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52nd Tiger Reserve of India

52nd Tiger Reserve of India

Why in news?

  • Recently, the Ramgarh Vishdhari wildlife sanctuary received a nod from the National Tiger Conservation Authority’s (NTCA) technical committee to become the 4th Tiger reserve of Rajasthan.
  • This will be the 52nd Tiger Reserve of India.
  • The Global Tiger Day, celebrated on 29th July, is an annual event marked to raise awareness about tiger conservation.

Ramgarh Vishdhari Wildlife Sanctuary

  • This Sanctuary is located at a distance of 45 Km from Bundi City on Bundi-Nainwa Road near Village Ramgarh, District Bundi, Rajasthan.
    It was notified in the Year 1982 and is spread over an area of 252.79 Sq. Km.
  • The total area of 1,017 sq. km has been identified as the reserve area comprising two forest blocks of Bhilwara, territorial forest block of Bundi and Indargarh, which falls under the buffer zone of Ranthambore Tiger Reserve (RTR).
  • Its flora consists of Dhok, Khair, Salar, Khirni trees with some Mango and Ber trees.
  • The Fauna consists of birds and animals like Leopard, Sambhar, Wild boar, Chinkara, Sloth bear, Indian Wolf, Hyena, Jackal, Fox, deer and Crocodile.
  • Other Three Tiger Reserves:
    • Ranthambore Tiger Reserve (RTR) in Sawai Madhopur,
    • Sariska Tiger Reserve (STR) in Alwar, and
    • Mukundra Hills Tiger Reserve (MHTR) in Kota.

Protected Areas in Rajasthan

  • Desert National Park, Jaisalmer
  • Keoladeo National Park, Bharatpur
  • Sajjangarh wildlife sanctuary, Udaipur
  • National Chambal Sanctuary (on tri-junction of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh).

Project Tiger

  • Indian tiger population at the end of the 20th century was estimated at 20,000 to 40,000 individuals.
  • The first country-wide tiger census conducted in 1972 estimated the population to comprise a little more than 1,800 individuals, an alarming reduction in tiger population.
  • In 1973, Project Tiger was launched in the Palamau Tiger Reserve, and various tiger reserves were created in the country based on a ‘core-buffer’ strategy.
  • Project Tiger was launched in Jim Corbett National Park of Uttarakhand in 1973.
  • India has more than 80 national parks and 441 Sanctuaries of which some have been declared as Tiger reserves.
  • Tiger reserves are governed by the Project Tiger (1973).
  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment and Forests.
  • It is administered by the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
  • Aim: Protect tigers from extinction by ensuring a viable population in their natural habitats.
  • Government has set up a Tiger Protection Force under PT to combat poachers.
  • PT funds relocation of villagers to minimize human-tiger conflicts.

Interesting facts related to Tigers in India

  • Nagpur is also known as the ‘Tiger Capital’ of India
  • There are 13 tiger reserves in this Vidharbha (including the Nagpur division of eastern) alone.
  • The national parks around Nagpur include Umred Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary, Pench National Park, Nagzira-Navegaon Tiger Reserve, Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve, Melghat Tiger Reserve, and Bor Tiger Reserve.
  • The Climatic condition of this forested region is very appropriate for tiger conservation.
  • The Role of the Tiger in the ecosystem
  • Tiger, being at the apex of the food chain, can be considered as the indicator of the stability of the eco-system. For a viable tiger population, a habitat should possess a good prey base, which in turn will depend on undisturbed forest vegetation. Thus, ‘Project Tiger’, is basically the conservation of the entire eco-system and apart from tigers, all other wild animals also have increased in number in the project areas.

Tiger Census in India

  • Every 4 years the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA) conducts a tiger census across India.
  • The first was conducted in 2006, followed by 2010 and in 2014.
  • The Census (2014) had reported 2,226 tigers in the country, up from 1,706 in 2010.
  • According to results of the Tiger census 2019, the total count of tigers has risen to 2,967 from 2,226 in 2014 — an increase of 741 individuals (aged more than one year), or 33%, in four years.
  • India has achieved the target of doubling the tiger count four years ahead of the deadline of 2022.
  • This is by far the biggest increase in Tiger count in terms of both numbers and percentage (since the four-yearly census using camera traps and the capture-mark-recapture method began in 2006).

What is NTCA

  • National Tiger Conservation Authority is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change
  • Drives authority from: Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, as amended in 2006
  • Members:
    • Chairperson: the authority consists of the Minister in charge of the Ministry of Environment and Forests,
    • Vice-Chairperson: the Minister of State in the Ministry of Environment and Forests, three members of Parliament,
    • Secretary, Ministry of Environment and Forests and other members.
  • Mandate:
    • Implementation and Monitoring of Project Tiger
    • ground protection initiatives for tigers,
    • science based monitoring of tigers and their habitat using latest technological tools,
    • financial and technical support to tiger reserves,

Steps Taken by the Government for Tiger Conservation

  • Legal Steps
    • Amendment of the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 to Wild Life (Protection) Act, 2006 for providing enabling provisions towards constituting the National Tiger Conservation Authority and the Tiger and Other Endangered Species Crime Control Bureau.
    • Enhancement of punishment in cases of offence relating to a tiger reserve or its core area.
  • Administrative Steps
    • Strengthening of ant poaching activities, including special strategy for monsoon patrolling.
    • State level Steering Committees under the Chairmanship of Chief Ministers and establishment of Tiger Conservation Foundation.
    • Creation of Special Tiger Protection Force (STPF) [Budget 2008]
  • Financial Steps
    • Financial and technical help is provided to the States under various Centrally Sponsored Schemes, viz. Project Tiger and Integrated Development of Wildlife Habitats.

International Cooperation for Tiger conservation

  • To control the Transboundary illegal trade in wildlife and conservation, India signed a bilateral understanding with Nepal.
  • A tiger conservation protocol was signed by India with China
  • For the conservation of tigers in the Sunderban region, India has signed a protocol with Bangladesh.
  • With Russia, India has constituted a group on tiger and leopard conservation.
  • India is a stakeholder of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
  • India doesn’t support captive breeding of tigers.                    52nd Tiger Reserve of India

Reasons For Slightly Increased Tiger Population Recently

  • Stringent punishments for violators.
  • Fire protection is effectively done by suitable preventive and control measures.
  • Wireless communication systems and outstation patrol camps have been developed within the tiger reserves, due to which poaching has declined considerably.
  • Livestock grazing has been controlled to a great extent in the tiger reserves.
  • Voluntary Village relocation has been done in many reserves.
  • GIS based digitized database development to evaluate tiger population.
  • Various compensatory developmental works have improved the water regime and the ground and field level vegetation.

 

ALSO READ : https://www.brainyias.com/elephant-conservation-in-india/

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