones Introduction The coastal areas of seas, bays, creeks, rivers, and backwaters which get influenced by tides up to 500 m from the high tide line (HTL) and the land between the low tide line (LTL) and the high tide line have been declared as coastal regulation zone (CRZ) in 1991. The coastal regulation zones […]

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Golan Heights Importance

April 4, 2019

Link to the class: “https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IEyRibHc2eg’ Golan Heights, also called Golan Plateau, Arabic Al-Jawlān, Hebrew Ramat Ha-Golan or Ha-Golan, hilly area overlooking the upper Jordan River valley on the west. The area was part of extreme southwestern Syria until 1967, when it came under Israeli military occupation, and in December 1981 Israel unilaterally annexed the part of the Golan it held. The area’s name is from the biblical city […]

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What is an estuary ?

March 28, 2019

What is an estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. An Estuary forms a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments. They are subject both to marine influences—such as tides, waves, and the influx of […]

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Interior of earth

March 28, 2019

INTERIOR OF THE EARTH The configuration of the surface of the earth is largely a product of the processes operating in the interior of the earth. Exogenic as well as endogenic processes are constantly shaping the landscape. A proper understanding of the physiographic character of a region remains incomplete if the effects of endogenic processes […]

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Rocks and Minerals

September 3, 2013

Rocks and Minerals  Rocks are naturally formed and are simply composed of crystals or particles of one or more minerals. There are many kinds of rock, and they can be classified in a number of ways. However, geologists classify rocks based on how the rocks were formed. The three classes are igneous rocks (formed directly […]

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