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  • Biosensors are small devices that utilize biological reactions for detecting target analytes, which are chemical substrates being measured by the sensor.
  • Clark and Lyons first demonstrated the modern concept of biosensors, in which an enzyme was integrated into an electrode to form a biosensor.
  • The development of biosensors is concerned with the production of diagnostic reagent-less analysis probes, which can be used by non-specialist operators, either continuously online or discretely as a ‘throw-away’ device.


  • Relevance of output signal to measure environment.
  • Accuracy, repeatability, sensitivity and resolution.
  • Dynamic range and speed of response.
  • Reliability and self-checking capability.
  • Insensitivity to temperature, electrical and other environmental interference.
  • Capital cost, running cost and acceptability by user.


Biosensors offer enormous potential to detect a wide range of analytes in health care, the food industry and environmental monitoring.

They can provide rapid measurement of alcohol in wines, biogenic amines as indicators of food freshness, lactulose as indicator of milk quality or contaminants such as pesticides, toxins and microbes for instance.

  • Health care: Biosensors can effectively be used to monitor the glucose levels in diabetic patients.
  • Military applications: The requirements for rapid analysis can also be anticipated in the military applications. The sensors can recognize when a soldier is bleeding and whether the cut is in a vein or artery, depending on the oxygen content in the blood.
  • Environmental monitoring: The biosensors are used for monitoring harmful bacteria in drinking water, wastewater, and industrial effluents. Rapid and automated biosensors provide an early warning signal that prevents the real threat of releasing biohazards materials into the environment.
  • Drug discovery: Biosensors can detect the interaction between a particular target and a possible drug without using markers or the detection of color changes or fluorescence.
  • Pathogen detection in food: Biosensors that rapidly detect total microbial contamination are also essential tools for the food quality assurance and open doors to the market share of the food biosensors.  BIOSENSORS AND BIOMARKERS

The biosensor technology has a lot to offer and will continue to move from theoretical stages to realistic processes as more toxic and harmful materials are introduced to the ecosystem.


  • A biomarker, or biological marker, is a substance used as an indicator of a biological state.
  • It is a characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention.
  • It is used in many scientific fields.


  • In medicine, a biomarker can be a traceable substance that is introduced into an organism as a means to examine organ function or other aspects of health. For example, rubidium chloride is used as a radioactive isotope to evaluate perfusion of heart muscle.
  • It can also be a substance whose detection indicates a particular disease state, for example, the presence of an antibody may indicate an infection. Biochemical biomarkers are often used in clinical trials, where they are derived from bodily fluids that are easily available to the early phase researchers.
  • A useful way of finding genetic causes for diseases such as schizophrenia has been the use of a special kind of biomarker called an endophenotype.


  • In cell biology, a biomarker is a molecule that allows for the detection and isolation of a particular cell type (for example, the protein Oct-4 is used as a biomarker to identify embryonic stem cells).
  • In genetics, a biomarker is a DNA sequence that causes disease or is associated with susceptibility to disease. They can be used to create genetic maps of whatever organism is being studied.

Geology and Astrobiology

  • A biomarker can be any kind of molecule indicating the existence, past or present, of living organisms. In the fields of geology and astrobiology, biomarkers, versus geomarkers, are also known as biosignatures.
  • The term biomarker is also used to describe biological involvement in the generation of petroleum.

Exposure Assessment

  • A biomarker can also be used to indicate exposure to various environmental substances in epidemiology and toxicology. BIOSENSORS AND BIOMARKERS
  • In these cases, the biomarker may be the external substance itself (e.g. asbestos particles), or a variant of the external substance processed by the body (a metabolite).



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