CONTACT US

084594-00000

About Us  :  Online Enquiry

Download

APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE

APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE

Pharmacogenomics

  • It is the study of how the genetic inheritance of an individual affects his/her body’s response to drugs.
  • The vision of pharmacogenomics is to be able to design and produce drugs that are adapted to each person’s genetic makeup.

Pharmaceutical Products

  • Most traditional pharmaceutical drugs are relatively simple molecules that have been found primarily through trial and error to treat the symptoms of a disease or illness.
  • Biopharmaceuticals are large biological molecules such as proteins and these usually target the underlying mechanisms and pathways of a malady. They can deal with targets in humans that may not be accessible with traditional medicines. A patient typically is dosed with a small molecule via a tablet while a large molecule is typically injected.
  • Small molecules are manufactured by chemistry but larger molecules are created by living cells such as those found in the human body: for example, bacteria cells, yeast cells, animal or plant cells.
  • Modern biotechnology is often associated with the use of genetically altered microorganisms such as E. coli or yeast for the production of substances like synthetic insulin or antibiotics. It can also refer to transgenic animals or transgenic plants, such as Bt corn.
  • Genetically altered mammalian cells, such as Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), are also used to manufacture certain pharmaceuticals. Another promising new biotechnology application is the development of plant-made pharmaceuticals.                                        APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE
  • Biotechnology is also commonly associated with landmark breakthroughs in new medical therapies to treat hepatitis B. hepatitis C, cancers, arthritis, haemophilia, bone fractures, multiple sclerosis, and cardiovascular disorders.
  • The biotechnology industry has also been instrumental in developing molecular diagnostic devices that can be used to define the target patient population for a given biopharmaceutical. Herceptin, for example, was the first drug approved for use with a matching diagnostic test and is used to treat breast cancer in women whose cancer cells express the protein HER2.
  • Modern biotechnology can be used to manufacture existing medicines relatively easily and cheaply. The first genetically engineered products were medicines designed to treat human diseases. To cite one example, in 1978 Genentech developed synthetic humanized insulin by joining its gene with a plasmid vector inserted into the bacterium Escherichia colt.
  • Insulin, widely used for the treatment of diabetes, was previously extracted from the pancreas of abattoir animals (cattle and/or pigs). The resulting genetically engineered bacterium enabled the production of vast quantities of synthetic human insulin at relatively low cost.
  • Modern biotechnology has evolved, making it possible to produce more easily and relatively cheaply human growth hormone, clotting factors for hemophiliacs, fertility drugs, erythropoietin and other drugs.                                                APPLICATIONS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE

Genetic Testing

  • Genetic testing involves the direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. A scientist scans a patient’s DNA sample for mutated sequences..

Gene Therapy

  • Gene therapy may be used for treating, or even curing, genetic and acquired diseases like cancer and AIDS by using normal genes to supplement or replace defective genes or to bolster a normal function such as immunity.
  • It can be used to target somatic cells (i.e., those of the body) or gametes (i.e., egg and sperm) cells.

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/branches-of-biotechnology/

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Send this to a friend