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Environment & Biodiversity

International Solar Alliance and World Wide Fund (WWF)

August 5, 2021

International Solar Alliance and World Wide Fund (WWF) International Solar Alliance The International Solar Alliance (ISA) is an alliance of more than 120 countries, most of them being sunshine countries, which come either completely or partly between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. The alliance is also called International Agency for Solar […]

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Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention)

August 5, 2021

Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (Bonn Convention) The Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS) or the Bonn Convention aims to conserve migratory species. It is an intergovernmental convention concluded under UNEP. The Convention came into force in 1983. The CMS provides a global platform for the conservation and sustainable use of migratory animals […]

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Zoological and Botanical Survey of India

August 5, 2021

Zoological and Botanical Survey of India Zoological Survey of India The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) is a premier Indian organisation in zoological research and studies. It was established to promote the survey, exploration and research of the fauna. The ZSI functions under the MoEFCC, Government of India. Its functions include: Exploring, surveying, inventorying and […]

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National Ganga River Basin Authority

August 5, 2021

National Ganga River Basin Authority or the National Council for River Ganga The National Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA) was constituted in the year 2009 under Environment Protection Act, 1986. The NGRBA has been constituted to clean Ganga and its tributaries. The NGRBA is headed by the prime minister and its members include the chief […]

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National Biodiversity Authority and State Biodiversity Boards

August 5, 2021

National Biodiversity Authority and State Biodiversity Boards National Biodiversity Authority The National Biodiversity Authority (NBA) was established in 2003 to implement Biological Diversity Act, 2002. Its headquarters is located in Chennai. The NBA is a statutory, autonomous, regulatory and an advisory body on conservation, sustainable use of biological resources and equitable sharing of benefits arising […]

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National Green Tribunal

August 5, 2021

National Green Tribunal National Green Tribunal (NGT) Act, 2010 is an act of the Parliament of India which enables the creation of a special tribunal to handle the expeditious disposal of the cases pertaining to environmental issues. It draws inspiration from India’s constitutional provision of Article 21, which assures the right to a healthy environment […]

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KIGALI AGREEMENT

August 4, 2021

KIGALI AGREEMENT Agreement to Cut Emissions of Greenhouse Gases Countries came to an agreement in Kigali, Rwanda to phase out a family of potent greenhouse gases by the late 2040s and move to prevent a potential 0.5 degree celsius rise in global temperature by the end of the century. About Hydrofluorocarbons Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are a […]

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Agenda 21 – an overview

August 4, 2021

Agenda 21 – an overview Agenda 21 is an action plan of the United Nations related to sustainable development. It was adopted in Union Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). The number 21 refers to the agenda for the 21st century. Rio+ 20 refers to the UN conference on ‘sustainable development’ that took place […]

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Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI)

August 4, 2021

Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) The Stockholm International Water Institute (SIWI) is a Stockholm-based policy institute founded in 1991 that undertakes research, manages projects and carries out investigations on a wide range of water-related issues. By implementing strategies and providing policy advice on water resources management and development, the Institute also supports decision-making processes, both […]

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IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL EVENTS TO PROTECT ENVIRONMENT

August 4, 2021

IMPORTANT INTERNATIONAL EVENTS TO PROTECT ENVIRONMENT Earth Day The Earth Day is an annual event celebrated across the world on April 22. Its celebration is coordinated globally by the Earth Day Network. In 1969, at a UNESCO Conference in San Francisco, the peace activist John McConnell proposed a day to honour Earth and the concept […]

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Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

August 4, 2021

Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) The Central Pollution Control Board   of India is a statutory organisation under MoEFCC. It was established in 1974 under the Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974. The CPCB is also entrusted with the powers and functions under the Air Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1981. The EPA […]

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National Board for Wildlife (NBWL)

August 4, 2021

National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) The National Board for Wildlife (NBWL) is constituted under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972. The NBWL advises the Union Government on framing of policies and measures for conservation of wildlife in India. It is an apex body to review all wildlife related matters. Composition of NBWL It has 47 members headed […]

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Major Environmental Laws Of India

August 4, 2021

Major Environmental Laws Of India Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is the most important law for the protection of both flora and fauna. It is applicable to all states except Jammu and Kashmir which has a separate law enacted for the purpose. Important features of the Act are mentioned below: The Act […]

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Kyoto Protocol – an Overview

August 3, 2021

Kyoto Protocol – an Overview Kyoto Protocol In the third COP held at Kyoto (Japan), Kyoto Protocol was signed. Under Kyoto Protocol, the responsibilities of developed nations and developing nations were differentiated. The differentiation was done because in the past, developed nations have contributed more towards greenhouse gas emissions as compared to the developing nations, […]

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PARIS CLIMATE AGREEMENT (2015)

August 3, 2021

PARIS CLIMATE AGREEMENT (2015) Negotiations held in the framework of the yearly UNFCCC, on the measures to be taken after the second commitment period under Kyoto Protocol which ends in 2020, resulted in the adoption of the Paris Agreement. Paris Agreement is a separate instrument under the UNFCCC rather than an amendment to the Kyoto […]

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Efforts of developed and developing nations in preserving the Environment

August 3, 2021

Efforts of developed and developing nations in preserving the Environment Views of Developed Nations Developed nations argue that at present, developing nations are also emitting equivalent amount of carbon emissions. Moreover, emissions of developing nations are expected to increase in future. As on 1st January 2016, China is the largest polluter in the world, United […]

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WHAT ARE THE CARBON CREDIT ?

August 3, 2021

WHAT ARE THE CARBON CREDIT ? A carbon credit is a tradable certificate or permit, representing the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide or equivalent amount of emissions of any other greenhouse gas, issued by a government agency. It is tradable in the market at the prevailing price. Breaking Down Carbon Credit The […]

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 INITIATIVES TO REDUCE CLIMATE CHANGE

August 3, 2021

 INITIATIVES TO REDUCE CLIMATE CHANGE National Bioenergy Mission The Government of India has introduced the ninth mission under NAPCC. This new mission is called National Bioenergy Mission. It is being developed to push sustainable development in the renewable energy sector. The Bioenergy Mission aims to achieve the following: To improve energy efficiency in traditional biomass […]

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NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE 

August 3, 2021

NATIONAL ACTION PLAN ON CLIMATE CHANGE  The National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) was released on 30th June 2008. It effectively pulls together a number of government’s existing national plans on water, renewable energy, energy efficiency, agriculture and others—bundled with additional ones—into a set of eight missions. The Prime Minister’s Council on Climate Change […]

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What are Carbon Sinks?

August 3, 2021

What are Carbon Sinks? Carbon Sink It refers to the places that absorb carbon. Carbon sinks can be both natural as well as man-made. Natural sinks are soil, forests, oceans, polar ice caps, etc. Artificial sinks constitute depleted oil reserves, abandoned mines, etc. The oil and gas industry has used carbon to enhance oil and […]

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WHAT IS CARBON SEQUESTRATION ?

August 3, 2021

 CARBON SEQUESTRATION  Carbon sequestration is also known as carbon capture and storage (CCS). It refers to the technique of capturing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and keeping it stored over a long period of time. In other words, carbon sequestration describes long-term storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) or other forms of carbon to counter global […]

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OZONE DEPLETION

August 3, 2021

OZONE DEPLETION Ozone or trioxygen has the chemical formula of O3. It is a pale blue gas with a distinctively pungent smell. It is an allotrope of oxygen that is less stable than the diatomic allotrope, O2. In the lower atmosphere, it breaks down into O2. Ozone is formed from dioxygen by the action of […]

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Ozone Hole and Ozone Depleting Substances

August 2, 2021

Ozone Hole and Ozone Depleting Substances Ozone Hole In the presence of sunlight, ozone forms and breaks continuously. During winters at poles, there is absence of sunlight. Thus, ozone cannot be formed. However, due to human activities, the ozone layer gets depleted. Ozone depleting substances have the tendency to concentrate at poles because the gravitational […]

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ACID RAIN AND ITS IMPACT

August 2, 2021

ACID RAIN AND ITS IMPACT ACID RAIN Pure water has a pH of 7.0 (neutral); however, acid rain has a pH of about 5.6 (acidic). The acidity of rainwater is due to the presence of three substances (CO2, NO and SO2) found in the troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere). As carbon dioxide (CO2) […]

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Impact of Ocean Acidification

August 2, 2021

Impact of Ocean Acidification Upwelling Upwelling refers to the circular movement of ocean waters between the ocean surface and bottom layers Winds blowing across the ocean surface push water away. Water from lower layers move upwards tc replace the water that has been pushed away. This process is known as `upwelling’. Upwelling occur along with […]

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WHAT IS OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ?

August 2, 2021

WHAT IS OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ? OCEAN ACIDIFICATION Oceans are an important reservoir of CO2, absorbing a significant quantity of CO2 (one-third) produced by man-made activities and thus effectively act as a buffer to climate change. However, due to the increasing absorption of CO2 by the ocean waters, ocean acidification takes place. Ocean acidification refers to […]

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Black Carbon and its Impact on the Environment

August 2, 2021

 Black Carbon and its Impact on the Environment Black Carbon It refers to the solid, black colour particles produced from incomplete combustion. It is also called soot. Black carbon particles absorb sunlight and thus increase the temperature of the earth. However, these particles remain only for a few weeks in the atmosphere. According to an […]

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Nitrous Oxide – Greenhouse Gas Source

August 2, 2021

Nitrous Oxide – Greenhouse Gas Source Nitrous Oxide Commonly known as laughing gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) is a chemical compound with the formula N2O. It is an oxide of nitrogen. At room temperature, it is a colourless, odourless and non-inflammable gas, with a slightly sweet taste. It is known as ‘laughing gas’ due to the […]

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Carbon Dioxide and Methane – The Greenhouse Gases

July 31, 2021

Carbon Dioxide and Methane – The Greenhouse Gases Water Vapour  Water vapour is the biggest contributor to greenhouse effect. Human activities are not directly responsible for emitting water vapour in quantities sufficient to change its concentration in the atmosphere. However, increase in concentration of other greenhouse gases increases the earth’s temperature which leads to high […]

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What are the Impacts of Global Warming in Climate changes ?

July 31, 2021

What are the Impacts of Global Warming in Climate changes ? GLOBAL WARMING Global warming refers to increase in average temperature of the earth. This increase is due to the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Greenhouse Effect or Glass House Effect Greenhouse effect refers to trapping of heat by the […]

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Wildlife Conservation Initiatives by Indian Government

July 31, 2021

Wildlife Conservation Initiatives by Indian Government EFFORTS FOR CONSERVATION OF ELEPHANT POPULATION  Project Elephant Elephant is considered as India’s cultural heritage animal. Project Elephant was launched in 1992. It is also a centrally-sponsored programme, i.e., the centre provides financial and technical assistance to states for conservation of elephants. Project Elephant was launched in 13 states. […]

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ACTION PLAN FOR VULTURE CONSERVATION

July 31, 2021

ACTION PLAN FOR VULTURE CONSERVATION Vulture India possesses a wide range of vulture species. Vulture population has come under a threat due to the medicine, ‘diclofenac’. It is an anti-inflammatory drug administered mainly to animals. There are certain forms of diclofenac used for human beings as well. Vultures consume carcass of dead animals. The carcass […]

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EFFORTS FOR CONSERVATION OF TIGER POPULATION

July 30, 2021

EFFORTS FOR CONSERVATION OF TIGER POPULATION Project Tiger ‘Project Tiger’ was launched for the conservation of tigers by the central government in 1973. In 1900, the population of tigers was 40,000 and by 1972, it declined to 1800. Tiger holds utmost importance in the ecosystem, because it is at the top of terrestrial food chain. […]

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WORLD HERITAGE SITES

July 30, 2021

WORLD HERITAGE SITES The UNESCO declares a site with outstanding universal value as world cultural or natural heritage site. Declaration as world heritage site helps in securing international cooperation in preserving the heritage sites. Until 2004, there were six criteria for cultural heritage and four criteria for natural heritage. In 2005, a single set of […]

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Biodiversity Hotspots in India 

July 30, 2021

Biodiversity Hotspots in India  BIODIVERSITY HOTSPOTS The concept of biodiversity hotspot was put forward by Norman Myers in 1988. To be qualified as a biodiversity hotspot, a region must fulfill the following two criteria: Species Endemism : The region must possess 1500 species of vascular plants as endemic (i.e. more than 0.5% of the world’s […]

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Biosphere Reserve – an overview

July 30, 2021

Biosphere Reserve – an overview How Is a Biosphere Reserve Declared?              Biosphere reserves are declared by the state or central governments by notification. Unlike national parks and wildlife sanctuaries, biosphere reserves are not created under any law. Once established, the national governments can nominate them under the UNESCO’s Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. This […]

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What are BIOSPHERE RESERVES ?

July 30, 2021

What are BIOSPHERE RESERVES ? BIOSPHERE RESERVES In 1971, the UNESCO for the first time coined the term ‘biosphere reserves’. According to UNESCO, biosphere reserves are the representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes, extending over large area, comprising of terrestrial or marine ecosystem or combination thereof. Characteristics of biosphere reserves are listed below: Human […]

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Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves of India

July 30, 2021

Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves of India Conservation reserves and community reserves were created under Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 as amended in 2003. These reserves are created with the following two-fold objectives: Legal backing to community-initiated efforts to protect flora and fauna. Limited interference in activities of local communities so that their needs are met. […]

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Differences between National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary

July 28, 2021

Differences between National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES AND NATIONAL PARKS Both wildlife sanctuaries and national parks can be constituted by state governments and by the union government. Under Wildlife Protection Act, the areas considered for declaration are those which have ecological, natural and geomorphological (related to the form or surface features of the […]

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Difference between Sea Grass and Sea Weed

July 28, 2021

Difference between Sea Grass and Sea Weed SEA GRASS Sea grasses are specialized marine flowering plants that resemble actual grass. They grow in shallow, coastal waters with muddy bottom and require comparatively calm areas. Sea grasses are the only group of higher plants (flowering plants) adapted to live in sea water. Major sea grass meadows […]

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Plankton – an overview

July 28, 2021

Plankton – an overview PLANKTONS Planktons include both microscopic plants (like algae) and animals (like crustaceans, protozoans, etc.). The term `planktons’ refers to the group of organisms which float or drift in the surface water of rivers, lakes and oceans. The locomotive ability of planktons is limited. Thus, their distribution is determined by the currents […]

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CARNIVOROUS PLANT

July 28, 2021

CARNIVOROUS PLANT These plants feed upon insects. They cannot prey upon large animals and human beings. Insectivorous plants can be categorized into two broad categories: Active type: These insectivorous plants close their leaves and trap insects the moment they land on them. Passive type: These insectivorous plants possess a pitfall mechanism. For instance, a pitcher-like […]

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Abiotic Factors Influencing Plant Growth

July 27, 2021

Abiotic Factors Influencing Plant Growth EFFECTS OF ABIOTIC COMPONENTS ON PLANTS Effects of Light on Plants Extremely high intensity of light leads to faster root growth which further leads to more water absorption from the soil. Thus, plant carries out transpiration at an increased rate leading to the development of thick leaves. On the other […]

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PLANT REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

July 27, 2021

PLANT REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Inside the flowering plant, both male and female reproductive organs are present. The male reproductive organ is called stamen and the female reproductive organ is called the pistil (or carpel). The stamen consists of anther which releases pollen. This pollen gets transferred to pistil either by the action of winds or by […]

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Different types of Plants and their Classification

July 27, 2021

Different types of Plants and their Classification Algae These are green, non-differentiated plants (i.e. cells are not organised into different parts like root, stem, etc.,) possessing chlorophyll. These plants grow in the moist environment. Freshwater algae are usually green or blue-green in colour, whereas marine algae are red or brown in colour. Algae are autotrophic […]

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LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA

July 27, 2021

LIST OF IMPORTANT ANIMAL SPECIES THREATENED IN INDIA Mammals (Terrestrial) Large Rock Rat or Elvira Rat Elvira rat is a medium sized rat. It is nocturnal and has a tendency to burrow. It is found in rocky areas of deciduous forests. In India, it is mainly found in Tamil Nadu. Namdapha Flying Squirrel It is […]

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ENDANGERED SPECIES

July 27, 2021

ENDANGERED SPECIES The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an NGO based in Switzerland which is engaged in the conservation of both flora and fauna. It annually publishes the ‘Red Data Book. The ‘Red Data Book’ consists of species of both plants and animals which are endangered. It also consists of pink-coloured pages […]

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Difference between VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES

July 26, 2021

Difference between VERTEBRATES and INVERTEBRATES VERTEBRATES Animals with backbone are called vertebrates. Although vertebrates represent less than two percent of animal species in the world, their size and mobility allow them to dominate their environment. Vertebrates are further classified into five categories. Fishes Fishes share the following characteristics: Cold blooded, which implies that their body […]

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Biodiversity in India

July 26, 2021

Biodiversity in India India possesses 2.4% of the total land area but 7% of the total global species, despite supporting 17.5% of the global population. Modes of Conservation of Biodiversity Ex situ Conservation It refers to the conservation of biodiversity outside the areas, where it naturally occurs. For example, zoo, botanical gardens, seed banks, etc. […]

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Why Is Biodiversity Important?

July 26, 2021

Why Is Biodiversity Important? WHAT IS BIODIVERSITY? The variety of life on Earth is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals and microorganisms and the enormous diversity of genes in these species constitute biodiversity. Appropriate conservation and sustainable development strategies attempt to recognise this as being integral to any approach […]

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Soil Profile – Soil Management

July 26, 2021

Soil Profile – Soil Management Soil Profile Soil consists of three major layers which are called horizons namely, A, B and C horizons. Apart from these three layers, some other layers might be present at some locations. Moving from the top to bottom, various soil horizons include the following: Horizon O: It is a surface […]

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Integrated Pest Management and Weed Management

July 26, 2021

Integrated Pest Management and Weed Management Integrated Pest Management The integrated pest management (IPM) is a way to control unwanted bugs using techniques other than pesticides. Some techniques include processes like the following: Rotating crops in a given place so that bugs that attack certain plants are not constantly attracted to the same place. Using […]

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Mulching and Composting in Organic Farming

July 26, 2021

 Mulching and Composting in Organic Farming Agroforestry Agroforestry or agro-sylviculture is a land use management system in which trees or shrubs are grown around or among crops or pastureland. It combines shrubs and trees into agriculture to create more sustainable land-use systems that prevent soil erosion. Crop Rotation Growing of different crops on a piece […]

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What is Permaculture and Organic Farming?

July 26, 2021

What is Permaculture and Organic Farming? Permaculture Permaculture refers to agricultural principles centered around utilising the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems. The term permaculture was developed by David Holmgren, then a graduate student, and his professor, Bill Mollison, in 1978. The word ‘permaculture’ originally referred to ‘permanent agriculture’, but was expanded later on […]

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MEASURES FOR SUSTAINABILITY

July 24, 2021

MEASURES FOR SUSTAINABILITY Carbon Footprint A carbon footprint is defined as the sum total of greenhouse gases produced from various activities. It is expressed in tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2). The carbon footprints are usually calculated for a nation or an entity such as an individual or an organisation for a certain time period, such […]

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What are Sustainable Development Goals?

July 24, 2021

What are Sustainable Development Goals? SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ‘Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present generations without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’. Sustainable Development—A Broader Term Living within our environmental limits is one of the central principles of sustainable development. One implication of not doing so […]

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Advantages and Disadvantages of ROR Hydroelectric Projects

July 24, 2021

Advantages and Disadvantages of ROR Hydroelectric Projects HABITAT FRAGMENTATION Habitat fragmentation refers to the emergence of discontinuities in a single habitat. In other words, it refers to the division of a single large habitat into two or more smaller habitats. It usually results from deforestation. It can occur due to the following two reasons: Natural […]

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GANGA ACTION PLAN

July 24, 2021

GANGA ACTION PLAN Ganga and its tributaries fulfill the water needs of nearly 40% of Indian population. However, Ganga is one of the most polluted rivers of the world due to the following factors: Human waste from bathing, washing of clothes, defecation, discharge of waste from religious activities, etc. Industrial wastes such as untreated discharge […]

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ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN INDIA

July 24, 2021

ENVIRONMENT IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN INDIA Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) is the process of ascertaining possible consequences of a project on environment in future. In 1978-79, the EIA was introduced for river valley projects. At present, the EIA is mandatory under Environment Protection Act, 1986 for 29 categories of projects with the investment of Rs. 50 […]

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BIOREMEDIATION AND ITS TECHNIQUES

July 24, 2021

BIOREMEDIATION AND ITS TECHNIQUES BIOREMEDIATION It refers to the cleaning of environment with the help of living organisms. Living organisms range from microorganisms to different species of plants. For example, bacteria help in the decomposition of organic waste. Certain plant species such as mustard helps in the absorption of poisonous elements such as selenium. Bioremediation […]

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TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE

July 23, 2021

TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTE Open Dumps Open dumps refer to the uncovered areas that are used to dump solid waste of all kinds. The waste in these dumps is untreated, uncovered and unsegregated. The waste in open dumps usually becomes a breeding place for flies, rats and insects which spread various diseases. The […]

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ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES

July 23, 2021

ENVIRONMENTAL DISEASES Minamata Disease Minamata disease was first discovered in Minamata city, Japan in 1956. It is caused due to the release of industrial waste containing mercury into the water body. Mercury gets converted into methylmercury and bioaccumulate in fishes. These fishes are consumed by the local population. Minamata is a neurological disease with the […]

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What is E-waste and its Types

July 23, 2021

What is E-waste and its Types ELECTRONIC WASTE Electronic waste (e-waste) is generated due to the usage and discard of electronic components. India has emerged as the world’s second largest in the mobile market and also the fifth largest producer of e-waste, discarding roughly 18.5 lakh tonnes of e-waste in 2015. E-waste is highly toxic […]

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RADIOACTIVITY AND TYPES OF RADIATION

July 23, 2021

RADIOACTIVITY AND TYPES OF RADIATION Radioactivity Radioactivity is a property of certain elements (especially, transuranic i.e. elements having mass more than uranium) to spontaneously emit protons (a-particles), electrons (13-particles) and gamma (y) rays during their disintegration. Penetrative capacities of radioactive particles are listed below: α-particles can be blocked by a piece of paper and human […]

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Hazards of Groundwater Pollution

July 23, 2021

Hazards of Groundwater Pollution Haemoglobin transports oxygen to various parts of the body. Excess nitrate in drinking water reacts with haemoglobin to form methaemoglobin which impairs oxygen transportation to various parts of body. As a result, oxygen is not available to various parts of body leading to their bluish appearance. This disease is called ‘blue […]

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Causes and Effects of Thermal Pollution

July 23, 2021

Causes and Effects of Thermal Pollution  Thermal Pollution Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality by any process that changes the water temperature. In other words, thermal pollution is defined as an increase or decrease in the temperature of a natural body of water like ocean, lake, river or pond by human influence. Causes […]

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Point and Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution

July 23, 2021

Water Pollution and its Effects Point and Non-Point Sources of Water Pollution The term `nonpoint source’ (NPS) is defined to mean any source of water pollution that does not meet the definition of ‘point source’. On the other hand, the term ‘point source’ means any discernible, confined and specific source of pollution such as industrial […]

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FLY ASH – an overview

July 23, 2021

FLY ASH – an overview It is produced when combustion of solid materials takes place. Fly ash is in the form of a very fine powder and tends to travel long distance in air. Thermal power plants based on coal are the largest producers of fly ash. Fly ash in thermal power plants is a […]

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PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AND VEHICLE POLLUTION

July 23, 2021

PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS AND VEHICLE POLLUTION VEHICLE POLLUTION Vehicle pollution (also known as transport pollution or motor pollution) is the introduction of harmful materials into the environment by motor vehicles. These materials, known as pollutants, have several bad effects on human health and the ecosystem. Examples of such pollutants include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur […]

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NATIONAL AIR QUALITY INDEX

July 22, 2021

NATIONAL AIR QUALITY INDEX The National Air Quality Index (AQI) was launched in 2014 under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. It is outlined as ‘One Number-One Colour-One Description’ for the common man to judge the air quality within his vicinity. The index constitutes part of the government’s mission to introduce the culture of cleanliness. The Indian […]

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Difference between Primary Pollutants and Secondary Pollutants

July 22, 2021

Difference between Primary Pollutants and Secondary Pollutants AIR POLLUTION Pollutants are classified into two categories: Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants. Primary Pollutants These are produced directly from the source of pollution. Significant primary pollutants are as follows: Carbon monoxide Carbon monoxide (CO) arises from incomplete burning (due to lack of oxygen) of carbon-based fuels such as […]

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CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION

July 22, 2021

CAUSES OF ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION Environmental Degradation Environmental degradation refers to deterioration of environment. It can occur due to any one of the following factors: Excess pollution. Depletion of natural resources such as water, soil, etc. Extinction of biodiversity or destruction of ecosystem due to natural or human-induced factors. In other words, environmental degradation refers to […]

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Techniques of Water Conservation  

July 22, 2021

Techniques of Water Conservation   WATER CONSERVATION Water conservation includes all the policies and activities made to sustainably manage the natural resource of freshwater in order to meet the current and future human demand. Water conservation has the following objectives: Ensuring the availability of water for future generations, where the withdrawal of freshwater from an […]

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WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD

July 22, 2021

WATER RESOURCES OF INDIA AND THE WORLD Water Resources of India There are only two sources of freshwater in India—rainfall and melting of glaciers. Total water available every year is around 4,000 cubic kilometres (km3). From the total water available, about 25% is lost due to evaporation, transpiration or runoff. Of the remaining 3,000 km3, […]

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What are Coral Reefs and Coral Bleaching ?

July 22, 2021

What are Coral Reefs and Coral Bleaching ? CORAL REEFS Coral reefs are calcium carbonate CaCO3 (limestone) structures. The builders of coral reefs are tiny animals called coral polyps. On their death, the coral polyps leave calcium carbonate skeletons. These CaCO3 skeletons are arranged into layers by the living polyps. A coral reef is built […]

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WETLAND ECOSYSTEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE

July 22, 2021

WETLAND ECOSYSTEM AND ITS IMPORTANCE WETLAND ECOSYSTEM Wetlands are areas, intermediate or transitional, between water bodies and terrestrial habitats. Wetlands include lake littoral (marginal areas between the highest and lowest level of lakes), floodplains and other marshy or swampy areas, where water gets stagnated. Stagnation of water may be due to poor drainage, impervious soil […]

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EUTROPHICATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES

July 22, 2021

EUTROPHICATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES EUTROPHICATION Eutrophication is the process of enrichment of an aquatic system by addition of nutrients. The addition of nutrients can be due to man-made as well as natural factors. Natural factors include leaching of rock phosphates, increase in organic matter derived from plants and animals, etc. Man-made activities include discharge of […]

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How Temperature and Lake works in Aquatic Ecosystem

July 22, 2021

How Temperature and Lake works in Aquatic Ecosystem TEMPERATURE The range of temperature in water bodies is low as compared to the range of temperature on land. As a result, aquatic organisms develop tolerance to narrow range of temperature. Slight changes in the temperature of water body can cause large threats to the survival of […]

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What is Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biological Oxygen Demand?

July 22, 2021

What is Chemical Oxygen Demand and Biological Oxygen Demand? Just like composting or how tree leaves rot; when organic chemicals (carbon and hydrogen compounds) or biological matter enter into water, it eventually breaks down. Oxygen is necessary for breaking down material. For breaking down more materials, more oxygen is needed. Additionally, aquatic organisms need oxygen […]

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Role of Sunlight and Dissolubility of Oxygen in Aquatic Ecosystem

July 22, 2021

Role of Sunlight and Dissolubility of Oxygen in Aquatic Ecosystem Aquatic Ecosystem An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water. The two main types of aquatic ecosystems are marine ecosystems and freshwater ecosystems. Important factors affecting the productivity of aquatic ecosystems are as follows. SUNLIGHT Sunlight is the most important factor determining […]

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Difference Between Forest Cover and Forest Area

July 22, 2021

Difference Between Forest Cover and Forest Area FOREST COVER IN INDIA At present, the forest area in India is 24.16% of the total land area. However, the actual forest cover is 21.34%. Of the total forest cover, very dense forests cover 2.61%, moderately dense forests account for 9.59%, while open forests stand at 9.14%. For […]

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Mangroves in India

July 21, 2021

Mangroves in India Mangroves A mangrove is a shrub or a small tree that grows in the coastal saline or brackish water. The term is also used for tropical coastal vegetation consisting of such species. The special characteristic of mangroves is their ability to exist in a wide variety of habitats. In the coastal locations, […]

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TYPES OF FORESTS IN INDIA

July 21, 2021

TYPES OF FORESTS IN INDIA Tropical Evergreen Forest (or Tropical Rainforests)          These forests are found on the western slopes of Western Ghats, parts of North-East India and Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. In these regions, there is humidity throughout the year and the annual rainfall is over 200 cm. Important species are rosewood, mahogany, […]

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What Is Cloud Seeding ?

July 21, 2021

What Is Cloud Seeding? Seeding involves spraying chemicals into clouds. Cloud seeding is a form of weather modification. It is a way of changing the amount or type of precipitation that falls from clouds, by dispersing substances into the air that serve as cloud condensation or ice nuclei, which alter the microphysical processes within the […]

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Biogeochemical Cycle and Important Biogeochemical Cycles

July 21, 2021

Biogeochemical Cycle and Important Biogeochemical Cycles BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES A biogeochemical cycle or substance turnover or cycling of substances is a pathway by which a chemical substance moves through both the biotic (biosphere) and abiotic (lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere) components of Earth. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus constitute 97% of the mass of our body […]

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Difference between Ecological Pyramid and Food Web

July 21, 2021

Difference between Ecological Pyramid and Food Web FOOD WEB A network of food chains is called food web. Typically, the same food resource is a part of more than one food chain, especially when that resource is at the lower trophic level. ECOLOGICAL PYRAMID An ecological pyramid consists of a number of horizontal bars depicting […]

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What is Food Chain ?

July 21, 2021

 What is Food Chain ? Food chain is a sequence that describes which organism is consumed or eaten by the other organism. It also explains the transfer of energy from plants to primary consumers, from primary consumers to secondary consumers and so on. It consists of levels called trophic levels. These trophic levels describe the […]

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Difference between Biosphere and Biome

July 21, 2021

Important Terms in Ecology Ecosystem An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water and mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Ecosystems can be of any size but usually […]

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PRODUCTIVITY IN ECOLOGY

July 21, 2021

PRODUCTIVITY IN ECOLOGY In ecology, productivity or production refers to the rate of generation of biomass in an ecosystem. It is usually expressed in units of mass per unit area (or volume) per unit time, for instance, grams per square metre per day. Productivity of autotrophs such as plants is called primary productivity, while that […]

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Determinants of the Behaviour of a Species—Genotype and Phenotype

July 21, 2021

Determinants of the Behaviour of a Species—Genotype and Phenotype GENOTYPE Genotype is the complete heritable genetic identity. The word genotype can also refer just to a particular gene or a set of genes carried by an individual. For example, if one carries a gene linked to diabetes, one may refer to his genotype just with […]

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ECOLOGY-BASIC

July 20, 2021

ECOLOGY-BASIC Ecology is the analysis and study of interactions among organisms and their environment. Ecology consists of biotic (living) and abiotic (non-living) components. Abiotic components include sunlight, precipitation, wind, topography, humidity, soil, temperature, etc. Biotic components refer to living organisms. Biotic components can be classified as: PRIMARY PRODUCERS (AUTOTROPHS) Autotrophs are called so because they […]

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SPECIES

July 20, 2021

SPECIES A species is a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing an offspring. Organisms of a species interact with other organisms, both intra- and inter-species, in a variety of ways. There are five common types of interaction among species. Competition Predation Parasitism Mutualism Commensalism COMPETITION Competition is described as a relationship in which […]

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The Nagoya Protocol

June 14, 2021

The Nagoya Protocol The Nagoya Protocol is a key element in the global framework for sustainable development. It enhances legal certainty and transparency for users and providers of genetic resources. It was adopted on 29 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan as a supplementary agreement to the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Nagoya Protocol establishes a […]

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Global Energy Review 2021

June 11, 2021

Global Energy Review 2021 According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) , the Global energy-related carbon dioxide emissions are estimated to increase by 1.5 billion tonnes in 2021 which is the biggest annual rise in emissions since 2010. About IEA  IEA is an autonomous intergovernmental organisation which was established in 1974 as per framework of […]

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CLOUDBURST

June 10, 2021

CLOUDBURST Cloudbursts are sudden and extreme rainfall events over a limited area in a short span of time. In these storms there are violent uprushes of air, which at times prevent the condensing raindrops from falling to the ground. A large amount of water may thus accumulate at high levels, and if the upward currents […]

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SEEA Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA)

May 8, 2021

SEEA Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA)  A new national statistical framework- SEEA Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA) implemented by India at its 52nd session recently. The Forum was organized by the National Statistical Office (NSO India) of the Ministry of Statistics and Project Implementation (MoSPI), Government of India, in collaboration with the UN Statistics Division (UNSD) and UN […]

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Ken-Betwa Link Project (KBLP)

May 6, 2021

Ken-Betwa Link Project (KBLP)  A memorandum of agreement  signed between Union Minister of Jal Shakti and the chief ministers of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh to implement the Ken-Betwa Link Project (KBLP) on the occasion of World Water Day (22 March) . The agreement was signed through a video conference in the presence of Prime […]

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Antarctic Ozone Hole Closes

May 5, 2021

Antarctic Ozone Hole Closes The Antarctic ozone hole — one of the deepest, largest gap in the ozone layer in the last 40 years — has closed, according to World Meteorological Organization (WMO). According to a report of NASA ,the formation of ozone hole in the Antarctic has been an annual occurrence and has been recorded since […]

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E-waste

May 5, 2021

E-waste E-waste is a  informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their “useful life.”  Computers, televisions, VCRs, stereos, copiers, and fax machines are everyday electronic products. According to Global E-waste Monitor, in 2019, approximately 53.6 million metric tons (Mt) of e-waste (excluding PV panels) was generated, or 7.3 kg per capita. As per […]

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YOUNGLE BLUE HOLE (YBH)

May 4, 2021

YOUNGLE BLUE HOLE (YBH) Why In news ? 8000 years old carbon was found in the world’s deepest blue hole named the Youngle Blue Hole (YBH) located at the coast of Belize. Belize is a Caribbean country located on the northeastern coast of Central America. What are blue holes? Blue holes are different from Cenotes which are inland […]

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India Host to Large Migratory Species

May 4, 2021

India Host to Large Migratory Species Why in news? Scientists say that the total number of migratory fauna from India comes to 457 species, with new additions to the wildlife list put out by the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species (CMS). Birds comprise 83% (380 species) of this figure. Migratory species in India […]

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India’s Draft Arctic Policy

May 3, 2021

India’s Draft Arctic Policy India government has recently released a draft Arctic Policy document  which is commited to expanding scientific research, “sustainable tourism” and mineral oil and gas exploration in the Arctic region It envisages India’s engagement in the Arctic region for climate research, environmental monitoring, maritime cooperation and energy security. About Arctic Region It […]

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Nanda Devi Glacier Burst

April 30, 2021

Nanda Devi Glacier Burst In Feb 07, 2021, Nanda Devi glacier burst in the form of an avalanche and deluge near Uttarakhand’s  Joshimath. It led arrival of natural calamities like massive flash floods in the Dhauliganga and Alaknanda rivers, washing away some people alive, trapping many under landslide debris and destroying several houses. Two power projects […]

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HEAVY METAL WATER POLLUTION

April 30, 2021

HEAVY METAL WATER POLLUTION  A team of scientists found that in COVID-19 pandemic the holy river Ganga shows significant reduction of heavy metal pollution  The research was supported by the Indo-US Science and Technology Forum (IUSSTF), a bilateral organisation under the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India and US Department of States. […]

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NATIONAL MARINE TURTLE ACTION PLAN

April 30, 2021

NATIONAL MARINE TURTLE ACTION PLAN The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC) has released ‘Marine Mega Fauna Stranding Guidelines’ and ‘National Marine Turtle Action Plan’. It aims to conserve both floral and faunal diversity including the marine biodiversity also conservation of marine turtles. KEY OBJECTIVES OF THE PLAN Many people depend on these […]

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GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

April 30, 2021

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY INTRODUCTION  Geothermal energy is the heat that comes from the sub-surface of the earth. It is contained in the rocks and fluids beneath the earth’s crust and can be found as far down to the earth’s hot molten rock, magma. Geothermal power is the electricity generated from the heat source within the earth’s […]

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Cabinet Note on Methanol

March 24, 2021

Cabinet Note on Methanol Why in news? NITI Aayog and the Ministry for Petroleum and Natural Gas are drafting a Cabinet Note on methanol. What is a Cabinet Note and the initiative? When a Cabinet note is circulated it covers all aspects and issues that may pose a challenge for Methanol Policy implementation. The policy […]

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Bhupathy’s Shield tail

March 24, 2021

Bhupathy’s Shield tail Why in news? A New species of snake has been found in Western Ghats in Tamil Nadu. Bhupathy’s Shield tail: Bhupathy’s shieldtail is currently found only in the Anaikatty Hills of Tamil Nadu’s Coimbatore district. Just 40 cm long and iridescent brown, Bhupathy’s shieldtail is the latest addition to the snake fauna […]

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Watershed Development

March 17, 2021

Watershed Development Introduction Watershed development is the conservation, recharging and judicious use of the water resources like, underground water, rivers etc. and lands within the watershed area. The word “watershed” introduced in 1920 was used for the “water parting boundaries”. Watershed is that land area which drains or contributes runoff to a common outlet. Watershed […]

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UN Biodiversity Summit 2020

March 17, 2021

UN Biodiversity Summit 2020 Introduction The first-ever UN Summit on Biodiversity was convened in New York in september 2020. The Biodiversity Summit was participated by Head of States/Minister level representing the countries which are party to Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). The 75th anniversary of the United Nations, the start of the UN decade of action and […]

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Wildlife Conservation In India

March 16, 2021

Wildlife Conservation In India Introduction Wildlife involves the study of wild undomesticated animals and plants living in their natural habitats and their ecological interactions. Due to the destruction of forests, a large number of animals and plants have become endangered and their conservation has become a matter of utmost importance. We have to spread awareness that protection of […]

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Wetlands And Montreux Record

March 16, 2021

Wetlands And Montreux Record What Are Wetlands? Wetlands are defined as: “lands transitional between terrestrial and aquatic eco-systems where the water table is usually at or near the surface or the land is covered by shallow water”. Wetlands are areas where water is the primary factor controlling the environment and the associated plant and animal […]

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Watershed Development in India

March 16, 2021

Watershed Development in India Introduction Watershed is not simply the hydrological unit but also socio-political-ecological entity which plays crucial role in determining food, social, and economical security and provides life support services to rural people. A watershed is a drainage area on earth’s surface from which runoff resulting from rainfall flowing from a single point […]

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Temperate Cyclones

March 16, 2021

Temperate Cyclones Introduction Temperate cyclones are also known as Extra-tropical cyclone where the term “Extra-tropical” signifies that this type of cyclone generally occurs outside the tropics with a latitude range between 30° and 60°. They are generally, extensive having a vertical thickness ranging from 9 to 11 km and a diameter of about 1,000 km. […]

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Solar Energy In India

March 16, 2021

Solar Energy In India Introduction India lying in tropical belt has an advantage of receiving peak solar radiation for 300 days, amounting 2300-3,000 hours of sunshine equivalent to above 5,000 trillion kWh. India’s current installed solar power capacity, according to Central electricity authority, is 26025.97 MW which is 34% of total renewable energy sources i.e, 75055.92 MW till February […]

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National Green Tribunal (NGT)

March 15, 2021

National Green Tribunal (NGT) What is NGT? The National Green Tribunal (NGT) is a specialised body that was formed under the NGT Act, 2010 for effective and expeditious disposal of cases that are related to protection and conservation of the environmental, forests and other natural resources. India has become the third country in the world […]

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India in Antarctica

March 15, 2021

India in Antarctica Introduction Antarctica is Earth’s southernmost continent. It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14,000,000 square kilometres (5,400,000 square miles), it is the fifth-largest continent. About 98% of […]

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Forest Rights Act 2006

March 15, 2021

Forest Rights Act 2006 Introduction The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 is a result of the protracted struggle by the marginal and tribal communities of India to assert their rights over the forestland over which they were traditionally dependent. About Forest Rights Act, 2006 The Scheduled Tribes […]

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Coral Reefs and Their Preservation

March 15, 2021

Coral Reefs and Their Preservation What are Coral Reefs? Coral reefs are the colonies of tiny living creatures that are found in oceans. They are the underwater structures that are formed of coral polyps that are held together by calcium carbonate. Coral reefs are also regarded as the tropical rainforest of the sea and occupy […]

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Climates Of India (Koeppen’s Classification)

March 15, 2021

Climates Of India (Koeppen’s Classification) Climatic Regions of India The whole of India has a monsoon type of climate. But the combination of elements of the weather, however, reveal many regional variations. These variations represent the subtypes of the monsoon climate. It is on this basis that the climatic regions can be identified. A climatic […]

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Tiger Conservation in India

March 13, 2021

Tiger Conservation in India Introduction Wildlife involves the study of wild undomesticated animals and plants living in their natural habitats and their ecological interactions. Due to the destruction of forests, a large number of animals and plants have become endangered and their conservation has become a matter of utmost importance. We have to spread awareness that protection of […]

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National Parks In India

March 13, 2021

National Parks In India Introduction India is one of the 17 megadiverse countries of the world. With only 2.4% of the world’s land area, 16.7% of the world’s human population and 18% livestock, it contributes about 8% of the known global biodiversity, however, putting enormous demands on our natural resources. India is home to world’s […]

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National Clean Air Programme (NCAP)

March 13, 2021

What is  National Clean Air Programme (NCAP) ? It is medium term national level strategy to tackle the increasing air pollution problem across the country in a comprehensive manner. It focuses on collaborative and participatory approach covering all sources of pollution and coordination between relevant Central Ministries, State Governments, local bodies and other stakeholders. In order […]

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Environmental Impact Assessment Draft 2020

March 12, 2021

Environmental Impact Assessment Draft 2020 What is EIA? UNEP defines EIA as a tool used to identify the environmental, social and economic impacts of a project prior to decision-making. It aims to Predict environmental impacts at an early stage in project planning and design, Find ways and means to reduce adverse impacts, Shape projects to […]

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CAMPA Act

March 12, 2021

What is CAMPA Act? The Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) Act seeks to mitigate the impact of diversion of forest land for non-forest purposes by making sure through a well defined institutional mechanism, that the funds are released and utilized quickly, efficiently and transparently. The CAMPA law is applicable to States, Union […]

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Biosphere Reserve Strategy in India

March 12, 2021

Biosphere Reserve Strategy in India Introduction Biosphere Reserve (BR) is an international designation by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for representative parts of natural and cultural landscapes extending over large areas of terrestrial or coastal/marine ecosystems or a combination of both. Biosphere Reserves tries to balance economic and social development and maintenance of associated […]

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Assessment Report of IPCC

March 12, 2021

Assessment Report of IPCC What is Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)? The IPCC is the UN body for assessing the science related to climate change. The IPCC produces reports that support the UNFCCC. It was established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988. It has 195 member states. IPCC reports cover all relevant information […]

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Waste Management In India

March 12, 2021

Waste Management In India Introduction According to the Environment Protection Act, 1990, waste is defined as: “any substance which constitutes a scrap material, or an effluent or other unwanted surplus substance arising from application of any process”. Classification of waste Biodegradable waste: These can be degraded through microbial activity. E.g: food residue, human excreta, etc. Non-Biodegradable […]

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WASH Program

March 12, 2021

WASH Program About WASH WASH is an acronym that stands for “water, sanitation and hygiene”. Universal, affordable and sustainable access to WASH is a key public health issue within international development and is the focus of Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6). SDG 6 aims at equitable and accessible water and sanitation for all, with Target 6.2 specifically mentioning women and girls. Access to WASH includes safe water, […]

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Urban Heat Island Concept

March 12, 2021

What Is Urban Heat Island Concept? Urban Heat Island effect is defined as the presence of significantly higher temperatures in urban areas compared to the temperatures in surrounding rural zones mainly due to human factors Usually urban heat islands have a mean temperature 8 to 10 degrees more than the surrounding rural areas These can […]

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REDD and REDD+

March 11, 2021

About UN-REDD The United Nations Programme on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation. Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland. Membership: 64 Partner Countries. It is a multilateral collaborative programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). It was created in 2008 in response to the UNFCCC decisions on […]

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Forest Policy of India

March 10, 2021

Forest Policy of India Introduction Forests have unique significance as they provide various services.  On the one hand they are home to many diverse species – both flora and fauna and on the other hand, they are key for climatic equilibrium.  Also, they are home for the large tribal population. These signify the need of […]

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Forest Act 1927 and amendment | 4th Class | 2020

August 6, 2019

Amendments to Forest Act and Tribal Revolt Recently DISTRICTS with sizeable tribal populations saw several protests and demonstrations on Monday. The protests were organised by the Bhumi Adhikar Andolan. There were two issues that the demonstrators were decrying. One,the proposed amendments to the Indian Forest Act (IFA), 1927; the concerned amendments to the IFA have […]

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CURRENT AFFAIRS 02-05-2018

May 2, 2018

Environmental Kuznets Curve Relevancy: GS Prelims, GS Mains paper III Environment, Environmental Kuznets Curve, Industrial growth   What is Environmental Kuznets Curve: As per the Environmental Kuznets Curve, the environment of a country degrades in the initial stages of industrial growth. After a certain level of economic growth, the society begins to improve its relationship […]

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