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Ethics Lectures UPSC

About Work Culture & its Present Complexities

April 20, 2021

About Work Culture & its Present Complexities INTRODUCTION The working of most government organizations is based on the Weberian principle of decision making governed by rules and regulations to ensure objectivity and uniformity. As a result, the processes and structures in any government organization generally owe their existence to and are regulated by statutes, rules […]

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PROBLEMS FACED IN IMPLEMENTING THE CHARTERS

April 20, 2021

PROBLEMS FACED IN IMPLEMENTING THE CHARTERS As pointed out earlier, the Citizen’s Charters initiative in India had started in 1997 and most of the Charters formulated there upon are in a nascent stage of implementation. Introduction of new concepts is always difficult in any organization. Introduction and implementation of the concept of Citizen’s Charter in […]

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RATIONALE OF A CITIZEN’S CHARTER

April 20, 2021

RATIONALE OF A CITIZEN’S CHARTER A Citizen’s Charter is the expression of an understanding between citizens and the provider of a public service with respect to the quantity and quality of services the former receive in exchange for their taxes. It is essentially about the rights of the public and the obligations of the public […]

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What is Citizens’ Charter & its Principles

April 20, 2021

What is Citizens’ Charter & its Principles INTRODUCTION It has been recognised the world over that good governance is essential for sustainable development, both economic and social. The three essential aspects emphasised in good governance are transparency, accountability and responsiveness of the administration. The citizen charter declares the standards for various services offered. It includes […]

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Principles of Code of Ethics in Public Life

April 20, 2021

Principles of Code of Ethics in Public Life The seven principles of public life enunciated by the Nolan Committee in UK can be highlighted here. Drawing from these, inclusion of the following principles in the Code of Ethics for civil servants in India can be suggested: Integrity: Civil servants should be guided solely by public […]

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PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR CIVIL SERVANTS

April 20, 2021

PROPOSED GUIDELINES FOR CIVIL SERVANTS In India, civil service values have evolved over years of tradition. These values also find place in various rules, including the Code of Conduct. The current set of ‘enforceable norms’ are `Conduct Rules’, typified by the Central Civil Services (Conduct) Rules – 1964 and analogous rules applicable to members of […]

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CODE OF ETHICS FOR CIVIL SERVANTS

April 20, 2021

CODE OF ETHICS FOR CIVIL SERVANTS The changing time has necessitated thought and action plan there must be a code of ethics for civil servants. The inculcation of values facilitating the subordination of the self to a larger, societal good, and engendering a spirit of empathy for those in need of ameliorative state interventions are […]

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ENFORCEMENT OF ETHICAL NORMS IN LEGISLATURES

April 19, 2021

ENFORCEMENT OF ETHICAL NORMS IN LEGISLATURES In India, both Houses of Parliament have on occasions acted firmly against violation of ethical principles. As early as in 1951, an ad hoc Committee of the House was appointed by the Provisional Parliament to investigate into the conduct of Shri H G Mudgal.            […]

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ETHICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MINISTERS

April 19, 2021

ETHICAL FRAMEWORK FOR MINISTERS A number of countries have prescribed a Code of Conduct/Ethics for Ministers. In Canada, the ‘Guide for Ministers (2006)’ sets out core principles regarding the role and responsibilities of Ministers. This includes the central tenet of ministerial responsibility, both individual and collective, as well as Ministers’ relations with the Prime Minister […]

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THE COMMITTEE ON ETHICS OF THE RAJYA SABHA

April 19, 2021

THE COMMITTEE ON ETHICS OF THE RAJYA SABHA Principles to be abided by :  The following are the principles which they should be abide by in the dealings of MPs: Members must not do anything that brings disrepute to the Parliament and affects their credibility. Members must utilize their position as Members of Parliament to […]

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ARC RECOMMENDATIONS ON PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE

April 19, 2021

ARC RECOMMENDATIONS ON PARTICIPATORY GOVERNANCE The Second Administrative Commission, Government of India has, after detailed studies into the working of government, made comprehensive recommendations in its detailed reports, among others, on the right to information, citizen centric service delivery, local government, e-Governance etc. Some of the recommendations relevant, which are being followed up and will […]

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Role of Social Media in Information Sharing & Transparency

April 19, 2021

Role of Social Media in Information Sharing & Transparency ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA Social Media is being progressively used for seeking feedback from citizens; pronouncement of public policy; issue based as well as generic interaction and brand building or public relations. In order to encourage and enable government agencies to make use of web 2 […]

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PROGRESSIVE USE OF ICT

April 19, 2021

PROGRESSIVE USE OF ICT ICTs stand for information and communication technologies and are defined, for the purposes of this primer, as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.”  In the meanwhile progress has been made, by the central and state governments, for progressive use of […]

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Transparency-Participation and Accountability through open government

April 19, 2021

Transparency-Participation and Accountability through open government Openness through transparency becomes a means to greater civic participation in an enabled environment, where there is effective free flow of information both ways, to see through the working of the government; and to verify whether or not public servants are meeting their obligations to expectations of citizens. All […]

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INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT

April 19, 2021

INTRODUCTION TO TRANSPARENCY IN GOVERNMENT ‘Open Government in the most basic sense is the notion that the people have the right to access the documents and proceedings of government’.  Executive departments and agencies should harness new technologies to put information about their operations and decisions online and readily available to the public. It is a […]

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RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT

April 19, 2021

RIGHT TO INFORMATION ACT The RTI Act empowers the Indian citizens to seek information from a public authority, thus making the government and its functionaries more accountable and responsible. RTI is an act that sets out the practical regime of RTI for citizens to ensure access to information under the control of public authorities in […]

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CHALLENGES TO DEMOCRATISATION OF INFORMATION

April 18, 2021

CHALLENGES TO DEMOCRATISATION OF INFORMATION While there is consensus that information needs to reach everyone, there are several barriers that need to be surmounted. These barriers include: Economic Barriers – Certain sections of citizens may not be able to pay for the cost of information even though it is available.            […]

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INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SHARING

April 18, 2021

INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION SHARING The free flow of information is a basic human right. The ability to seek, receive and impart information is crucial for respect of human rights. One way of looking at “Democratization of Information” is the ability of every person to get the information they need to make their lives better as […]

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ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC SERVANTS

April 18, 2021

ACCOUNTABILITY OF PUBLIC SERVANTS In most countries, public officials exercise varying degrees of power in discharging their functions and responsibilities based on the authority vested in them. To ensure that there is proper and responsible use of this power and authority, all democratic countries have developed systems and procedures of checks and balances. They have […]

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PRINCIPLES OF PROBITY

April 18, 2021

PRINCIPLES OF PROBITY There are several generally accepted probity principles that serve to maintain the integrity of a process. These are: Accountability Transparency Confidentiality 53 Management of Conflicts of Interest A brief note on the above is given below: Accountability: Accountability is the obligation to be able to explain or account for the way duties […]

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OBSTACLES TO ETHICAL ACCOUNTABILITY

April 18, 2021

OBSTACLES TO ETHICAL ACCOUNTABILITY Accountability and ethics are closely related. Effective accountability helps the achievement of ethical standards in the governance system. Legislative or parliamentary control through questions, debates and committees provide ample opportunity to the people’s representatives to raise, among other things, issues of ethics and morality in the governance system. More particularly, the […]

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NATURE OF WORK ETHICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION

April 18, 2021

NATURE OF WORK ETHICS IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION An important dimension of ethics in public administration is work ethics. It represents a commitment to the fulfilment of one’s official responsibilities with a spirit of dedication, involvement and sincerity. It also implies that a government functionary would love his work and not treat it as a burden […]

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PUBLIC SERVICE : THE OPINIONS OF INDIAN LEADERS

April 17, 2021

PUBLIC SERVICE : THE OPINIONS OF INDIAN LEADERS Jawaharlal Nehru was ‘quite sure’ in 1934 that ‘no new order can be built in India so long as the spirit of the Indian Civil Service pervades our administration and our public services’, it being therefore ‘essential that the ICS and similar services must disappear completely’.    […]

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ATTITUDE OF CIVIL SERVANTS

April 17, 2021

ATTITUDE OF CIVIL SERVANTS Despite these momentous changes, the attitude of civil servants does not seem to have changed at all. This is because the civil servants still believe in the Hegelian prescription that they represent the universal interest of the society. Hegel argued that the most important institution in the state was the bureaucracy […]

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 KEY PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL SERVICES REFORM

April 17, 2021

 KEY PRINCIPLES OF CIVIL SERVICES REFORM To get a deeper understanding and feedback on the issues pertaining to the civil services, the key principles of civil services reform which need to be particularly emphasized are mentioned below: Setting right the asymmetry of power: It is noted that there is an imbalance in the exercise of […]

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The Political Context & its significance for Public Administration

April 17, 2021

The Political Context & its significance for Public Administration The political leadership, whether in power or outside the power-domain, is perhaps the single most potent influence on the mores and values of citizens. The rulers do rule the minds, but in a democracy particularly, all political parties, pressure groups and the media also influence the […]

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The Sociocultural Context & its significance for Public Administration

April 17, 2021

The Sociocultural Context & its significance for Public Administration Values that permeate the social order in a society determine the nature of governance system. The Indian society today seems to prefer wealth to any other value. And in the process of generating wealth, the means-ends debate has been sidelined. Unfortunately, ends have gained supremacy and […]

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The Historical Context & its significance for Public Administration

April 17, 2021

The Historical Context & its significance for Public Administration The history of a country marks a great influence on the ethical character of the governance system. The Spoils System in the USA during the initial phase of the American nation vitiated the ethical milieu of the American Public Administration. To victor belong the spoils” asserted […]

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ISSUE OF ETHICS: FOCI AND CONCERNS

April 17, 2021

ISSUE OF ETHICS: FOCI AND CONCERNS An important question arises in connection with the moral obligation of an administrative system. Is the administrative system confined to acting morally in its conduct or does it also share the responsibility of protecting and promoting an ethical order in the larger society? While most of the focus on […]

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PUBLIC SERVICES UNDER THE BRITISHERS

April 17, 2021

PUBLIC SERVICES UNDER THE BRITISHERS The civil service system in India during the British times was based essentially on the Mughal system, albeit with certain refinements. But the big changes came with the implementation of Macaulay’s Report. The Macaulay Report recommended that only the best and brightest would do for the Indian Civil Service. The […]

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WIDER USES OF INTEGRITY TESTING

April 17, 2021

WIDER USES OF INTEGRITY TESTING The concept need not be confined to police activities. In some countries hidden television cameras have been used in the ordinary process of criminal investigations to monitor the illicit activities being conducted in the chambers (or private offices) of judges, capturing corrupt transactions between judges and members of the legal […]

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INTEGRITY TESTING

April 17, 2021

INTEGRITY TESTING Unless a corrupt act is exposed, how do we know that an official is corrupt? And more importantly, how can we ensure that these officials are not promoted to positions where they can wreak even more damage? And, in handling allegations of corruption made against officials, how do we ensure that morale is […]

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Donations to Political Parties & Funding of Elections

April 17, 2021

Donations to Political Parties & Funding of Elections Donations to Political Parties The question ‘of ‘donations to political parties is another matter which has a vital bearing on preserving the purity of public life. This is one of those spheres where there are immense potentialities for abuse. To prevent such abuse, it would, be necessary […]

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Ethics in Majority-Minority Relationship & Defections of Legislators

April 17, 2021

Ethics in Majority-Minority Relationship & Defections of Legislators Ethics in Majority-Minority Relationship We have opted for a democratic set-up. Democracy is a delicate form of government and calls for adherence to certain norms by all concerned for its successful functioning. One of the basic postulates of democracy is that the minority would reconcile itself to […]

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The Essential Features of an effective Ethics management system

April 17, 2021

THE ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF AN EFFECTIVE ETHICS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Increased concern about corruption and the decline of confidence in public administration has prompted many governments to review their approaches to ethical conduct. To assist these processes, a set of principles has been developed by the OECD to help countries review the institutions, systems and mechanisms […]

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ETHICS IN PUBLIC LIFE OF INDIVIDUALS

April 17, 2021

ETHICS IN PUBLIC LIFE OF INDIVIDUALS So far as his private life is concerned, almost everyone is agreed that ethical norms and moral values must govern it. Even in respect of public life, the view is not dissimilar, though in actual practice different yardsticks are applied. We, in India were fortunate to have been led […]

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ETHICS IN NATIONAL AFFAIRS

April 17, 2021

ETHICS IN NATIONAL AFFAIRS Coming to the major and most important aspect of the subject, namely the need for adherence to ethics in national affairs and public activities within the country, one facet relates to ethics in the behaviour of groups within a nation. This involves a question: How far ethical norms and moral principles […]

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MORALITY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

April 17, 2021

MORALITY IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS The first aspect, pertains to observance of rules of Morality in international relations. However, many would consider it to be not strictly relevant and germane to the question of ethics in public life. In any event, they would consider its relevance to be rather remote and far-fetched. Others would consider that […]

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A Case Study of Ethics in Government: BILL CLINTON

April 16, 2021

A Case Study of Ethics in Government: BILL CLINTON Many allies of former President Bill Clinton did not consider Clinton ineffective in spite of his moral sexual failures while in the White House. However, ethicists can be cited who contend otherwise: “that there is a necessary linkage between private character and public performance. A leader’s […]

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ETHICS IN PRIVATE RELATIONSHIP

April 16, 2021

ETHICS IN PRIVATE RELATIONSHIP It has often been said, “What happens in privacy does not hurt anyone.” The motto for Las Vegas resonates this private versus public philosophy, “What happens in Las Vegas stays in Vegas.” Or does it? Does it get carried out by other means? Is anything truly secret? The implication of the […]

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 ‘Filmi’ Charisma and “Benami’ Accounts

April 16, 2021

 ‘Filmi’ Charisma and “Benami’ Accounts The model of political behaviour, applicable to the leadership of the political parties (who have, to varying degrees, converted the parties into their private or public limited companies by playing the role of promoters- controllers) is based on the use of party’s organisational and government’s administrative power for amassing unfathomable […]

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Absence of Mass-Based Politics

April 16, 2021

Absence of Mass-Based Politics Many factors facilitated such a course of evolution of India’s political economy. Like the broad national consensus prior to 1947 on freedom from the Raj, there was a similar consensus on the post-Independence formal and declared socio­political agenda. With the departure of Sardar Patel, the INC became virtually unipolar. No serious […]

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Emergence of Power-Brokers

April 16, 2021

Emergence of Power-Brokers These power-brokers and regional satraps tried to assert their authority once Nehru—the colossal banyan tree—was no more on the national scene. In the course of the ensuing intense power struggle among the pygmies, the INC underwent a metamorphosis. This was no sudden development but a qualitative watershed marking the culmination of a […]

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Money Power & Emergence of Oligopolistic Power Structure

April 16, 2021

Money Power & Emergence of Oligopolistic Power Structure As we see below, a number of informal methods were adopted by the resourceful economic entities to curry favors with the political leadership and the bureaucracy. The use of money power to indulge in sabotaging economic laws/ regulations, tax evasion, obtaining industrial licenses, finances, permission to import, […]

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Role of Political Parties-Focus on Congress

April 16, 2021

Role of Political Parties-Focus on Congress Since the formal model of the polity, based on a written and bulky Constitution is well‑ known, we try to capture the essentials of the real polity model as it has evolved over the past few decades. It operates basically by means of competitive electoral politics with various political […]

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Politics-Crime Nexus: an overview of Vohra Committee findings

April 16, 2021

POLITICS-CRIME NEXUS: AN OVERVIEW OF VOHRA COMMITTEE FINDINGS The Vohra Committee ‘comprised our top civil servants, who are privy to the most sensitive information and who have both, at formal and informal levels a rather intimate view of the actual mechanisms of politics and governance. This comes out from the report in many forms. This […]

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EVAPORATION OF COMMUNITARIAN ETHICS FROM PUBLIC LIFE IN INDIA

April 16, 2021

EVAPORATION OF COMMUNITARIAN ETHICS FROM PUBLIC LIFE IN INDIA In our attempt to posit some limited hypotheses to partially explain evaporation of communitarian ethics from the public life in contemporary India, we take two major community organizations, viz; the State and the markets which display a large scale and regular perversion of the rules of […]

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ETHICS IN PUBLIC RELATIONSHIP

April 16, 2021

ETHICS IN PUBLIC RELATIONSHIP It is a sad commentary on the times in which we live that the subject of ethics in public life has begun to demand more than usual attention. One would have thought that no comment was necessary since there can be no two opinions on the imperative necessity for ethics in […]

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DETERMINANTS OF ETHICS

April 7, 2021

DETERMINANTS OF ETHICS An important challenge of ethics is to ascertain the determinants or standards with reference to which we can judge the rightness or wrongness of an action. That is, what is it that enables us to characterize an act as right or wrong? Now this question has been answered differently by different schools […]

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EVOLUTIONARY HEDONISM 

April 7, 2021

EVOLUTIONARY HEDONISM  The Hedonism of Bentham and Mill is called Empirical Hedonism. The Hedonism of Herbert Spencer, Leslie Stephen and Samuel Alexander is  called Evolutionary Hedonism. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) propounded his doctrine in his Data of Ethics. Spencer applies the idea of evolution to morals. He traces the germs of morality to the conduct of […]

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LESLIE STEPHEN

April 7, 2021

Leslie Stephen Leslie Stephen (1832-1903) conceived the society as an organism of which the individuals were interdependent members. The individuals cannot live apart from society. The connection between the individual and the society is not something external and mechanical, but internal and organic. Bentham and Mill regarded the society as a mere aggregate of independent […]

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SIDGWICK’S RATIONAL UTILITARIANISM

April 7, 2021

SIDGWICK’S RATIONAL UTILITARIANISM Henry Sidgwick (1830-1900) is an exponent of Intuitional or Rational Utilitarianism. He maintains that pleasure is the only intrinsic value. Knowledge, beauty, virtue, etc., are means to pleasure. They have extrinsic or instrumental value. Sidgwick does not distinguish between pleasure and happiness. Bentham and Mill are advocates of psychological hedonism. Sidgwick rejects […]

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ETHICS AND MORALITY 

April 7, 2021

ETHICS AND MORALITY  ‘Ethics’ and ‘Morality’ are terms often used as synonyms: an ethical issue just is a moral issue. In academic discourses, one may tend to distinguish between ‘ethics’ and ‘morality’. However, they  are same when we investigate into questions like: ‘What I ought to do?” or “How should I live”. Moreover, the English […]

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MARKS OF THE MORAL

April 7, 2021

MARKS OF THE MORAL A number of thinkers have proposed few criteria of moral judgments, principles and ideals. These criteria or ‘marks of the moral’ are presented as marks which are central to, and characteristic of, moral beliefs. The prominent four criteria are as follows: Over-ridingness: A judgment, principle or ideal is moral only if […]

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BUDDHISM

April 6, 2021

BUDDHISM The Sanskrit word ‘buddha’ refers to any enlightened person, but ‘The Buddha’ refers specifically to Siddhartha Gautama. Siddhartha renounced the world early in life. The sights of disease, old age and death impressed the young prince with the idea that the world was full of suffering. According to tradition, the twenty-nine year old Gautama […]

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APPLIED ETHICS

April 6, 2021

APPLIED ETHICS Ethics is not just about speculation on general principles but it is meant to be applied to real life issues and to give people specific advice. Bio-medical ethics: Bio-medical ethics is the application of ethical principles to medicine and biotechnology. Two important Bio-medical ethical issues are abortion and euthanasia. The ethical discussion on […]

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Feminist Ethics

April 6, 2021

Feminist Ethics Women have not been recognized as equal to men since time immemorial; even prominent moral thinkers have denigrated their position. Aristotle justifies the exclusion of women from political activity. He believes that virtue of a man and of a woman are not the same. The courage of a man is shown in commanding […]

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Ethics of the Bhagavad-Gita

April 6, 2021

Ethics of the Bhagavad-Gita The ethics of Gita is anti-hedonistic. The Gita condemns the Carvaka’s hedonism. According to the Gita moral life consists in the regulation of base emotions and instincts. Hence, one must strive to conquer these. Literally ‘Bhagavadgita’ means ‘The Lord’s song’, that is, the discourse of Lord Krishna to persuade the reluctant Arjuna […]

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Nozick: The Entitlement Theory of Justice

April 6, 2021

Nozick: The Entitlement Theory of Justice Robert Nozick’s theory of justice is a good example of the procedural theory of justice. He makes a distinction between historical and end-state principles of justice. He argues that the historical principle holds that an individual’s past actions determine the deserts and since actions are different so would be […]

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Rawls Theory of  Libertarian Justice

April 6, 2021

Rawls Theory of  Libertarian Justice John Rawls has sought to accommodate social justice and procedural justice together in hid theory of justice. John Rawls, in his celebrated work  A Theory of Justice, points out that a good society is characterized by a number of virtues and justice is the first virtue of a good society. […]

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The Marxist Theory of Justice

April 6, 2021

The Marxist Theory of Justice The Marxist theory of justice is an example of social justice theories, where justice is seen as a feature of society. Marx discusses the concept of justice in his book, Critique of the Gotha Programme. He advances 2 kinds of concepts: one for the transitional socialist society and the other […]

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ARISTOTLE (384-322BCE) LIFE

April 6, 2021

ARISTOTLE (384-322BCE) LIFE Aristotle was Plato’s pupil, but he was a critical disciple. Aristotle was born in Stagira. His father, Nicomachus was a doctor at the court of Macedonia. At the age of 17, he went to Athens and studied at Plato’s Academy for 20 years, until the death of Plato in 347. Plato was […]

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DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS OF KANT (1724-1804)

April 6, 2021

DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS OF KANT (1724-1804) Kant’s ethics is deontological, that is, duty is to be performed for the sake of duty alone without regard for the consequences. He asserts that morality must be based solely on reason. He maintains that apart from theoretical aspect (Pure Reason), reason has a practical component as well, which guides […]

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ETHICAL / MORAL RELATIVISM

April 6, 2021

ETHICAL / MORAL RELATIVISM Ethical or Moral relativism is the view that there are no universally valid moral principles. There are two forms of moral relativism: 1. Subjectivism and 2. Cultural relativism. Opposed to moral relativism, we have moral objectivism, which affirms the universal validity of moral principles. Subjectivism: According to subjectivism, moral statements are […]

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RELIGION AND MORALITY 

April 6, 2021

RELIGION AND MORALITY  Although there is no uniform concept of religion as well as of morality, but both religion and morality formulate laws of conduct for the personal as well as social goods. In primitive cultures, religion and morality were not distinguished and religion was the only source and guardian of morality. Ordinarily, every recognized […]

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LOW EFFORT PROCESSES OF ATTITUDE CHANGE

March 26, 2021

 LOW EFFORT PROCESSES OF ATTITUDE CHANGE INTRODUCTION We have now seen that a multitude of variables can determine whether the attitude change context is likely to be one of relatively high or low cognitive effort. First we focus on some of the specific low effort processes that can determine whether attitudes will change, and then […]

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ATTITUDE CHANGE: AN OVERVIEW

March 26, 2021

ATTITUDE CHANGE: AN OVERVIEW INTRODUCTION Now that we have examined some important definitional and conceptual issues surrounding the attitude concept, we turn to a discussion of attitude change processes. In the remainder of this chapter we describe the fundamental processes of attitude change that have been proposed by social psychologists in the modern era. The […]

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Ethics- EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE

March 26, 2021

Ethics- EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE INTRODUCTION The science, art, and profession of public administration are based on systematic rational thinking. Such thinking draws substance from solid facts, reliable data, and proven pathways for improvements. In the third millennium, who would doubt this argument and mix feelings and emotions with clear-cut facts and proven evidence based on logic […]

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The importance of Emotional Intelligence in Bureaucracies

March 26, 2021

The importance of Emotional Intelligence in Bureaucracies (a) Leadership and teamwork improvement [The importance of Emotional Intelligence in Bureaucracies] At the center of successful leadership is the “ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals”. Since emotions are intrinsic to the human condition, they doubtlessly arise whenever a group of people works together. […]

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ATTITUDE: Content-Structure and Function

March 26, 2021

ATTITUDE: Content-Structure and Function INTRODUCTION Attitudes can be thought of as a global evaluation (e.g., like—dislike) of an object. This perspective has generated a number of conceptual models of the attitude concept. The most influential model of attitude has been the multi component model. According to this perspective, attitudes are summary evaluations of an object […]

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Role of Family- Society & Educational Institutions in inculcating values

March 26, 2021

Role of Family- Society & Educational Institutions in inculcating values INTRODUCTION Values are regarded enviable, imperative and are apprehended with high esteem by a particular society in which a person lives. Values give meaning and strength to an individual’s character by occupying a central place in his/her life. Values reflect one’s personal attitude and judgments, […]

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THE VALUES FRAME

March 26, 2021

THE VALUES FRAME THE LEGAL VALUES FRAME While the rule of law is widely considered to be essential to democracy, the role of law in public administration is subject to some controversy. There are two general camps in this debate: one argues that law is —a hindrance to managerial reforms all and —an unwarranted constraint on […]

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DIMENSIONS OF ETHICS

March 26, 2021

DIMENSIONS OF ETHICS THE MODELS OF ETHICS One excellent model for ethical practice, discussed frequently in the literature, is particularly relevant. This model has its roots in medical ethics. The interaction and opposition of a set of principles is often used while considering the resolution of an ethical dilemma. The principles are beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy, […]

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ETHICS IN HUMAN ACTIONS

March 26, 2021

ETHICS IN HUMAN ACTIONS INTRODUCTION Ethics is the branch of study dealing with what is the proper course of action for man. It answers the question, “What do I do?” It is the study of right and wrong in human endeavours. At a more fundamental level, it is the method by which we categorize our […]

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Whistleblowers Protection Act 2014

March 17, 2021

Whistleblowers Protection Act 2014 Why in news? Recently, the accusations raised against the Infosys Chief Executive Officer (CEO) and other senior officials have brought back the focus on whistleblowers’ safety in India. In recent years, the number of whistleblowing complaints has risen in the corporate sector, with Wipro and State Bank of India (SBI) facing […]

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Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3)

March 16, 2021

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-3) Honesty: Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and connotes positive and virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, straight forwardness, including straight forwardness of conduct, along with the absence of lying, cheating, theft, etc. Furthermore, honesty means being trustworthy, loyal, fair, and sincere. Honesty is a great virtue which […]

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Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2)

March 16, 2021

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-2) Act-utilitarianism: This is a version of utilitarianism according to which the decisive moral considerations are those that indicate, what individual act in the specific circumstances is likely to produce the greatest happiness or utility. Individual acts, rather than general rules and principles, are the proper objects of moral concern and […]

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Important Terms In Ethics (PART-1)

March 16, 2021

Important Terms In Ethics (PART-1) Illegal Gratification: It is defined as taking gratification other than legal remuneration in respect of an official act.  Gratification is not limited to pecuniary gratifications or to gratifications estimable in money. It also includes favouring or disfavouring one person over the other. Ex: The 2G spectrum scam involved politicians and government officials in […]

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Seven Social Sins by Mahatma Gandhi

March 16, 2021

Seven Social Sins by Mahatma Gandhi Seven Deadly Sins Mahatma Gandhi said that seven things will destroy us. Notice that all of them have to do with social and political conditions. Note also that the antidote of each of these “deadly sins” is an explicit external standard or something that is based on natural principles and […]

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Moral Hazard

March 13, 2021

What is Moral hazard? Moral hazard is a situation in which one party gets involved in a risky event knowing that it is protected against the risk and the other party will incur the cost. It arises when both the parties have incomplete information about each other. Moral hazard is usually applied to the insurance […]

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Gandhi’s Idea Of Self Reliant Villages

March 13, 2021

Gandhi’s Idea Of Self Reliant Villages Introduction Economic Development of a country depends on the proper utilization of resources (both human and non-human). India, at the time of her independence, had an economy with a low level of economic and technological development, low per capital income, slow pace of development of economic and social institutions […]

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Contempt Of Court law

March 12, 2021

Contempt Of Court law What is Contempt? The contempt of court law is one of the most controversial elements in the Indian legal context. While the basic idea of a contempt law is to punish those who do not respect the orders of the courts, in the Indian context, contempt is also used to punish speech that lowers […]

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Section 3d Of India Patents Act

March 11, 2021

Section 3d Of India Patents Act History of Patent Law in India In 1911, the Indian Patents and Designs Act was enacted, providing basic protection to patents. The Patents Act, 1970 is the legislation that till date governs patents in India. It first came into force in 1972. The Patents Act has been repeatedly amended: […]

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Sanskritisation in India

March 11, 2021

Sanskritisation in India Introduction The concept ‘Sanskritization’ was first introduced by Prof. M.N. Srinivas in his book “Religion and society among the coorgs of South India” to describe the cultural mobility in the traditional caste structure of Indian society. Sanskritization is a process by which scheduled castes, tribes and other low Hindu castes change their way of life, customs and rituals […]

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Raja Rammohan Roy And His Contribution

March 11, 2021

Raja Rammohan Roy And His Contribution Life in brief Born: August 14, 1774 Place of Birth: Radhanagar village, Hoogly district, Bengal Presidency (now West Bengal) Parents: Ramakanta Roy (Father) and Tarini Devi (Mother) Spouse: Uma Devi (3rd wife) Children: Radhaprasad and Ramaprasad Education: Persian and Urdu in Patna; Sanskrit in Varanasi; English in Kolkata Movement: Bengal Renaissance Religious Views: Hinduism (early life) and […]

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Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)

March 10, 2021

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) The term “Corporate Social Responsibility” in general can be referred to as corporate initiative to assess and take responsibility for the company’s effects on the environment and impact on social welfare. How is it regulated in India? India is one of the first countries in the world to make Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) […]

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Difference Between Empathy,Compassion And Care

March 6, 2021

What Is Empathy? | Difference Between Empathy,Compassion And Care Empathy is the ability to emotionally understand what other people feel, see things from their point of view, and imagine yourself in their place. Essentially, it is putting yourself in someone else’s position and feeling what they must be feeling. While people are generally pretty well-attuned […]

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Difference between Ethics ,values and morals

March 6, 2021

What is Ethics? | Difference between Ethics ,values and morals Ethics is the study of what is right or wrong in human conduct. Ethics constitute an integral part of the Human society. Any decision that we make has an ethical base. The role of ethics in the human society lies in determining what is desirable […]

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WHAT ARE VALUES | ETHICS

March 6, 2021

Introduction | WHAT ARE VALUES | ETHICS  Values can be defined as those things that are valued by someone. In other words, values are what is considered ‘important‘ by an individual or an organization. Examples include courage, honesty, freedom, innovation etc. Value = Degree of Importance of Something Value denotes the degree of importance of something (or even an action). […]

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WAR ETHICS | Ethics

March 5, 2021

WAR ETHICS | Ethics What Is War Ethics? War ethics are certain norms to which fighting armies shall adhere to despite all their efforts, tactics and strategies working to weaken the enemy. For example an army tries to cause maximum casualties on enemy property and forces but do not to harm civilian population, prisoners of […]

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Values Required For Civil Services | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Civil service values | Values Required For Civil Services The statutory basis for the management of the Civil Service is set out in Part 1 of the Constitutional Reform and Governance Act 2010. Civil servants should have a minimum set of standards on which they evaluate things. Value can be used to judge things. Values […]

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Thomas Aquinas Theory | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Thomas Aquinas Theory | ETHICS  Italian Dominican theologian Saint Thomas Aquinas was one of the most influential medieval thinkers of Scholasticism and the father of the Thomistic school of theology. Combining the theological principles of faith with the philosophical principles of reason, Saint Thomas Aquinas ranked among the most influential thinkers of medieval Scholasticism. […]

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Talisman of Gandhi | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Talisman of Gandhi | ETHICS What is Gandhi’s Talisman?  Gandhi’s talisman is quote of wisdom to be used in situations of doubt. It says… “Whenever you are in doubt, or when the self becomes too much with you, apply the following test. Recall the face of the poorest and the weakest man [woman] whom you […]

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Theory of Moral Development by Lawrence Kohlberg

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Theory of Moral Development by Lawrence Kohlberg The Theory of Moral Development is a very interesting subject that stemmed from Jean Piaget’s theory of moral reasoning. Developed by psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg, this theory made us understand that morality starts from the early childhood years and can be affected by several factors. Morality can […]

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Socrates | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Socrates | ETHICS  Socrates was the first systematic moral thinker, who led an exemplary life spending most of his time in philosophical discussion. He himself did not write anything. Instead he questioned people on philosophical issues, especially about the nature of the good life. He was charged with not respecting the gods, and with […]

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Social Influence And Persuasion | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Social Influence And Persuasion | ETHICS Social influence  Social influence is described as the change in person’s behaviour, thoughts, feelings and attitudes that results from interaction with another individual in society. It can be intentionally or unintentionally, as a result of the way the changed person perceives themselves in relationship to the influencer. It is […]

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Thomas Hobbes’s Social Contract Theory | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Thomas Hobbes’s Social Contract Theory Social contract, in political philosophy, an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each. In primeval times, according to the theory, individuals were born into an anarchic state of nature, which was happy or unhappy according to the particular version. They […]

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Plato’s Theory of Justice | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Plato’s Theory of Justice | ETHICS  Plato was a disciple of Socrates and propagated his ideas further. He was the first western thinker who wrote his works & whose works remained intact. Socrates only discussed about moral problems whereas Plato discussed Moral as well as worldly philosophical problems with equal importance. These also […]

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Natural Law Theory | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction  | Natural Law Theory | ETHICS  With this theory actions in conformity and support of natural laws are morally correct. The summary would be , “What Is Consistent with the Natural Law Is Right and What Is not in keeping with the Natural Law Is Wrong .” In this view humans have reasoning and the […]

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Jawaharlal Nehru Phase In India (PART-2)

March 5, 2021

Emergence of Electoral Politics | Jawaharlal Nehru Phase In India (PART-2) Nehru believed in the power of democracy. He pushed forward the system of parliamentary governance based on universal adult franchise and secret ballot. He made elections the norm not exception. His firm commitment to democracy, civil liberties, free speech and press, independent judiciary are […]

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Jawaharlal Nehru Phase In India (PART1) | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Jawaharlal Nehru Phase In India (PART1) An influential leader in the Indian independence movement and political heir of Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru became the nation’s first prime minister in 1947. India, since independence, has undergone profound transformations in its politics-from the dominant Congress system to Coalition era, its economics- from a controlled “democratic socialism” to a thriving free-enterprise system, its trade-from […]

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Introduction To Ethics | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Introduction To Ethics | ETHICS  Ethics is the study of what is right or wrong in human conduct. Ethics constitute an integral part of the Human society. Any decision that we make has an ethical base. The role of ethics in the human society lies in determining what is desirable or undesirable. Thus, […]

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INTERNATIONAL ETHICS

March 5, 2021

What Is International Ethics? International ethics is an area of international relations theory which concerns the extent and scope of ethical obligations between states in an era of globalization. Schools of thought include cosmopolitanism and anti-cosmopolitanism. Realism, Liberalism, and Marxism are ethical traditions that conceptually address moral issues in international relations. International ethics offers understandings into how nations and other entities treat other nations and its people. […]

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Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) | ETHICS  Immanuel Kant (1724–1804) is the central figure in modern philosophy. He synthesized early modern rationalism and empiricism, set the terms for much of nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy, and continues to exercise a significant influence today in metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, political philosophy, aesthetics, and other fields. The fundamental […]

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GANDHIAN ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | GANDHIAN ETHICS  Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948) is a father of our nation. Ethical teachings are the central philosophy of Mahatma Gandhi. Mahatma Gandhi is a universally accepted as an exemplary model of ethical and moral life, with a rare blending of personal and public life, the principles and practices, the immediate and the eternal. […]

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Ethics Case Studies (15 Case Studies)

March 5, 2021

Ethics Case Studies (15 Case Studies) CASE STUDY 1 Ethics Case Studies (15 Case Studies) In recent times, there has been an increasing concern in India to develop effective civil service ethics, code of conduct, transparency measures, ethics and integrity systems and anti-corruption agencies. In view of this, there is a need being felt to […]

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Ethical Concerns and Dilemmas in Government and Private Institutions

March 5, 2021

What Is Ethical Dilemma? | Ethical Concerns and Dilemmas in Government and Private Institutions Ethical dilemmas are situations in which there is a choice to be made between two options, neither of which resolves the situation in morally satisfactory manner. It is a circumstance that requires a choice between competing ideologies in a given, usually […]

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ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS | Ethics

March 5, 2021

What Is Environmental Ethics? | ENVIRONMENTAL ETHICS | Ethics Environmental ethics refers to the values attached with environment. It studies the moral relationship of humankind with its environment. Environment plays an important role by Providing resources Sustaining life Waste management Environmental ethics relates to our obligations and responsibilities towards nature. Environmental ethics is the guiding […]

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Divine Command Theory | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Divine Command Theory | ETHICS  There are ethical theories that make reference to or depend upon the existence of a deity. The first is Divine Command theory that is not used anywhere in the world by the major organized religions. It is mistaken for the foundation of the moral theory of Judaism and […]

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Corporate Governance | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

What is Corporate Governance? | Corporate Governance | ETHICS Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices, and processes by which a firm is directed and controlled. Corporate governance essentially involves balancing the interests of a company’s many stakeholders, such as shareholders, senior management executives, customers, suppliers, financiers, the government, and the community. Principles of […]

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Consequentialism | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Consequentialism | ETHICS  Consequentialism is the class of normative ethics considering that the consequences of one’s conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct. It focuses on ends or goals or consequences. Two examples of consequentialism are utilitarianism and hedonism. Utilitarianism judges consequences by a […]

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Buddha Ethics | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Buddha Ethics | ETHICS  Buddhism started in India over 2,600 years ago as a way life that had a potential of transforming a person. It is one of the important religions of South and South-Eastern Asian countries. The religion is based upon the teachings, life experiences of its founder Siddhartha Gautam, born in […]

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BRANCHES OF ETHICS | Ethics

March 5, 2021

Branches of Ethics | BRANCHES OF ETHICS  Ethics is divided into four main branches. They are: Meta-Ethics (Ethics about Ethics) Prescriptive Ethics (Normative Ethics) – which is again divided into Deontological Ethics, Teleological Ethics, and Virtue Ethics. Descriptive Ethics (Comparative Ethics) Applied Ethics – again divided into Bio-ethics, Cyber Ethics, Environmental Ethics, Personal Ethics, Professional Ethics, Public Ethics, International Ethics […]

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ATTITUDE | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | ATTITUDE | ETHICS  Psychologists define attitude as a learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluations of people, issues, objects or events. Such evaluations are often favourable or unfavourable but they can also be uncertain at times. Thus we often speak of “mixed feelings” about an individual or […]

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Aristotle (384-322 BC) | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | Aristotle (384-322 BC) | ETHICS Aristotle was Plato’s best, most gifted & most famous student. He wrote the book named ‘The Politics’ & ‘The Nicomachean Ethics’ (named after his son, Nicomachus). Apart from values, ethics, politics, he also focused on many optional subjects like zoology, logic, psychology, botany, astronomy, physics, poetry, meteorology, economy, metaphysics, rhetoric etc. […]

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WHAT IS APTITUDE | ETHICS

March 5, 2021

Introduction | WHAT IS APTITUDE | ETHICS Latin Word “Aptus” meaning fitness or adeptness Aptitude is an innate set of characteristics, regarded as symptomatic of an individual’s ability to acquire, with adequate training, some knowledge, a set of skills, like the ability to produce music, or ability to perform administrative functions etc. Aptitudes may be […]

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Social Contract Theories

January 5, 2020

Social contract, in political philosophy, an actual or hypothetical compact, or agreement, between the ruled and their rulers, defining the rights and duties of each. In primeval times, according to the theory, individuals were born into an anarchic state of nature, which was happy or unhappy according to the particular version. They then, by exercising natural reason, formed a society […]

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Code of Conduct

January 1, 2020

Codes of Conduct A code of conduct is a set of rules that outline the social standards and rules and responsibilities of, or proper practices for, an individual, party or organization. It is defined that “Code of Conduct” is “principles, values, standards, or rules of behaviour that guide the decisions, procedures and systems of an […]

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Code of Ethics

January 1, 2020

Code of Ethics refers to a set of guidelines to bring about acceptable behaviours in members of a particular group, association or profession. Basically, it is guidelines of principles for experts to conduct business honestly. It defines the minimum requirements for conduct, and behavioural expectations instead of specific activities. Thus, the Code is built on […]

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Foundational values of the civil services

January 1, 2020

 As per the Second Administrative Reforms Commission, the foundational values of the service are Integrity Objectivity Impartiality Dedication to public service Compassion towards weaker sections. Also Read : Value conflict They are Foundational because:  Impartiality and non-partisanship: It decides on merit and is free from any partisan consideration. Further, a non-partisan civil service is also responsible […]

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What is Corporate Governance?

January 1, 2020

Context In light of Tata, Infosys, ICICI & PNB bank corporate governance episodes lately, the debate around transparency, role of Independent Directors, promoters etc among others got wide attention to further enhance corporate governance in India. What is Corporate Governance? Corporate Governance deals with how a corporate is governed.Corporate governance is the system of rules, practices and processes […]

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Value conflict

January 1, 2020

Value Conflicts A value conflict occurs when individuals or groups of people hold strong personal beliefs that are in disagreement within themselves or in disagreement with the institution’s/ organization’s values. These may include religious differences, cultural differences or differences in upbringing. Values-based conflicts are particularly pervasive in public policy. Indeed, nearly all public (policy) controversies […]

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Emotional Intelligence

January 1, 2020

Intelligence Intelligence is a set of cognitive abilities which allow us to acquire knowledge, to learn and to solve problems. Emotional Intelligence Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive emotions, to assess and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote […]

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Attitude

January 1, 2020

Attitude: Definition and Elaboration Psychologists define attitude as a learned tendency to evaluate things in a certain way. This can include evaluations of people, issues, objects or events. Such evaluations are often favourable or unfavourable but they can also be uncertain at times. Thus we often speak of “mixed feelings” about an individual or an […]

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John Rawls Theory of Justice

January 1, 2020

John Rawls Contemporary thinkers generally try to understand the institution of morality. Unlike analytical philosophers, they avoid hair-splitting and logic-chopping discussions of moral terms or concepts. This recent approach explains the contemporary interest in John Rawls, whose treatise A Theory of Justice has strongly influenced recent moral philosophy. We will have occasion to mention John […]

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Action Part of theory | Normative ethics theories

January 1, 2020

Normative Ethics Theories There are three important normative ethics theories- Virtue Ethics Consequentialism (prominently utilitarianism) Deontological Ethics (prominently Kantianism) Virtue Ethics Virtue ethics focuses on the ‘character’ of the agent rather than on the formal rules for or the consequences of actions. Virtue ethics includes an account of the purpose of human life, or the […]

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PERSUASION

January 1, 2020

Defining Persuasion: Process aimed at changing a person’s or a group’s attitude or behavior toward some idea, object, event or other person(s), by using written or spoken words to convey information, feelings, or reasoning, or a combination of them. Persuasion is a form of influence. It is the way to get people to agree with […]

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Right to Information RTI

January 1, 2020

RTI- Right to Information Right to Information RTI is another empowering Act for the citizens. It gives access to the information about public offices to the common man and hence can make every citizen, a potential whistle-blower. This landmark legislation attempts to bring the following changes in the government-citizen relationship: From a culture of secrecy […]

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WHISTLE BLOWING

January 1, 2020

Whistle Blowing Who is a whistle blower? | whistle blowing A whistleblower is a person who comes forward and shares his/her knowledge on any wrongdoing which he/she thinks is happening in the whole organisation or in a specific department. A whistleblower could be an employee, contractor, or a supplier who becomes aware of any illegal […]

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Sexual Harassment at Work Place

January 1, 2020

Sexual Harassment at Work Place Sexual Harassment is said to take place When one person subjects another person to an unwelcome act of physical intimacy; Contact such as grabbing, brushing, touching, pinching, eve teasing, etc. Makes an unwelcome demand or request directly or by implication for sexual favors from another person. Shows a person any […]

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WORK CULTURE

January 1, 2020

What is work culture? Work culture is a concept which deals in the study of: Beliefs, thought processes, attitudes of the employees. Ideologies and principles of the organization. It is the work culture which decides the way employees interact with each other and how an organization functions. An organization is formed to achieve certain goals […]

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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

January 1, 2020

Corporate Social Responsibility Corporate Social Responsibility is a management concept whereby  companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business  operations and interactions with their stakeholders. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is generally  understood as being the way through which a company achieves a balance  of economic, environmental and social imperatives (“Triple-Bottom-Line-  Approach” as recommended by […]

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CORPORATE GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

Corporate Governance Corporate governance refers to the set of systems, principles and processes by which a company is governed. Corporate governance provide the guidelines as to how the company can be directed or controlled such that it can fulfil its goals and objectives in a manner that adds to the value of the company and […]

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Ethical Dilemma

January 1, 2020

Ethical Dilemma What is an Ethical Dilemma? An Ethical Dilemma is a situation in which a person has to make a difficult choice from amongst two courses of action, each of which means compromising a moral principle. Eg. a soldier confronted by an unarmed enemy is being ordered by his senior to shoot and kill. […]

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E-GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

Defining e-Governance: According to international organization, UNESCO, “Governance refers to the exercise of political, economic and administrative authority in the management of a country’s affairs, including citizens’ articulation of their interests and exercise of their legal rights and obligations.” “E-Governance may be understood as the performance of this governance via the electronic medium in order […]

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Grievance Redressal

January 1, 2020

Explain the Concept of Grievance Redressal and Grievance Redressal Mechanism. Grievances are expressions of resentment against specific acts of omission or commission that are wrong or perceived as wrong, and requiring corrective action to be taken. In other words, if a grievance Redressal is received, it needs to be redressed. For the present purpose, grievances […]

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CITIZEN’S CHARTER

January 1, 2020

A short note on Concept and Origin of Citizen’s Charter: It has been recognised world over that good governance is essential for sustainable development, both economic and social. The three essential aspects emphasised in good governance are transparency, accountability and responsiveness of the administration. Citizens’ Charters initiative is a response to the quest for solving […]

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CORRUPTION IN INDIA

January 1, 2020

India more corrupt than China, better than Pak: Transparency International In the Corruption Perception Index for 2017, India was ranked at the 81st place with a score of 40. India has been ranked worse than China and Bhutan in terms of ‘corruption perception’, but fares better than its other neighbours including Pakistan and Bangladesh, as […]

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GOOD GOVERNANCE

January 1, 2020

What is Governance? In order to understand the concept of Good Governance, let’s first understand the concept of Governance: The concept of “governance” is not new. It is as old as human civilization. Simply put “governance” means: the process of decision-making and the process by which decisions are implemented (or not implemented). Governance can be […]

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BUREAUCRACY

January 1, 2020

What is Bureaucracy? What are its origins? The term or word bureaucracy has two parts-one is bureau which means an office transacting particular business or a government department. Crazy denotes a particular form of government. Hence bureaucracy implies a system of gov­ernment in which most of the decisions are taken by state officials rather than […]

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Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

January 1, 2020

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad Maulana Abul Kalam Azad occupies a position of prominence in the galaxy of our patriots and heroes of our freedom struggle, who relentlessly fought to achieve freedom for our motherland and forced the British to leave India. He was a sagacious statesman and the tallest among nationalist Muslims, who disagreed and […]

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Aurobindo Ghosh

January 1, 2020

Aurobindo Ghosh Sri Aurobindo was renowned and important personality in the history of the Indian resurgence and Indian nationalism. Aurobindo had a versatile brilliance. Aurobindo Ghosh was a great poet, a thoughtful thinker, a distinguished metaphysician, a great prophet and a passionate patriot. Aurobindo Ghosh wrote effective texts that represented the crystallization of the new […]

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Dr APJ Abdul Kalam

January 1, 2020

Dr APJ Abdul Kalam A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was a prominent Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. Renowned for his pivotal role in the nation’s civilian space programme and military missile development, he was known as the Missile Man of India. Dr APJ Abdul Kalam made significant contributions […]

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SWAMI VIVEKANANDA

January 1, 2020

Swami Vivekananda Swami Vivekananda was born in 1863 in Calcutta in an affluent family. While studying in Calcutta University, he acquired deep interest and mastery in Western Philosophy and History. For some time, Swami Vivekananda was associated with Brahmo Movement. Since early years, he suffered spiritual crisis and had doubts about existence of God. Swami […]

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Mahatma Gandhi

January 1, 2020

MAHATMA GANDHI Thoughts of Gandhiji “Ahinsa is the highest duty. Even if we cannot practice it in full, we must try to understand its spirit and refrain as far as is humanly possible from violence.” “Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever.” “Freedom is not worth […]

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Moral Thinkers

December 31, 2019

Buddha | Ethics moral thinkers Ethics moral thinkers :Buddhism is a set of moral guidelines and practices which, if followed, can bring people to the ultimate state of reality and peace. The Buddha described these morals after he reached enlightenment, or nirvana: the true understanding of the universe. Basic Buddhist principles of moral thought and […]

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Origin of Ethics -Divine command theory and Natural Law theory N1

December 23, 2019

Ethics lectures for UPSC | Ethics lecture series  Origin of Ethics -Divine command theory and Natural Law theory N1 Divine command theory (also known as theological voluntarism) is a meta-ethical theory which proposes that an action’s status as morally good is equivalent to whether it is commanded by God. The theory asserts that what is moral is determined by what God commands, and that […]

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