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Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries

Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries 

  • Mohammad-bin-Tughluq’s reign saw the rebellion of Amiran-i-Sadah (the centarians) or the foreign nobles in the imperial service of Delhi, who were in the forefront to take up arms against the Sultan in Daultabad.
  • One of them named Ismail Makh, also known as Hasan Gangu styled himself as Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah and set up the Bahmani kingdome with Gulbarga as capital in 1347. A total of 18 Sultans ruled for 180 years from 1347 to 1527.                  Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries
  • The Bahmani kingdom was involed in constant conflict with the Vijayanagar kingdom for control over the fertile Krishna-Tungabhadra doab.
  • Devaraya I came into conflict with contemporary Bahmani ruler Feroz Shah and was defeated by Feroz Shah.
  • Devaraya II came into conflict with contemporary Bahmani ruler Ahmed Shah. It was Ahmed Shah who shifted the capital from Gulbarga to Bidar in 1429.                    Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries
  • The Bahmani Sultans patronised Afaqis (nobles from West Asia meaning ‘universal’ i.e persons who were uprooted and did not belong to any region) which led to conflict between the Deccani nobles (old nobility and Turkish faction) and the Afaqis.                  Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries
  • An Iranian Afaqi, Mahmud Gawan was appointed as Prime Minister of Bahmani Kingdom in 1466 and he dominated the affairs of the state till 1481.                  Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries
  • The internal conflict among Afaqis and Deccani nobles led Gawan’s opponents to turn the Sultan, Muhammad Shah III against Gawan on the basis of a false paper, who put Gawan to death in 1481 on charges of treachery.
  • After Gawan’s execution, the Bahmani kingdom began to disintegrate and finally disintegrated in 1518.

The Bahmani kingdom’s administrative unit at the centre comprised the following officials:

   
Wakil-i-Sultanat Equivalent to the naib Sultan of Delhi Sultanate
Wazir-i-kul Prime Minister, supervised the work of other ministers
Amir — I — jumla Head of the finance department
Wazir ashraf Foreign affairs and royal court
Wazir Deputy head of the finance department
Peshwa Attached to the vakil
Sadr-i-jahan Head of the judicial, ecclesiastical and charities department
Kotwal Head of the police department

Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries

The Bahmani Kingdom was divided into provinces called Tarafs headed by Tarafdars (governors).

Bahmani Kingdom Disintegrated in 1518:

  • Nizamshahis of Ahmednagar declared independence in 1490 but were annexed by Shah Jahan’s regent Aurangzeb in 1636.
  • Imadshahis of Berar declared independence in 1490 but were annexed by Nizamshahis of Ahmednagar in 1574.
  • Baridshahis of Bidar became independent in 1528 but were annexed by Adil Shahis of Bijapur in 1619.
  • Qutubshahis of Golconda became independent in 1518 but were annexed by Aurangzeb in 1687.
  • Adil Shahis of Bijapur became independent in 1490 but were annexed by Aurangzeb in 1686.
  • Ahmednagar, Bidar, Golconda and Bijapur were part of the military alliance which defeated Vijayanagar in the Battle of Talikota in 1565. Berar was not a part of the alliance.
  • Mohammed Adil Shah built the famous Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur. The Gol Gumbaz has the second largest dome in the world.
  • Mohammed Quli Qutub shah, the greatest of all the rulers of Golconda founded the city of Hyderabad (originally known as Bhagyanagar after the name of the Sultan’s favourite Bhagyamati) and also built the famous Charminar in it.                Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries
  • Nikitin, the Russin traveller visited Bahmani kingdom during the reign of Muhammad Shah Ill.
  • Jaziya was not levied on Hindus in the early phase of Bahmani rule. We have no reference to Jaziya in the subsequent period also. If collected later on, it was part of land revenue.    Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries
  • Feroz Shah Bahmani encouraged astronomy and built an observatory near Daulatabad. He also paid attention to the principal ports in the Bahmani Kingdom Chaul and Dabhol.
  • Ahmed Shah I is called a saint (wali) on account of his association with the famous Sufi Saint Khwaja Banda Nawaz Gesui Daraz who was the first scholar in the south to produce a treatise in Urdu in the persian script entitled Mirat-ul-ashiqin.
  • Ferishta wrote Gulshan-i-lbrahimi under patronage of Nizamshahis of Ahmednagar. Ferishta wrote Tawarikh-i-Ferishta under patronage of Adilshahis of Bijapur.    Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries
  • Ibrahim Adil Shah had the title of ‘abal baba’, or ‘Friend of the poor’. He was deeply interested in music, and composed a book called kitab-e-navras about music.
  • He built a new capital, Navraspur, in which a large number of musicians were invited to settle. In his songs he freely invoked the goddess of music and learning, Saraswati. Due to his broad approach he came to be called “Jagadguru Badshah”.                               Bahmani Kingdom in the 15th and 16th Centuries

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/chera-dynasty/

 

Medieval History

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