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Agro Climatic Regions Of India

Agro Climatic Regions Of India

What is Agro-Climatic Zone?

  • Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defined an agro-climatic zone (ACZ) as a land unit represented accurately or precisely in terms of major climate and growing period, which is climatically suitable for certain range of crops and cultivars.
  • In other words, it is an extension of the climate classification keeping in view the suitability to agriculture.

Planning Of Agro Climatic Zones Of India

  • With the 329 million hectares of the geographical area the country presents a large number of complex agro-climatic situations.
  • Several attempts have been made to delineate major agro-ecological regions in respect to soils, climate, physiographic and natural vegetation for macro-level planning on a more scientific basis.
    • Agro-climatic regions by the Planning Commission
    • Agro-climatic zones under National Agricultural Research Project (NARP)
    • Agro-ecological regions by the National Bureau of Soil Survey & Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP)

Agro-Climatic Regions Of India | Agro Climatic Regions Of India

  • India has great variations in the geo-climatic, socioeconomic, and agricultural practices. The varia-tions in the geo-ecological and socioeconomic conditions have closely influenced the agricultural activities. For the planning of agriculture, the Planning Commission and the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) have divided the country into 15 agro-climatic regions .
  • These agro-climatic regions are as under:
    The Western Himalayan Region
    2. The Eastern Himalayan Region
    3. The Satluj-Yamuna Plain
    4. The Upper Ganga Plain
    5. The Middle Ganga Plain
    6. The Lower Ganga Plain
    7. The Eastern Plateau and Hills
    8. The Aravalli Malwa Upland
    9. The Plateau Maharashtra
    10. The Deccan Interior
    11. The Eastern Coastal Plain
    12. The Western Coastal Plain
    13. The Gujarat Region
    14. The Western Rajasthan
    15. The Islands (Andaman and Nicobar and Maldives)

 

Objectives Of Agro-Climatic Regions

The main objectives of agro-climatic regions are

  • To increase farm income;
  • To optimise agricultural production;
  • To make a judicious use of the available irrigation water;
  • To generate more rural employment;
  • To reduce the regional inequalities in the development of agriculture.

Area And Crops Under Different Agro-Climatic Regions

  1. Western Himalayan Region

Area: Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the hill region of Uttarakhand

Major Crops: Saffron, maize, barley, oats and wheat; peaches, apricot, pears, cherry, almond, litchis, walnut

 

  1. Eastern Himalayan Region

Area: Arunachal Pradesh, the hills of Assam, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and the Darjeeling district of West Bengal

Major Crops: Rice, maize, potato, and tea; orchards of pineapple, litchi, oranges and lime

 

  1. Lower Gangetic Plain Region

Area: West Bengal (except the hilly areas), eastern Bihar and the Brahmaputra valley

Major Crops: Rice, jute, maize, potato, and pulses

 

  1. Middle Gangetic Plain Region

Area: Parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar

Major Crops: Rice, maize, millets, wheat, gram, barley, peas, mustard and potato

  1. Upper Gangetic Plains Region

Area: Central and western parts of Uttar Pradesh and the Hardwar and Udham Nagar districts of Uttarakhand

Major Crops: wheat, rice, sugarcane, millets, maize, gram, barley, oilseeds, pulses and cotton

 

  1. Trans-Ganga Plains Region

Area: Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi and the Ganganagar district of Rajasthan

Major Crops: wheat, sugarcane, cotton, rice, gram, maize, millets, pulses and oilseeds

 

  1. Eastern Plateau and Hills

Area: Chhotanagpur Plateau, extending over Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Dandakaranya

Major Crops: rice, millets, maize, oilseeds, ragi, gram, potato, tur, groundnut, soyabean, urad, castor, and groundnut

 

  1. Central Plateau and Hills

Area: Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand, Bhander Plateau, Malwa Plateau, and Vindhyachal Hills

Major Crops: millets, wheat, gram, oilseeds, cotton and sunflower

 

  1. Western Plateau and Hills

Area: Southern part of Malwa plateau and Deccan plateau (Maharashtra)

Major Crops: Wheat, gram, millets, cotton, pulses, groundnut, oilseeds, sugarcane, rice, wheat, oranges, grapes and bananas

 

  1. Southern Plateau and Hills

Area: Interior Deccan and includes parts of southern Maharashtra, the greater parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu uplands from Adilabad District in the north to Madurai District in the south

Major Crops: millets, oilseeds, pulses, coffee, tea, cardamom and spices

 

  1. Eastern Coastal Plains and Hills

Area: Coromandal and northern Circar coasts of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

Major Crops: Rice, jute, tobacco, sugarcane, maize, millets, groundnut and oilseeds

 

  1. Western Coastal Plains and Ghats

Area: Malabar and Konkan coastal plains and the Sahyadris

Major Crops: Rice, coconut, oilseeds, sugarcane, millets, pulses and cotton

 

  1. Gujarat Plains and Hills

Area: Hills and plains of Kathiawar, and the fertile valleys of Mahi and Sabarmati rivers

Major Crops: Groundnut, cotton, rice, millets, oilseeds, wheat and tobacco

 

  1. Western Dry Region

Area: West of Aravalli (Rajasthan)

Major Crops:  Bajra, jowar, moth, wheat and gram

 

  1. Island Region

Area: Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep

Major Crops:  rice, maize, millets, pulses, arecanut, turmeric and cassava

Conclusion | Agro Climatic Regions Of India

  • The ACRP approach presented the evolution of an innovative planning exercise encompassing several challenges such as geographical units of disaggregation, agricultural planning involving crop, husbandry and allied sectors, priorities of planning process viz profiles, programme strategies, implementation and documentation, integration of organizational and financial resources at all levels of aggregation and interfacing planning needs and priorities at micro-level with the district, state and national levels.
  • This approach therefore, presented a holistic view and tried to strike a balance between the decentralised planning and resource planning approaches.
  • Moreover it replaced the conventional wisdom of planning in seeking the resources first to meet the felt needs with the innovative approach of planning the available resources and technologies to match the felt needs.

On the whole, as the planning process in India adjusts to liberalisation at macro level and the Panchayati Raj institutions on the ground, ACRP can progress steadily beyond its present status of an experimental exercise provided it makes judicious use of the links with the implementing agencies and rapport with the state governments.

 

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