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GEOGRAPHY

PHYSIOGRAPHY OF INDIA

March 25, 2021

PHYSIOGRAPHY OF INDIA INTRODUCTION Physiography deals with study of surface features i.e. reliefs and landforms of the Earth. Both endogenic and exogenic forces continuously operate to create and shape the present landforms. The Indian landmass can be divided into following broad physiographic units: Himalayas or northern mountains The Great Plains of north India Peninsular plateau […]

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THE CLIMATE OF INDIA

March 25, 2021

THE CLIMATE OF INDIA INTRODUCTION Climate of a country includes the study of temperature, rainfall, atmospheric pressure as well as the direction and velocity of winds over a long period of time. Weather is variation in above elements over a short period of time, say over a day or a week. These elements of climate […]

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DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND AGEING IN INDIA

March 25, 2021

DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE AND AGEING IN INDIA INTRODUCTION India accounting for nearly 18 percent of the world population has been experiencing slow but steady demographic transition since the second half of the last century. In recent years, however, the fertility transition in India has accelerated resulting in rapid changes in the age structure of the population. […]

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POPULATION IN INDIA

March 25, 2021

POPULATION IN INDIA FACTORS AFFECTING THE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION Physical Factors: The nature of terrain, soil, climate, availability of mineral resources; nearness to the sea and ports affect population distribution. Level lands with fertile soil having adequate rainfall support higher population. Socio-Economic Factors: Nature of economy such as well developed agricultural economy like. Punjab, Haryana, […]

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URBANISATION IN INDIA

March 25, 2021

URBANISATION IN INDIA INTRODUCTION The process of society’s transformation from a predominantly rural to a pre­dominantly urban population is known as ‘Urbanisation’. It includes two aspects — an increase in the number of people living in urban settlements and an increase in the percentage of the population engaged in non-agricultural activities living in such areas. […]

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TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION NETWORK

March 25, 2021

TRANSPORT & COMMUNICATION NETWORK INTRODUCTION Transport network is established to facilitate movement of people and goods. The regions which have good connectivity have always flourished. An integrated and coordinated transport network forms the backbone of nation’s economy. It reduces social distances, political fragmentation and economic isolation. A sound regional planning and development will be ineffective […]

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MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES

March 25, 2021

MINERALS AND INDUSTRIES MINERAL RESOURCES India is fairly rich in minerals and has sufficiently large reserves of iron ore, coal, manganese, bauxite and Mica. However baring few exceptions, the deposits of non­ferrous metals are limited. More than 90% of the mineral deposits of the country are located in the Chhota Nagpur Region. The valleys of […]

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ENERGY RESOURCES

March 25, 2021

ENERGY RESOURCES FUEL MINERALS COAL Depending on content of carbon coal is classified in descending order as Anthracite (80 to 95%), Bituminous (40-80%), Lignite (40-55%) and Peat (< 40%). The moisture content in them goes on progressively increasing with highest in peat. Anthracite has the best heating value and it is found in Jammu and […]

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AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES

March 25, 2021

AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES INTRODUCTION Agriculture means cultivation of land and rearing of animals. While 70% of total population still depends on agriculture and allied activities, 52% of the India’s workforce is still engaged in agriculture. It has accounted for 13.9% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2011-12, with annual growth rate of 2.5% during […]

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NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS

March 25, 2021

NATURAL HAZARDS AND DISASTERS INTRODUCTION  A hazard is a dangerous condition or threat, natural or manmade, that can cause injury, loss of life or damage to property, livelihood or environment. Disaster on the other hand can be defined as Catastrophic situation in which normal patterns of life or ecosystems have been disrupted and extraordinary emergency […]

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Natural Vegetation

March 24, 2021

Natural Vegetation Introduction Before studying vegetation, let us note the difference between flora, vegetation and forest. Flora refers to plants of a particular region or period, listed as species and considered as a group. Vegetation on the other hand refers to the assemblage of plant species in a given environmental frame or ecological frame. Natural […]

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SOILS

March 24, 2021

SOILS Introduction Soil is the thin surface layer on the earth, comprising mineral particles formed by the breakdown of rocks, decayed organic materials, living organisms, water and air. Soil forming process is called pedogenesis. Soil is a very important natural resource. The rich, deep fertile soils of Ganga plain especially its delta and coastal plains […]

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Land And Water Resources

March 24, 2021

Land And Water Resources LAND RESOURCE Land is the basis for most biological and human activities on Earth. Agriculture, forestry, industries, transport, housing and other services use land as a natural and/or an economic resource. Land is also an integral part of ecosystems and indispensable for biodiversity and the carbon cycle. LAND CAN BE DIVIDED […]

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Drainage System And Water

March 24, 2021

Drainage System And Water Introduction The flow of water through well-defined channels is called as drainage. An integrated network of main river and its tributaries is called drainage system or river system. Generally, the area drained by a river or river system is called as its river basin or catchment area or watershed. Though there […]

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Location And Space Relations

March 24, 2021

Location And Space Relations India As A Geographical Unit India that is Bharat is a part of the Indian subcontinent which itself is a part of the larger Asian continent. The subcontinent is a well-defined geographical unit within which the political units of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan and Sri Lanka are included. India is […]

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Agro forestry

July 5, 2015

The whole area which is covered by the trees, plants, shrubs or animals is called as forest. It has different types depend on the different places and different regions of temperature. The study of the management of forests i.e. trees, different plats, shrubs and different kind of resources which are obtained from forests for the […]

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Fertilizers

July 2, 2015

Fertilizers enhance the growth of plants. This goal is met in two ways, the traditional one being additives that provide nutrients. The second mode by which some fertilizers act is to enhance the effectiveness of the soil by modifying its water retention and aeration. This article, like most on fertilizers, emphasizes the nutritional aspect. Fertilizers […]

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The criticisms of smart cities revolve around:

June 13, 2015

The criticisms of smart cities revolve around: A bias in strategic interest may lead to ignoring alternative avenues of promising urban development. The focus of the concept of smart city may lead to an underestimation of the possible negative effects of the development of the new technological and networked infrastructures needed for a city to […]

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Govt says no to UPA move to lower UPSC age limit

November 19, 2014

Buy video classes for ias at www.eiasmentors.com   The Narendra Modi government declared on Tuesday it was not considering any proposal to reduce the age limit of civil service aspirants in an announcement that effectively buried the UPA’s last-minute decision to bring down the upper age limit by four years.

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PLATEAU

May 25, 2014

A plateau is a large highland area of fairly level land separated from surrounding land by steep slopes. Some plateaus, like the plateau of Tibet, lie between mountain ranges. Others are higher than surrounding land. Plateaus are widespread, and together with enclosed basins they cover about 45 per cent of the Earth’s land surface.

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shale gas and energy policy analysis

February 2, 2014

So far India’s relentless efforts during the last 25 years to build pipelines to bring gas from Turkmenistan, Iran, Qatar, Bangladesh and Myanmar have remained pipe dreams. Renewable energy sources like ethanol and bio diesel, wind and solar are high on the national agenda. Thanks to Indo-US nuclear pact, India may succeed in increasing the […]

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EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES

September 25, 2013

An earthquake is a sudden movement of the Earth, caused by the abrupt release of strain that has accumulated over a long time. For hundreds of millions of years the forces of plate tectonics have shaped the Earth as the huge plates that form the Earth’s surface slowly move over, under, and past each other. […]

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MOUNTAINS

September 25, 2013

A mountain is defined “as a natural elevation of the earth surface rising more or less abruptly from the surrounding level and attaining an altitude which, relative to the adjacent elevation, is impressive or notable”. Mountains can be classified on the basis of their structure or their origin.

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Plateau

September 25, 2013

A plateau is a large highland area of fairly level land separated from surrounding land by steep slopes. Some plateaus, like the plateau of Tibet, lie between mountain ranges. Others are higher than surrounding land. Plateaus are widespread, and together with enclosed basins they cover about 45 per cent of the Earth’s land surface. Some […]

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Plains

September 25, 2013

PLAINS Plains are flat and broad land areas on the earth’s surface, e.g. Prairies, Steppes, Great Plains of India, etc. The elevations of these landforms are relatively low, when measured with reference to the mean sea level.

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Isostasy

September 5, 2013

ISOSTASY Isostasy is essentially the principle of hydrostatic equilibrium applied to the Earth. In its simplest form, it considers rigid blocks of the Earth (usually taken to be the crust) to be buoyantly supported in an underlying fluid medium (usually taken as the mantle) and free to move vertically. These blocks will then move until […]

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Forces Affecting the Earth’s Surface

September 3, 2013

Forces Affecting the Earth’s Surface The forces acting on the earth’s surface leads to the creation, destruction, recreation and maintenance of geo-materials on the earth’s crust. The forces which affect the crust of the earth are divided as:

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Rocks and Minerals

September 3, 2013

Rocks and Minerals  Rocks are naturally formed and are simply composed of crystals or particles of one or more minerals. There are many kinds of rock, and they can be classified in a number of ways. However, geologists classify rocks based on how the rocks were formed. The three classes are igneous rocks (formed directly […]

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Plate tectonics

September 3, 2013

PLATE TECTONICS The theory states that Earth’s outermost layer, the lithosphere, is broken into 7 large, rigid pieces called plates: the African North American, South American, Eurasian, Australian, Antarctic and Pacific plates. Several minor plates also exist, including the Arabian, Nazca, and Philippines plates. The plates are all moving in different directions and at different […]

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lnternal Structure of the Earth

August 31, 2013

lnternal Structure of the Earth The interior of the earth is not composed of homogeneous or uniform material. The structure of Earth can be visualized in two ways: chemically or by material properties. By comparing material strength, the layering of Earth is categorized as lithosphere, asthenosphere, upper mantle,lower mantle, outer core, and the inner core.

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Soils of India

August 31, 2013

THE INDIAN COUNCIL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH (ICAR) has made an authentic and standardized classification of soils and divided the soils of India into the following 8 groups: (1) ALLUVIAL SOILS (2) BLACK SOILS (3) RED AND YELLOW SOILS (4) LATERITE SOILS (5) ARID SOILS (6) SALINE SOILS (7) PEATY AND ORGANIC SOILS (8) FOREST SOILS […]

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continental drift theory summary

August 31, 2013

Alfred wegner was a meteorologist and geophysicist and he was concerned with the following puzzling questions Why should tropical fern have grown in London,Paris and Bonn. Why coal fields are found in the cold climatic regions of the tundra. Why glaciers have covered parts of brazil,peninsular india,Australia,aouth America and congo basin at the same time.   Wegner […]

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CONCEPT OF CYCLE

August 31, 2013

THE CONCEPT OF CYCLE OF EROSION was formulated by William Morris Davis, an American geomorphologist, towards the end of the nineteenth century. It is a concept of an orderly sequence of evolutionary stages of fluvial erosion in which relief of the available landmass declines with time to reach a late stage when the landscape becomes […]

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INDUSTRIAL LOCATION 1.

August 15, 2013

Economic geographers use theory to understand the order and chaos of economic location. Concept of an optimum location- As per this concept, for each factory there is a best location but in the real world, the existence of such a place seems unlikely.But the concept has value,in theory,because it represents a yardstick against which reality […]

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