SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT(FREDRICK TAYLOR)
19TH century was the period of industrial revolution and there was an expansion of business. This led to new problems and there was need for optimum utilization of resources .Many theories were proposed for national and integrated development of industry. One such theory was scientific management.
The theory of scientific management developed due to the contribution of Fredrick taylor.when Taylor visited an industry he saw that there was a huge problem related to soldering (the tendency to do less work among workers) and antagonism among the worker and the manager class. Taylor found out that there is low efficiency and productivity in industry because of the conflict between management and workers.
There were three reasons for the conflict
1. Soldering-because of the wrong belief that increased productivity will cause a decline in the employment
2. Improper remuneration system-workers were not paid sufficiently and there was no standard of payment.
3. Effort wasting methods
Taylor believed that he objective of management is to secure maximum prosperity for thr employeer and the employee and this is possible only if the productivity can be improved. Taylor said that productivity can be improved only if the scientific methods are applied properly.
Talyor put forward the 4 principles of scientific management.
They are as follows.
1. Development of true science of work
2. Scientific selection and progressive development of workmen
3. Bringing together of science of work and scientifically trained men.
4. Equal division of work between works and management.
Techniques of scientific management
( when the principles are put into practice,they are known as techniques.)
- Functional foremanship- as per taylor every worker should be guided by 8 type of managers falling broadly in two categories i.e planning bosses and executive bosses.
- Motion study
- Time study
- Differential piece rate system
- Execution principle.
Taylor said that when the principles will be operationalised and the techniques will be adopted it will lead to the mental revolution. It will cause a change in the attitude of the workers towards managers and will cause the cooperation to take place.with mental revolution there will be better understanding and sharing of functions and responsibility between workers and managers.
Essence of scientific management
The adoption of scientific methods will increase the production and the workers will get better remuneration.
Characteristics of scientific management.
1. Science not rule of thumb
2. Harmony and cooperation
3. Maximum output
4. Development of each man and his greatest efficiency and prosperity.
1. Partial theory.
2. Mechanistic –the focus is only on the efficiency aspect and it neglected the human aspect.
3. Over simplified motion- the theory focused only on the monistic aspect of motivation.
4. Physiological organization theory-focused only on those behavioral aspects that are related to work.
5. Opposed by trade unions- Scientific management reduced the role of trade unions.
6. Opposed by managers- Scientific management reduced the discretion of managers.
Despite inadequate understanding of human psychology, sociology and anatomy of work,taylors work is important. He was first to put systematic effort to improve work performance. He applied science and quantitative techniques.