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CAMPAIGNS BEFORE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS FORMED

CAMPAIGNS BEFORE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS FORMED

  • There were numerous political campaigns led by associations formed to present local aspirations and grievances.
  • These campaigns were a not organised in a pan-India scale due to lack of an association with all-India character.

However, a few prominent political campaigns are –

  1. Against Lytton’s policies
  2. For imposition of Import duty on cotton (1879) – Lytton abolished the 5% import duty on manufactured cotton in 1879 under pressure from British textile manufacturers which led to flooding of Indian market with manufactured cotton.       CAMPAIGNS BEFORE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS FORMED
  3. Against the Afghan adventure of Lytton which was funded out of Indian revenues and was imperialist in nature
  4. Against Arms act of 1878 which imposed restrictions on possession of arms by Indians
  5. Against Vernacular Press Act 1878 which imposed restrictions on regional language newspapers. It sought to impose censorship on vernacular print media which was largely critical of British.
  6. For Indianisation of civil service in 1878-79. Lytton reduced the minimum age from 21 to 19 to appear in civil services exams. This led to agitation by Indian Association who were seeking civil services reforms
  7. For support of Ilbert bill
  8. Against Inland Emigration Act
  9. Against plantation labour
  10. For All India Fund for political agitation
  11. For support of pro-India party in Britain
  12. For right to join volunteer corps
  13. The Foundation of Indian National Congress
  • The political associations formed up till now were found to lack an all India character and therefore were less effective.                  CAMPAIGNS BEFORE INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS WAS FORMED
  • To remedy this, a solid ground word had to be prepared.
  • A retired British civil servant A. O. Hume played an active role in coordination between various political leaders of all three presidencies.
  • He wrote to Lord Dufferin, who was the viceroy, convincing him not to obstruct the formation of Congress.

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